Thomas Dinham Atkinson.

Cambridge described & illustrated; online

. (page 27 of 42)
Online LibraryThomas Dinham AtkinsonCambridge described & illustrated; → online text (page 27 of 42)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

Street to the south of the Chapel were pulled down and a

1 Carter.

Digitized by



range of chambers (P) was built in their place. A new
Master's Lodge (R) was begun in the same year and finished
in 1873. In 1874 the old Lodge (fig. 51), the Hall, the
Combination Room, and the range of chambers forming the
south side of the old court (plan XX, and fig. 49, p. 314) were
destroyed. The Hall and Combination Room (G, K) were
rebuilt on a larger scale, and were finished in 1875. A new

Fig. 51. Pembroke College. South Gable of the Old Lodge.
Now destroyed.

block of buildings (Q) to the south of the Hitcham building,
containing a Library and lecture rooms, was also finished
in 1875. All these buildings were designed by Mr Alfred
Waterhouse, R. A. The Chapel was lengthened by Sir Gilbert

Digitized by



Scott (M). His son, Mr George Gilbert Scott, designed the
admirable range of chambers (plan, S) to the east of the new
Master^s Lodge, in Pembroke Street.


In the Hall'. (Right side). Richard Fox, 1448?-! 528 ; Bp of Win-
chester, founder of Corp. Chri. ColL Oxon. ; (copy of original at Corp.
Chri. Coll. Oxon.) Charles Edward Searle, D.D., Present Master; by
Ouless. (End wall.) Sir Robert Hitcham ; Attorney General ; d.

1636. Marie de Valence, Foundress, d. 1377, copied from Faber's
Mezzotint, 1715. King Henry VI. 1421-1471. (Left side.) William
Pitt; 1759-1806; by Harlow. Edmund Spenser; 1553-1598; copy
by Wilson. (On the screens.) Ralph Brownrigg, D.D., Fellow ;
1592-1659; Bishop of Exeter, 1642; Master of St Catharine's Hall,
1635 - 1645. Nicholas Felton, 1556-1626; Master, 1616; Bp of Ely.
Nicholas Ridley, D.D.; Master, 1540; Bp of Winchester, 1547; London,
1550; burnt 1555 (copied from Herologia). John Bradford; martyr;
c. 1510-1555 (copied from Herologia). Lancelot Andrewes, 1565-

1626; Master, 1589; Bp of Chichester, 1605 ; Ely, 1609 ; Winchester, 161 8.
Busts : Wm. Pitt ; by Chantry. Thos. Gray. Medallion : William

In the Combination Room: (East wall). Edward Maltby, D.D,
1770-1859; Bp of Chichester, 1831 ; Durham, 1836-56. Matthew

Wren ; 1 585-1667 ; Fellow ; Master of Peterhouse, 1625 ; Bp of Here
ford, 1634 ; Norwich ; Ely, 1638 ; imprisoned in the Tower, 1641-1659
built the Chapel. Benjamin Lany ; Master, 1630-44 and 1660-62 ; Bp
of Ely. (End wall.) Sir Henry S. Maine, K.C.S.I., LL D. ; d. 1888
Professor of Civil Law, 1847 ; Master of Trinity Hall, 1877 ; by Lowes
Dickinson. Sir George G. Stokes, Bart., LL.D. ; M.P. for the Univer
sity; Lucasian Professor, 1849; by the same. (West waU.) Lance

lot Andrewes; 1565-1626; Master, 1589; Bp Chichester, 1605; Ely
1609; Winchester, 161 8; by Boxhorne from sketch by Samuel Wright,
S. Francis of Assisi. William Pitt; 1 759-1806; by Gainsborough.
Edmund Grindall; 1519-1583; Fellow, Master, 1559-62; Bp of Lincoln,
1559; Archbp of York, 1570; of Canterbury, 1575-82; aet 61, 1580; on
panel. (North wall.) Thomas Gray; 1716-1771 ; painted after death
by B. Wilson. John Couch Adams; 1819-1892 ; Fellow; Professor
of Astronomy, 1858; by Herkomer. William Mason; 1 725-1 797;
Fellow; by Reynolds. Roger Long, D.D. ; c. 1680-1770; Master,
1733; Professor of Astronomy, 1749; by B. Wilson. Joseph Turner,
D.D., Master, 1784-1828; by Dawe.

