Jul. Per. Julian Period.
Jus. P. Justice of the Peace.
J.W. Junior Warden.
K.A. Knight of St. Andrew, in Russia.
K.A.N. Knight of Alexander Nevskoi, in
K.B. King's Bench.
K.B. Knight of the Bath.
K.B.A. Knightof St. Ben to d'A vis, in Portugal.
K.B.E. Knight of the Black Eagle, in Ruubia.
K.C. King's Council.
K.C. Knight of the Crescent, in Turkey.
K.C.B. Knight Commander of the Bath.
K.C. H. Knight Commander of Hanover.
K.C.S. Knight of Charles III. of Spain.
K.E. Knight of the Elephant, in Denmark.
K.F. Knight of Ferdinand of Spain.
K.F.M. Knight of St. Ferdinand and Merit, in
K.G. Knight of the Garter.
K.G.C. Knight of the Grand Cross.
K.G.C.B. Knight of the Grand Cross of the
K.G.F. Knight of the Golden Fleece, in Spain.
K.G.H. knight of the Guelphs of Hanover.
K.G.V. Knight of Gustavus Vasa, in Sweden.
K.H. Knight of Hanover.
K.J. Knight of St. Joachim.
K.L. or K.L.A. Knight of Leopold of Austria.
K.L.H. Knight of the Legion of Honor.
K.M. Knight of Malta.
K. Mess. King's Messenger.
K.M.H. Knight of Merit, in Holstein.
K.M.J. Knight of Maximilian Joseph, in
K.M.T. Knight of Maria Theresa in Austria.
K.N.S. Knight of the Royal North Star, in
K.P. Knight of St. Patrick; Knight of Pythias.
K.R.C. Knight of the Red Cross.
K.R.E. Knight of the Red Eagle, in Prussia.
K.S. Knight of the Sword, in Sweden.
K.S.A. Knight of St. Anne, in Russia.
K.S.E. Knight of St. Esprit, in France.
K.S.F. Knight of St. Fernando, in Spain.
K.S.G. Knight of St. George, in Russia.
K.S.U. Knight of St. Hubert, in Bavaria.
K.S.J. Knight of St. Januarius of Naples.
K.S.L. Knight of the Sun and Lion, in Persia.
K.S.M.&S.G. Knight of St. Michael and St.
George in the Ionian Islands.
K.S.P. Knight of St. Stanislaus, in Poland.
K.S.S. Knight of the Southern Star, in
K.S.S. Knight of the Sword, in Sweden.
K.S.W. Knight of St. Wladimir, in Russia.
K.T. Knight of the Thistle; Knight Templar.
K.T.S. Knight of the Tower and Sword, in
K.W. Knight of William, in the Netherlands.
K.W.E. Knight of the White Eagle, in Poland.
L. Fifty or fiftieth.
L. Liber, book.
L, , or 1. Libra or Librae, pound or pounds
L, or , s. d. Libra, solidi, denarii, Pounds,
LIST OF MODERN ABBREVIATIONS.
Lat. Latitude; Latin.
Lb. or Ib. Libra or Libra 1 , pound or pounds in
L.C. Lord Chancellor; Lord Chamberlain.
Liv. Livre, book.
L.C.J. Lord Chief -Justice.
L.I. Long Island.
Lib. Liber, book.
Lieut. -Col. Lieutenant-Colonel.
Lieut. -Gen. Lieutenant-General.
Lieut. -Go v. Lieutenant-Governor.
Lit. Literally ; Literature,
LL.B. Legum Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Laws.
LL.D. Legum Doctor, Doctor of Laws.
1.1. Loco laudato, in the place quoted.
loc. cit. -Loco citato, in the place cited.
L.S. Locus sig'dli, place of the seal.
LX. Sixty or sixtieth.
LXX. Seventy or seventieth.
LXX. The Septuagint (Version of the Old
LXXX. Eighty or eightieth.
M, Meridiem, noon.
