Imboil, Immit, Implead,
Imbound, Immix, Impart, _
Imbrue, Immure, Impose,
Imbrute, Impact, Impound,
Imbue, Impale, Impregnate,
Imburse, Impassioned, Impress,
Immanuel, Impawn, Imprint,
Immaculate, Impeach, Impromptu,
Immense, Impearl, Impugn,
Imminent, Impel, Impulse,
Immigrant, Impen, Impunity,
Immerge, Imperil, Imputable,
Immerse, Impinge, Impute.
ise and ize.
The following words terminate with ise. Other words of like
pronunciation terminate with ize.
Nouns which change f or fe
into ves in the plural.
Advertise, Criticise, Exercise,
Advise, Demise, Exorcise.
Affranchise, Despise, Merchandise,
Apprise, Devise, Misprise,
Catechise, Disfranchise, Recognise,
Chastise, Disguise, Reprise,
Nouns ending in f
or fe in which
S is only used in the plural.
Circumcise, Divertise, Supervise,
Comprise, Emprise, Surmise,
Compromise, Enfranchise, Surprise.
Words ending in d, de, ge, mit, rt, 86, or 88, take sion in
derivatives. Other words of similar pronunciation in their
ending are usually spelled with tion.
Abscission, Confession, Divulsion,
Abs'.ersion, Confusion, Emersion,
Adhesion, Conversion, Evasion,
Nouns ending in eau, iCU, and OU, terminate the plural in x.
Admission, Declension, Evulsion,
Cohesion, Decursion, Exesion,
Compulsion, Depulsion, Expulsion,
Condescension, Dissension, Impression,
ILLUSTRATIONS OF SPELLING BY SOUND.
SPELLING BY SOUND.
SYSTEM OF ORTHOGRAPHY, whereby
superfluous letters could be dispensed with,
educational reformers have long sought to
introduce. Of these, the following method
of Spelling by Sound was published some
time since by the Hon. Joseph Medill,
editor of the Chicago Tribune, its advantage
over the strictly phonetic system being that the same alphabet is
employed as that in general use, which makes it much easier
to introduce. It is at the same time more agreeable to the
eye. By this system the student can spell any word after
learning the sounds, and the reader can readily pronounce any
word when reading. The great advantages gained are less
space used in writing, less time, correct pronunciation, and
The application of this system of spelling is shown as
A Specimen of His System.
The extreme iregfilarilies ov our orthografy hav long ben a sours ov
inconve'niens and anoians. Men eminent az skolars and statsmen hav
often pointed out theze absurdities ov speling. Yet the eVil remanes. It
encumbers our primary educdsion and robs our yuth ov yeres ov time that
shud be deV6ted tu the acquizision ov nolej. It impozes a burden upon
the literary man thru life in the Use ov superfluus leters, and compels
meny persons tu study speling from the cradle tu the grave or fale tu spel
corectly. It iz a fereful barier tu foriners hu wish to lern our langwaje ;
and wors than aul, it hinders thousands bv persons from lerning tu rede
and rite, and thus largly augments the ranks ov ign6rans and depravity.
Theze eVils ar so e'normus in the agrdgate that we fele compeled tu en-
dors the words ov the distinguished President ov the American Fil61ojical
As6sidsion, Prof. F. A. March, uzed in hiz opening adres at the last
anual mdling ov the S6siety :
" It iz no Use tu try tu caracterize with filing epithets the monstrous
speling ov the English langwaje. The time lost by it is a larj part ov the
hole skule time pv the most ov men. Count the ours which ^ch person
wdsts at skule in lerning tu rede and spel, the ours spent thru life in
kdping up and perfecting hiz nolej ov speling, in consulting dicshundries
a work that never ends the ours that we spend in rfting silent leters ;
and multiplying this time by the number ov persons hu speak English,
and we hav a total ov milyuns ov yeres wasted by ^ch jenerasion. The
cost pv printing the silent leters ov the English langwaje iz tu be counted
by milyuns ov dolors for e'en jenerdsion."
" Sliner or Idler English orthografy must be simplified and reformed."
" I fele very hopeful that a beginingwil be made before long in reTorm-
ing, not indede everylhing bul al Idsl sumthing in ihe unhislorical, unsis-
lemalic, uninlelijible, unlechable, bul by no menes unamendable speling
now curenl in England." PROF. MAX MULLER.
In spdking ov ihe disgrdsful slale ov English orlhografy and ihe best
mode ov reforming it. ihe grate American lexicografer, Dr. Ndah Websler,
in ihe intr6ducsion tu hiz Quarto Dicshunary, says :
" Nolhing can be more disreputable tu the literdry caracler ov a ndsion
lhan the hist6ry ov English orlhografy, unles it is that ov our or-
ihoepy." * * *
11 Dr. Franklin compiled a dicshunary on hiz skeme ov reTorm, and pn5-
ciired dpes lu becasl, which he ofered lu me wilh a vu tu engaje me tu
prosecute hiz dezine. This ofer I declined tu acsept ; fqr I wos ihen, and
am slil, convinsed lhal the skeme ov intr6ducing nu caracters intu the
langwaje is ne'ther practicable nor expedienl. Eny atempl ov this kind
musl sertenly fale of sucses."
'The mode ov asertaning the pronunsiasion ov words by marks, poinls
or trifling ollerasions ov ihe present caracters, semes tu be the only won
which can be refused tu practis."