1 For this list we are indebted to Mr E. H. Minns, B.A., Pembroke College.

Digitized by



In the Library: Charles E. de Coetiogon ; 1 746-1 820.

In the Master's Lodge : (Hall). Thomas Rotherham, Archbp of York,
1480-1501. Princess Amelia, dau. of George III. ; 1783-1810 ; by Sir
T. Lawrence. Gilbert Ainslie, D.D.; Master, 1828-1870; d. 1870.
Robert Shorton ; Master, 1519-34; (original at S. John's Coll.).
(Stairs.) Sir Benjamin Keene ; ambassador; d. 1757. (Dining-room.)
John Power, D.D.; Master, 1870-80; d. 1880; by Vizard.

C. 21

Digitized by


Fig. 52. Arms granted in 1575.^



Founded, 1347-8. Removed to present site, 135 1. Chapel, 1393. Hal),
1441. Gonville court finished, 1490. College refounded, 1557. Caius
court, 1565-6. Honour gate, 1575. Perse building, 161 7. Legge
building, 1619. Chapel enlarged, 1637. New hall, 1853. Perse and
Legge court re-built, 1 868-1 870.

Edmund Gonville, Rector of Terrington and Rushworth in
Norfolk, obtained a licence for the foundation of a college of
twenty scholars in dialectic and other sciences, in January
1347-8, only a month after that granted to the Countess of
Pembroke. He gave to his College the name of the " Hall of

' The college appears to have had
no arms till it was re-founded by Dr
Caius. It then bore the arms of
Gonville : arg,^ on a chevron between
two couple-closes indented sa. three es-

callops or^ impaled with those of Dr
Caius (p. 329, note). In 1575 they were
formally granted, with the addition of a
bordure compony arg. and sa.

Digitized by



Digitized by


Digitized by



the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin " and settled a master
and four fellows in some tenements he had bought in
Lurteburgh Lane, now called Free School Lane. But he
died in 135 1 and left the completion of his design to his
executor William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich. Bateman
was at that time engaged with his own foundation of the
" Hall of Holy Trinity/* and he removed Gonville Hall from
the original situation to a site near his own College, but on the
opposite side of Milne Street Bateman himself died about
a year after (1354), leaving both foundations immature.
Gonville Hall, as it was commonly called, could only support
a master and three fellows.

The site on which Bateman had placed the College may
be described as the north-west quarter of the present site.
The ground occupied by the present College was originally
divided into a northern and a southern part by a narrow lane
which ran from the High Street to the river, leaving the
former at a point opposite to the tower of S. Michael's Church,
and crossing Milne Street (now Trinity Hall Lane) a little to
the south of Garret Hostel Lane. The western half of the
part to the north of this lane was occupied by Gonville Hall.
The lane had been closed to the public before the foundation
of the College, the entrance to which was in Trinity Lane, then
called S. Michael's Lane. The rest of the present site was
acquired gradually, as will presently be explained.

Gonville and Caius College contains three courts, Gonville
Court, Caius Court, and Tree Court, besides the Master's
garden, but the first named court was for two centuries the
only one, and it therefore contained within its circuit the
essential buildings of the College, the hall (plan, B), the
chapel (E), the library (C), the lodge (D), and the chambers
(A, XX).

As in the case of all the earliest foundations the houses
already existing on the site were at first used by the members
of the College. Dr Caius, writing two centuries later, thus
describes the gradual formation of the old court.

21 — 2

Digitized by




Fig. 53. Plan of Gonville and Caius College.