M. Mille, a thousand.
M. orMons. Monsieur, Sir.
M.A. Master of Arts.
Mad. Univ. Madison University.
Maj. -Gen. Major-General,
Marg. Tran.- Marginal Translation.
Math. Mathematics ; Mathematician.
M.B. Medicince Baccalaureus, Bachelor of
M.B. MusiccB Baccalaureus, Bachelorof Music.
M.B.G. et II. Magna Britannia, Gallia et
ffibernia, Great Britain, France, and Ire-
M.C. Member of Congress.
M.D. Medicince Doctor, Doctor of Medicine.
M.E. Methodist Episcopal; Military or Me-
Mem. Memento, remember.
Messrs, or M M. Messieurs, Gentlemen.
Mex. Mexico or Mexican.
M.H.S. Massachusetts Historical Society.
M.H.S. Member of the Historical Society.
Minn. Minn esota.
Min. Plen. Minister Plenipotentiary.
M.L. A. Mercantile-Library Association.
MM. Their Majesties.
MM. Messieurs, Gentlemen.
MM. Two thousand.
M.M S. Moravian Missionary Society.
MM.S.S.Massachnsettensis Medicince Socie-
'atis Socius. Fellow of the Massachusetts
Mo. Missouri ; Month.
Mons. Monsieur, Sir.
Mont. TtT. Montana Territory. [Police.
M. P. Member of Parliament; Member of
M.P.P. Member of Provincial Parliament.
M.R. Master of the Rolls.
M.R.A.S. Member of the Royal AsiaticSociety ;
Member of the Royal Academy of Science.
M.R.C.C. Member of the Royal College of
M.R.C.S. Member of the Royal College of
M.R.G.S. Member of the Royal Geographical
M.R.I. Member of the Royal Institute.
M.R.I. A. Member of the Royal Irish Academy.
M.R.S.L. Member of the Royal Society of
M.S. Memoriae sacrum. Sacred to the memory.
M.S. Master of the Sciences.
Mt. Mount or mountain.
Mus. B. Bachelor of Music.
Mus. D. Doctor of Music.
M. W.- Most Worthy ; Most Worshipful.
N. North; Number; Noun; Neuter,
N. A. North America.
Nat. Hist. Natural History.
Nath. Nathanael or Nathaniel.
N.B. New Brunswick; North British.
N.B. Nota Benf, mark well ; take notice.
N.C. North Carolina.
N.E. New England ; Northeast.
u.e.i. Non est inventus, he is not found.
nem. con. ornem. diss. Nemine con f rctdicen'f,
nfminf dissentiente, no one opposing; unani-
Neut. Neuter (gender).
New Test, or N.T. New Testament.
N.G. New Granada; Noble Grand.
N.H. New Hampshire; New Haven.
N.H.H.S. New Hampshire Historical Society.
Ni. pri. Nisi prius (law).
N.J. New Jersey.
n.]. Non liquet, it does not appear.
N. lat. North latitude.
N. Mex. New Mexico.
N.O. New Orleans.
Nol. pros. Nolens prosegui, unwilling to pro-
Nom. or nom. Nominative.
Nou con. Not content; dissenting (House of
Non cul. Non culpabUis, Not guilty.
Nou obst. Non obstantf, notwithstanding.
Non pros. Non prosequitur, he does not prose-
Non seq Non sequitur, it does not follow.
N.P. Notary Public.
N.S. New Style (after 1752); Nova Scotia.
N.T. New Testament;
N.u. Name or names unknown.
Num. Numbers; Numeral.
N.V.M. Nativity of the Virgin Mary.
N.Y. New York.
N.Y.H.S. New York Historical Society.
Ob. Obiit, he or she died.
Obs. Obsolete; Observatory; Observation.
Obt. or obdt. Obedient.
O.F. Odd-Fellow or Odd-Fellows.
Old Test, or O.T. Old Testament.
O.S. Old Style (before 1752).
O.T. Old Testament.
O.U.A. Order of United Americans.
Oxon. Oxoniensis, Oxonii, of Oxford, at Ox-
P.Pondere, by weight.
P. or p. Page ; Part ; Participle.
Pal . Pal aeon tology.
Par. Pas. Parallel passage.
LIST OF MODERN ABBREVIATIONS.
Parl . Par! lament.
P.B. Philosophic. Saccalaureus, Bachelor of
P.O. Patres Conscripli, Conscript Fathers;
P.O. Privy Council; Privy Councilor.
P.T>. Philosophic Doctor, Doctor of Phil-
P.E. Protestant Episcopal.
P.E.I. Prince Edward Island,
Per or pr. By the.
Per an. Per annum, by the year.
Per cent. Per centum, by the hundred.
P. G. Past Grand.
Ph. ~B.Philosoplti(K Baccalaureus, Bachelor of
Ph.D. Philosophic Doctor, Doctor of Phil-
Phil. Philip; Philippians; Philosophy; Phile-
Phila. or Phil. Philadelphia.
Philom. Philomathes, a lover of learning.
Philomath. Philomathematicus, a lover of the
Phil. Trans. Philosophical Transactions.
P.H.S. Pennsylvannia Historical Society.
Piiix. Pinxit, he (or she) painted it.
PI. or plur. Plural,
P.M. Post Meridiem, afternoon, evening.
P.M. Postmaster; Passed Midshipman.
P.M.G. Postmaster-General; Professor of
Music in Greshain College.
Port. Portugal or Portuguese.
P.P. Paler Patrice,ihe father of his country.
P.P.C.Pourprendre conge, to take leave.
Pp. or pp. Pages.
P.R.Populns Romanus, the Roman people.
P.R.A. President of the Royal Academy.
P.R.C. Post Romam conditam, after the
building of Rome.
Pron. Pronoun ; Pronunciation.
Pro tern. Pro tempore, for the time being.
Prov. Proverbs ; Provost.
Prox. Proximo, next (month).
P.R.S. President of the Royal Society.
P.S. Post scriptum, Postscript.
P.S. Privy Seal.
Ps. Psalm or Psalms.
Pt. Part; Pint; Payment; Point; Port.
P. Th. G. Professor of Theology in Gresham
Pub. Publisher; Publication; Published;
Pub. Doc. Public Documents.
P. v. Post-village.
Pwt. Penny weight ; pennyweights.
Pxt. Pinxit, lie (or she) painted it.
Q. Queen ; Question.
q. Quasi, as it were; almost,
Q.B. Queen's Bench.
Q.C. Queen's College.
Q.C. Queen's Counsel,
q.d. Quasi dicat, as if he should say; quasi
dictum, as if said ; quasi dixisset, as if he had
q.e. Quod est, which is.
q.e.d. Quod er.at demonstrandum, which was
to be proved,
q.e.f. Quod erat faciendum, which was to be
q.e.i. Quod erat inveniendum, which was to be
q.l. Quantum libe.t, as much as you please.
qm. Quomodo, how; by what means.
q.p. orq.pl. Quantum plactt, as much as you
Q.S. Quarter Sessions.
q.s. Quantum siifficit, a sufficient quantity.
qu. or qy. Quatre, inquire; query.
Quar. Qu arterl y .
q.v. Quod vide, which see; quantum vis, as
much as you will.
f^. Recipe, take.
R. Regina, Queen ; Rex, King.
R. River; Rood; Rod.
R.A. Royal Academy; Royal Academician.
R.A. Royal Arch.
R.A. Royal Artillery.
liC.Jiescriptum, a Rescript, re-written.
R.E. Royal Engineers.
Rec. Recipe or Recorder.
Rec. Sec. Recording Secretary.
Rect. Rector; Receipt.
Ref. Ch. Reformed Church.
Reg. Register; Regular.
Reg. Prof. Regius Professor.
Rep. Representative ; Reporter.