Digitized by



By altering the messuage of John de Cambridge and the tene-
ments of John Goldecorae, the Bishop made the north side of our
College, with a kitchen for the use of the Master and Fellows.
The Master's Chamber was over the north gatehouse, the fellows'
chambers on either side.... Thomas Bishop of Ely... granted licence
in 1353, that divine service might be celebrated in the private Chapel
thereof. From this we may gather, that a Chapel existed at that
time but that it was unfinished. That it was not completed until
1393 we learn from the letters of Pope Boniface, who in that year
authorised the fellows to celebrate therein.

The Hall, the Master's chamber, the Library, the west side of the
College, and the south side thence as far as the Chapel, were built
in 1 44 1.... Before this time there existed only the north side altered
from the houses of John de Cambridge and John de Goldcome as
above related. Neither was there a library, but in lieu thereof a
strong-room....! find among the ancient muniments a license from
William, Bishop of Ely, dated Sept. 5, 1470 to enable the Masters and
Fellows to celebrate divine offices in the oratory near the Master's
Chamber. The Chapel however, which occupies the remainder of
the south side of the College, commenced many years before, was
completed about 1393 by William Rougham, Professor of Medicine,
at his own expense.... But for the construction of the eastern side of
the College that excellent woman, worthy of all praise, Elizabeth Clere,
widow, formerly the wife of Robert Clere, Esquire, gave two hundred
marks abput 1490.*

The court, thus completed 140 years after its foundation,
had a single entrance in S. Michael's Lane, a courtyard,
kitchen, stable, etc., on the west side, a small herb garden for
the use of the cook on the east side, and a large garden on
the south-west side. Thus it remained until the reign of
Queen Elizabeth and the mastership of Dr Caius.

John Caius had been educated at Gonville Hall. For
five years he had lived and travelled in Italy, France, and
Germany, studying Greek, medicine, and anatomy. Returning
to England he became President of the College of Physicians,
and Physician to King Edward VL and to Queen Mary.
He was, therefore, already a famous and wealthy man, when,

* Annals, 4 — 7. Translation by Willis and Clark, i. 166.

Digitized by



in 1557 he obtained from Philip and Mary letters patent for
refounding Gonville Hall. These letters patent, among other
provisions, definitely name him as co-founder with Gonville
and Bateman. Two years later the society elected him to
the- Mastership. " Unwillingly and with much entreaty " he
accepted the office, but refused all stipend.

Dr Caius increased the number of Fellows and Scholars
on the foundation. In order to meet this demand for greater
accommodation and also that occasioned by the disposal of
Physwick HosteP to King Henry VHL, he presently set about
the enlargement of his College by the addition of a second
court to the south of that already existing.

In his architectural works Caius shews practical common
sense combined with the love of symbolism. His court is
formed by two ranges of building on the east and west
(H, L) and on the north by the old Chapel and Lodge (E, D).
To the south the court is purposely left open, and the
erection of buildings on this side is expressly forbidden by
one of his statutes " lest the air, from being confined within a
narrow space, should become foul.'* The same care is shewn
in another statute which imposes on any one who throws dirt
or offal into the court, or who airs beds or bed-linen, there, a
fine of three shillings and fourpence. In his will, also, he
requires that "there be maynteyned a lustie and healthie
honest true and unmaried man of fortie yeares of age and
upwardes, to kepe cleane & swete the pavementes.'*

The architecture of the chambers erected by Caius is
extremely simple, but he designed a series of gates gradually
increasing in richness by which he intended to typify the
career of a student. The College was entered from the High
Street by a simple archway in the high boundary wall, with
an entablature supported by pilasters. On the inside there
were detached columns bearing an entablature, on the frieze
of which was carved the word HUMILITATIS. This was the

* A hostel belonging to the CoU^e. Chapter xviil below.)
(See the account of Trinity Collie,

Digitized by
















Digitized by



Gate of Humility^ An avenue of trees led from it to the
Gate of Virtue, a very simple and admirable gateway tower
in the east range (H) of Dr Caius* courts (see plate). " The
word VIRTUTIS is inscribed on the frieze above the arch on
the eastern side, in the spandrils of which are two female
figures leaning forwards. That on the left holds a wreath in
her left hand, and a palm-branch in her right ; that on the
right, a purse in her right hand, and a cornucopia in her left.
The western side of this gate has on its freize "10. CAivs
POSVIT SAPlENTliE 1 567," an inscription manifestly derived
from that on the foundation stone laid by Dr Caius. Hence
this gate is sometimes described as the Gate of Wisdom, a
name which has, however, no authority. In the spandrils on
this side are the arms of Dr Caius.*' ' The last gate (K) led
from the college into Schools Street, and was supposed to
conduct the student to the Schools, where he should, at the
end of his course, perform the exercises required of him, with
what honour he might Hence it was called the Gate of
Honour (see plate). It was not built till about 1575, — two
years after Dr Caius' death.

This building, remarkable both for beauty of composition
and for delicacy of ornament, " was built of squared hard
stone wrought according to the very form and figure which
Dr Caius in his lifetime had himself traced out for the
Architect."* It is possible that the architect was Theodore
Haveus of Cleves. With the exception of a slight mixture
of Gothic in the lower part, the details are of extremely
elegant Renaissance forms. Beautiful as the gate now is,
its original appearance was very different. At each angle,
immediately above the lowest cornice, there was a tall pinnacle
reaching almost to the second cornice. Another group of
pinnacles rose from the junction of the middle stage with
the hexagonal tower. On each face of the hexagon there

^ Removed in 1868. Now in the ' Annals, 1 40. Translation in Willis

Master's Garden. and Clark, i. 178.

Willis and Clark, i. 177.

Digitized by


II CM [HI. Ml I.CW S G\RU1 ' '

Digitized by


Digitized by



was a sun-dial, and " at its apex a weather-cock in the form
of a serpent and dove/' In the spandrils of the arch next
the court are the arms of Dr Caius on an oval shield*.
On the frieze is carved the word HONORIS. At first the
whole of the stonework was painted white, and some parts,
such as the sun-dials, the roses in the circular panels, and the
coats of arms, were gilt. Perhaps other colours were in-
troduced in the sun-dials, and the coats of arms coloured with
their proper tints. The paint was periodically renewed for a
hundred years or so after the building of the gate.

In addition to the six dials on the upper part of the
Honour Gate there was a "great murall diall" over the
archway leading from Caius Court to Gonville Court. Near
the centre of Caius Court there was placed a column raised
on three steps and surrounded by a number of globes. The
column was probably surmounted by a hexecontahedron
similar to that shewn in the portrait of Haveus in the College
Library. It is thus described in the Annals :

A column was set up in Caius' Court, on which a stone was
placed, wrought with wondrous skill, containing 60 sundials. It was
the work of Theodore Haveus of Cleves, a skilful artificer, and
eminent architect. He ornamented it with the coat-armour of those
of gentle birth who were at that time in the College, to which he
dedicated it as a memorial of his goodwill. On the summit of this
stone stands a figure of Pegasus, to serve as a weathercock '.

^ Arms were granted to Dr Caius with grace founded and stayed upon

(i Jan. 1 561) in the following terms: vertues sable stone; by Sengrene and

•* Arms : Or, sem^e with flowers gentle flower gentle Immortality that never

on a square marble stone Vert, two shall fade, as though thus I should say,

serpents erect their tails nowed together Ex prudentia et Uteris^ virtutis pttra

Azure, between a book S [sable] bossed firmatis^ immortalitas : that is to say,

O [or] garnished G [gules] and in the * By wisdonu and learning grafted in

middle chief a sengrene proper [natural grace and vertue Men come to immor-

colour]. Crest: a dove A. beaked and talityy '* Sengrene" is Houseleek;

membered G, with a flower gentle in ** Flower gentle," Amaranth. Willis

his mouth,... betokening by the book and Clark, i. 179 note.
Learning, by the two Serpents resting * Annals, 141. Translation in Willis

upon the square Marble Stone, Wisdome and Clark, i. i8a.