Rev. Reverend ; Revelation (Book of j ; Re-
view; Revenue; Revise.
R.I. Rhode Island.
R.I.H.S. Rhode Island Historical Society.
R.M.-Royal Marines; Royal Mail.
R.M.S. Royal Mail Steamer.
R.N. Royal Navy.
R.N.O. Riddare af Nordstjerne Orden, Knight
of the Order of the Polar Star.
Ro. Redo, rigQt-haml page.
Rom. Romans (Book of).
Rom. Cath. Roman Catholic.
R. P.Rfg'ms Professor, the King's Professor.
R.S. Recording Secretary.
Its. Rtsponsiim, answer; respondere, to an-
R S. A. Royal Society of Antiquaries; Royal
R.S.D. Royal Society of Dublin.
R.S.E. Royal Society of Edinburgh.
R.S.L. Royal Society of London.
R.S.S. Eegix Societatis Socius, Fellow of the
Rt. Hon. Right Honorable.
Rt. Rev. Right Reverend.
Rt. Wpful. Right Worshipful.
R.W.O. Riddare af Wasa Orden, Knight of
the Order of Wasa.
S. South; Saint; Scribe; Sulphur; Sunday;
S. Solidu8, a shilling.
S. A. South America; South Africa; South
s.a..Secundum artem, according to art.
S.A.S. Socie/atis Antiquariorum Socius, Fel-
low of the Society of Antiquaries.
Sax. Chron. Saxon Chronicle.
S.C. Sena/us C'onsultum, a decree of the
Senate; South Carolina.
Sc.Sculpsit, he (or she) engraved it.
sc, orscil. Scilicet, namely.
Scan. Mag. Scandalum magnatum, scandal;
or scandalum magnum, great scandal.
S. caps. Small capitals.
Schol. Scholium, a note.
Sci. fa. Scire facias, make known (legal).
Sculp, or sculp. Sculj)sil, he (or she) engraved
S.D. Salutem dicil, sends health.
Sec. Secretary ; Second.
Sec. Leg. Secretary of Legation.
Sec. leg.Secundnm legem, according to law.
Sec. reg. Secundum regulam, according to
Sem. Semble, it seems.
Sen. Senate; Senator; Senior.
Sept. September ; Septuagint.
Seq. Sequentia, following; sequilur, it fol-
LIST OF MODERN ABBREVIATIONS.
S.H.S. Socielatis instoria, Socius, Fellow of
the Historical Society.
S. Isl. Sandwich Islands.
S. J. Society of Jesus.
S.J.C. Supreme Judicial Court.
S.L. Solicitor at Law (Scot.)
S. lat. South latitude.
S.M. State Militia; Short Meter; Sergeant-Ma-
jor ; Sons of Malta.
S.M. Lond. Soc. Cor.Sociefatis Mediae, Lon-
dlnensls Socius Correspondent, Correspond-
ing Member of the London Medical Society.
B. n. Secundum naluram, according to nature.
Soc. Isl. Society Islands.
Sol. Solomon ; Solution.
S. of Sol. Song of Solomon.
S.P. Sine prole, without issue.
S.P.A.S. Sociefatls PkUotOpki&X Americana?,
Socius, Member of the American Philosophi-
S. P. G. Society for the Propagation of the
Sp. gr. Specific gravity.
S.P.Q.R. Senatus Populusque Romani, the
Roman Senate and people.
Sq. ft. Square foot or square feet.
Sq. in. Square inch or inches.
Sq. m. Square mile or miles.
Sq. r. Square rood or roods.
Sq. yd. Square yard.
Sr. Sir or Senior.
S.R.I. Sacrum Jiomanum Imperiuin, Holy
S.R.S. Societatis Regicn Socius, Fellow of the
SS. or es. Scilicet, to wit.
as. Semis, half.
S.S.C. Solicitor before the Supreme Court
St. Saint; Street; Strait.