Digitized by



The removal of these dials, and of the Sacred Tower
containing the stairs leading to the Treasury, and the trans-
formation of the Chapel in 17 17, in spite of the solemn
injunctions of Dr Caius that no one "under pain of
expulsion" should alter his work, have greatly detracted
from the interest and beauty of the court.

Dr Caius died in 1573 and was buried in the chapel,
where there is a monument of good design erected to his
memory. * Upon it were afterwards carved his arms with the
date of his death, and the number of his years, according to
the directions which he had himself given to his executors
when alive. We inscribed upon it two short sentences
only — " Vivit post fiinera virtus'' and '' Fui Cains!' *^

Fig. 55. Tomb of Dr Caius.

In 1615 Dr Perse, formerly a fellow of the College,
founded by will six fellowships and six scholarships, and
also bequeathed funds for the erection of a building in which
the fellows and scholars should live rent free. These

^ Annals, Translation in Willis and Clark, i. 191.

Digitized by



buildings (plan, YY) were erected in 16 17 and faced
S. Michael's Lane'. In 1619 the range was continued along
Trinity Street, the cost of this part (ZZ) being met by a
bequest of Dr Legge who had succeeded Caius as Master
in 1573. These buildings were known respectively as the
Perse building and Legge building. They occupied the site
of three houses bought by Dr Caius and used for a few years'*
as chambers. A third court was thus formed on the northern
part of the present Tree Court.

Many of the buildings were, unfortunately, faced with ashlar
in a classical style in the last century under the direction of
the amateur architect Mr Burrough, afterwards Sir James
Burrough, Master. The Chapel was spoilt by the additional
thickness thus given to the buttresses, and by the alteration
of the windows, and the erection of a heavy parapet. The
old walls are of clunch, and the old facing of brick covered
with plaster still remains under the ashlar.

The southern part of Tree Court was not acquired by the
college till 1782. In 1868 the Perse and Legge buildings
were destroyed, together with four houses at the comer of
Trinity Street and Senate-House Passage, and the Gate of
Humility was removed to the Master's garden. The present
buildings, from the designs of Mr Waterhouse, were then
erected. In 1870 the east side of Gonville Court was rebuilt,
with the exception of the wall facing the court ; an apse was
added to the Chapel, and a new turret staircase was made on
the south side of the Ante-Chapel, but not on the site of the
old Sacred Tower.

The present Hall, kitchens. Combination Room and
Library were built by Salvin in 1853. The old Hall was
then divided into chambers.

' Now Trinity Lane. ^ From 1594 to 161 7.

Digitized by




In the Hall: (on left of door). Portrait of a man. William Kirby,
naturalist; i759-i85a Christopher Greene, M.D., Prof, of Physic;

d. 1741. Charles Fred. Mackenzie, missionary bishop; 1825-1862.
Portrait of a man. (Upper end.) John Warren, Bp of Bangor;
d. 1800. Norman Macleod Ferrers, D.D., present Master. (West
side.) Portrait of a man. Jeremy Taylor; c. 16 13-1667; (copy of
picture at All Souls' Coll. Oxford.) Sir George E. Paget, M.D. ; 1809-
1892. John Cosin, D.D., Bp of Durham, aet. 72; 1 594-1672. Samuel
Parr, D.D ; (copy of picture in Emmanuel Coll. by Romney.) (Lower
end.) Samuel Clarke, D.D. ; 167 5- 1729; (copy of picture in vestry room
of St James, Westminster). (Above.) William Harvey, M.D. ; 1569-
1657. (Below.) John Caius, M.D. ; 1510-1573. Sir Edward Hall

Alderson.; 1 787-1 857.

In the Combination Room: (on right of south door). Lord Thurlow;

c. 1732-1806; by Philips. William Harvey, M.D., 1569-1657; (copy
of picture at CoU. of Physicians.) Rt Hon. Sir William B. Brett, Baron
Esher; b. 181 5. Johanna Trapps ; 2nd wife of Robert Trapps ; bene-
factress. Jocosa Frankland ; dau. of Robert Trapps. Robert
Trapps, citizen and goldsmith of London ; d. 1 560. John Caius, M.D. ;
1510-1573. Samuel Clarke, D.D. ; 1675-1729. William Harvey,
M.D. Portrait of a man. Robert Murphy; 1806-1843; ^Y ^^
Woodhouse. John Brinkley, D.D., Astronomer Royal of Ireland;
Bp of Cloyne; 1763-1835.

On landing outside Combination-Room : Four portraits, unknown.

In the Library : Dr Caius. Theodore Haveus, architect [of Gate of

In the Master's Lodge: (Dining-room, right of door on entering).
Thomas Legge, LL.D., Master; 1 535-1607. William Branthwaite,
D.D., Master; d. 1619. John Gostlin, M.D., Master, aet 53; c. 1566-
1626. Thomas Batchcroft, Master; d. i66a James Halman, Master;

d. 1702. Sir John Ellys, Master; d. 1716. William Dellp] ; Master,
1646-1660. John Smith, D.D., Master; d. 1795; by Reynolds.
Richard Fisher Belward; D.D., Master; d. 1803; by Opic. Martin
Davy, D.D., Master; 1763-1839; by Opie. Benedict Chapman, D.D.,
Master; d. 1852; by Philips. (Over fireplace.) Robert Brady, M.D.,
Master ;d. 1700. William Harvey, M.D. ; 1569-1657; by Rembrandt.
Edwin Guest, LL.D.; Master; d. 1880; by Watson Gordon. (Drawing
room.) Martin Davy, D.D., Master; 1763-1839. Sir Thos. Gooch,
Bart., Master, Bp of Ely; 1674-1754. (Study.) Dr Caius. (Stairs.)
Portrait of a man. (Passage to Dining-room.) Bartholomew Wortley,
Fellow ; B.A., 1675.

^ For this list we are indebted to J. Venn, Sc.D., F.R.S., Fellow.

Digitized by




Digitized by


Digitized by


Fig. 56. Present Arms, granted in 1575 J


Founded, 1350. Hall and east range, 1355. Kitchen, buttery, parlour &c.,
and north range, 1374. Chapel, c. 1390. Library and additions to
Lodge, 1560. Hall altered, and north and south ranges ashlared,
1745. Additions to Lodge, 1823 and 1852. East range burnt <ind
rebuilt, 1852. East range of old entrance court rebuilt, 1873.
Tutor's House, 1882. Hall and Master's Lodge improved and
Latham Building erected, 1892. New Combination Room, 1896.

Two years after the foundation of Gonville Hall William
Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, began the foundation of the
"College of the Scholars of the Holy Trinity of Norwich"^
for Scholars of Canon and Civil Law. To this act he appears
to have been moved by a desire to provide clergy for the
thousand parishes in his diocese whose incumbents had died
of the Black Death. The plan comprised a Master, twenty

^ "Sables a cressast a border ermyns, the leaves gold mantelled gules dobled

and to the crest upon the healme on a silver" (see also fig. 58, p. 336).
wreath silver and sables a Lion scant * Norwich Cathedral Church is

gules holding a Book the Cover Sables dedicated to the Holy Trinity.

Digitized by



fellows, and three scholars. The original licence was probably
granted in 1350. But the Bishop died unexpectedly, at
Avignon, in 1355, of poison, as it was believed at the time,
leaving his establishment immature, and with funds sufficient
only for the maintenance of a Master, three fellows, and three
scholars. These were augmented by subsequent benefactors.
As in the case of most other colleges the site was acquired
very gradually, the members being originally quartered in the
house of one John Goldcorne, which already occupied a part
of the ground. On the southern part of the present site stood
a lodging for the use of student-monks from Ely (plan and
fig' 57> P- 335)- To the north the College was originally
bounded by a lane called Henney Lane, leading from the
river to the High Street and passing close under the walls of
the College and across the present site of Gonville and Caius
College. The ground to the north of this lane was bought in
1 544, and the lane was then closed and Garret Hostel Lane

Online LibraryThomas Dinham AtkinsonCambridge described & illustrated; → online text (page 27 of 42)