S.T.D. Sacrce T/ieolog'ue Doctor, Doctor of
Ster. or Stg. Sterling.
S.T.P. Sacra; Tlieologice. Professor, Professor
of Sacred Theology.
Sun. or Sund. Sunday.
Sup. Supplement; Superfine.
Surg. Surgeon ; Surgery,
Surg. -Gen. Surgeon-General.
Surv. -Gen. Surveyor-General.
*.v.Sub verbo, under the word or title,
Syn. Synonym ; Synonymous.
T.Tulti, all together.
T. or torn. Tome, volume.
Ta. Tantalum (Columbiuni).
T.E. Topographical Engineers.
Text. Rec. TexlusReceptus, the Received Text.
Th. orThtirs. Thursday.
Theol. Theology; Theological.
T.O. Turn over.
Tom. Vol u me.
Topog. Topography ; Topographical.
Tr. Transpose; Translator; Translation.
Tr. Trustee. Trs. Trustees.
tr. Trillo, a shake.
Trans. Translator; Translation; Transactions.
Tues. or Tu. Tuesday.
Ty p. Typographer.
U.C. Urbis condilcf, year of Rome.
U.E.I.C. United East India Company.
U.J.C. Utriusqtte Juris Doctor, Doctor of
both Laws (Civil and Canon).
U.K. United Kingdom,
ult. Ultimo, last; of the last month.
U.S. United States,
n.s. Ul supra or uli sujtra, as above.
U.S.A. United States Army.
U.S.A United States of America.
U.S.M. United States Mail.
U.S.M. United States Marine.
U.S.M.A. United States Military Academy.
U.S.N. United States Navy.
U.S.N.A. United States Naval Academy.
U.S.S. United States Senate.
Utah Utah Territory.
V. Five or fifth.
V. Violin. VV. Violins,
v. or vid. Vide, see.
v. or vs. Versus, against ; Versiculo, in such a
V. -C. Vice -Chancellor.
V.D M. Verbi Dei Minister, Minister of God's
V. -G. Vicar-General,
v.g. Verbi Gratia, as for example.
VI.-Six or sixth.
VII. Seven or seventh.
VIIL Eight or eighth.
Vice-Pres. or V.P. Vice-President.
viz. or vi. Videlicet, to wit ; namely ; that is to
Vo. Verso, left-hand page.
V. S. Veterinary Surgeon.
Vul. Vulgate (Latin version of the Bible).
Wash. Ter. Washington Territory.
West. Res. Coll. Western Reserve College,
w.f. Wrong font.
Wisd. Wisdom (Book of).
W. Ion. West longitude.
W.M. Worshipful Master.
W.M.S. Wesleyan Missionary Society.
W. N.W. West-north west.
Wpf til. Worshipful.
W.S. Writer to the Signet,
W. Va. West Virginia.
Wyo. Ter. Wyoming Territory.
X. Ten or tenth.
X. or Xt. Christ.
Xmas or Xm. Christmas.
Xn. or Xtian. Christian.
Xnty or Xty. Christianity.
Xper or Xr. Christopher.
y. or y- The.
y m._ Them,
y r Their; your.
yt That. '
Y.M.C.A. Yonng Men's Christian Association.
Yrs. Years; Yours.
&c. Et ccetera, and the rest; and so forth.
CONSTITUTIONS AND BY-LAWS.
Forms of Constitutions.
ARTICLES AND SECTIONS.
General Directions Relating to Constitutions and By-Laws.
BASIS of action in the government of an
association of people, who propose to hold
regular and frequent meetings, it becomes
necessary to make a specific agreement by
such association of the course of action they
will pursue, and the rules by which they
shall be governed in their deliberations.
This agreement is termed a " CONSTITUTION."
In its preparation, care should be taken, while making it
sufficiently explicit, to have the document as concise, clear and
distinct as possible.
In the adoption of a constitution by an assembly, it is usually
customary to consider it section by section. After it has been
accepted, the secretary should make record of the constitution
in a blank-book suitable for the purpose. This should be
signed by the members of the society, who consent to accept
of the same as their fundamental rule of action.
Amendments to the. constitution should be Inade in the same
book with convenient marks for reference showing where they
may be found.
When it is desired to add matter more clearly denning cer-
tain articles of the Constitution, such explanatory notes are
termed ' BY- LAWS." When the Constitution is quite explicit,
for most associations by-laws are unnecessary. If it is desir-
able, however, to be very minute in explanation, that members
of an association may fully understand their rights and duties,
by-laws are sometimes quite essential. When added, they
should follow immediately after the Constitution.
Explanatory words giving the character of each article in
the Constitution, may be placed above, or at the left side of
the article, as shown in the following forms.
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
KUELTY to Animals being a prevailing fault, cal-
culated to cultivate the baser passions of man's
nature, it becomes necessary, in order to counteract
the same, to take individual and united action in
opposition thereto. The better to accomplish a re-
form in this direction, the undersigned agree to
form an association, and be governed in their fun-
damental action by the following
ARTICLE I. The title and name of this Society shall be "THE SAC-
RAMENTO SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS,"
ARTICLE II. The objects of this Society are to provide effective
means for the prevention of cruelty to animals within the limits of the
City of Sacramento; to enforce all laws which are now or may hereafter
be enacted for the protection of dumb animals, and to secure by lawful
means the arrest, conviction and punishment of all persons violating
ARTICLE III. The officers of this Society shall be a President, six
Vice - Presidents, a Counsel, a Secretary, a Treasurer, and an Executive
Committee of nine persons, who shall constitute the Board of Directors.
ARTICLE IV. Any person, male or female, may become a member of
this Society upon election by the Society, or Executive Committee, and
the payment of the sum of two dollars ; and the annual membership
fee shall not exceed that amount.
Sec. 2. Any person may become a life - member of this Society, upon
the payment to the Treasurer of the sum of twenty-five dollars.
ARTICLE V. The annual meeting of this Society shall be held on the
first Thursday iu April of each year, wheiithe annual election of officers
shall take place.
Sec. 2. Every member of the Society who has been such for ten days
or more, and who is not in arrears for dues, shall be entitled to vote at
the said election.
Sec. S.At the annual meeting the Executive Committee shall present
a general report of its proceedings during the past year, and the Secre-
tary and Treasurer shall also present their annual reports.
Sec. 4. Special meetings of the Society may be called by the President,
(or in case of his absence or inabilitv, by one of the Vice-Presidents),
and shall be so called upon the written request of fifteen members.
Notice of such meeting shall be inserted in at least two daily papers of
the city of Sacramento.
CONSTITUTIONS AND BY-LAWS.
ARTICLE VI, The Counsel shall be the legal adviser of the Society,
its Officers and Executive Committee, and shall have general charge
and conduct of all suits and proceedings instituted by or against it, or
them, or either of them, or in which the Society may be interested. He
shall receive for his services such pecuniary compensation, or fees, as
shall be determined by the Executive Committee.
ARTICLE VII. It shall be the duty of the Secretary to keep minutes of
all the proceedings of the Society and of the Executive Committee, and
to record the same in the Society's books provided for that purpose ; to
conduct the correspondence and keep copies thereof, and to perform
such otheifduties as are customary for such an officer, under the direc-
tion of the Executive Committee.
ARTICLE IX. The Executive Committee may appoint from time to
time such special agents as it may deem advisable, and shall have the
power to remove the same at its pleasure.
Sec. 2. The appointment of every agent of the Society shall be in
writing, and he shall receive such pecuniary compensation for his ser-
vices as may be determined by the Executive Committee.
ARTICLE X. The Executive Committee shall have the management,
control and 'disposition of the affairs, property and funds of the Society,
and shall have the power to fill for the unexpired term any vacancy that
may occur in any of the offices of the Society or in its own body.