" Delitful task ! to rere the tender thaut,
Tu t^ch ihe yung ide'a hou lu shule,
Tu pore fresh inslrucsion 6'er the mind,
Tu brethe ihe enlivening spirit, and tu fix
The jenerus purpos in the g!6ing brest."
"O, lhaulles mortals ! ever blind tu fate,
Tu sune dejected and tu sune ^lale."
" Worth makes the man and want ov it the felo ;
The rest is aul but lether or pninela."
Where ihere iz a wil ihere iz a wa ; and while ihe evil continues ihe ne-
sesily for orthdgrafic reTorm wil never cese. If ihere ar eny among us hu
hav lu lille regard for ihere 6ne children tu smuthe for them the path on
which there infant fele musl slumble, we conjure ihem in the name ov God
and humanity lu beware ov ihe grdter sin ov crushing by op6zing influens
the rising hopes ov milyuns les forlunale, hu hav ne'lher mony nor time lu
squonder, bul hu nede aul ihe ades 'posible tu endble ihem tu lake a pozi-
sion among the inlelijent, vertuus and hapy sitizens ov our grale and
The foregoing will suffice to represent Mr. Medill's idea of
simplified orthography. It is almost phonetic and yet pre-
serves most of the analogies and peculiarities of the English
language. He retains the general rule that e ending a word
and preceding a consonant indicates that the vowel is "long."
Thus he spells such words as
Where the e sound does not indicate the long vowel
sound, he proposes to use accented vowels, viz. : a, 6, i, 6, u,
and for the sound of u in full, should, etc., he uses u : thus,
ful, shud. For the broad sound of a heard in ought, caught,
awful, all, broad, he employs au and spells them out ; caut,
auful, aul, braud, etc. For the terminals tion, sion, cian,
scion, etc., he uses sion. He retains / as the sign of the past
tense, and s as that of the plural of nouns and singular of
verbs, Ble as a terminal is also retained. K is written for ch
in all words in which ch has the sound oik. Ex.: arkitect,
monark, skule, etc. All double consonants are reduced to
single ones, as only one of them is heard in pronunciation. In
all words now spelled with ck, as back, beck, lick, rock, luck,
he drops the c as being wholly superfluous. In words ending
in ous, he omits the o, as in curius, spurius, and when ou has
the sound he also drops the o, as in duble, jurny. He retains
y at the end of nouns in the singular, as copy, foly. He writes
fiorph in alfabet, fonetics, flosofy, etc. He omits all silent
vowels in digraphs, and writes
head, hed said, sed,
earlh, erlh heifer, hefer,
The proposed system is very easily written. After an hour's
practice the pen runs naturally into it. The plan is one which
would cost adults scarcely an effort to learn to write, and no
effort at all to learn to read it. He thinks it is the simplest
and most rational compromise with existing usage, prejudice,
and etymologies, which can probably be devised with any hope
of acceptance, and if accepted and adopted it would secure to
:he Anglo-American race throughout the world one of the
simplest and best orthographies in existence.
CAPITAL LETTERS AND PUNCTUATION.
people greatly disfigure
their writing, and stamp them-
selves as illiterate, by the
omission or improper use of
What do we think of the
man who, wishing to place his
son in the care of a teacher,
wrote a letter, introducing his boy, thus?
"deer sur yeW Bein a man of noleg i Wish tu Put Mi son
in yure skull."
Or, of the mother who sends a line by her
child to the boot and shoe merchant as follows ?
" mister Grean Wunt you let mi Boay hev a Pare ov Esy
Fortunately the rules for using capitals are
few, and once acquired, are easily remembered.
Rules for the Use of Capitals.
Begin every paragraph with a capital letter.
Begin every sentence following a period with a capital
Begin each proper name with a capital letter.
Begin the names of places, as Boston, Newport, Niagara,
with capital letters.
Begin the words, North, South, East, West, and their com-
pounds and abbreviations, as North-east, S. W., with capital
letters, when geographically applied.
Begin the names of the Deity and Heaven, or the pronoun
used for the former, as, in His mercy Thou, Father, etc.,
with capital letters.
Begin all adjectives formed from the names of places or
points of the compass as English, Northern, each with a capital
Begin each line of poetry with a capital letter.
Begin all quotations with a capital letter.
Begin all titles of books, and usually each important word of
the title, as Hume's History of England, with capital letters.
Begin the name of any historical event, as the French
Revolution, with capital letters.
The pronoun I and the interjection O must invariably be
Begin names of the month, as June, April, with capital let-
ters. Also the days of the week, as Monday, Tuesday, etc.
Begin all addresses, as Dear Sir Dear Madam, with capital
Capital letters must never be placed in the middle of a word.
HILE the omission of punctu-
ation may not mar the appear-
ance of writing, as do bad
spelling and improper use of
capitals, its correct use is,
nevertheless, essential to the
proper construction of a sen-
Very ludicrous, and sometimes serious mis-
takes result from improper punctuation. In
the following sentence, the meaning is entirely
changed by the location of the semicolon.
" He is an old and experienced hand ; in vice and wicked-
ness he is never found ; opposing the works of iniquity he takes
" He is an old and experienced hand in vice and wickedness ;
he is never found opposing the works of iniquity ; he takes
The following are the principal characters or
points used in punctuation :
Parenthesis ( )
The Caret A
Quotation Marks " "
Brackets [ ]
Rules for Punctuation.
The Comma (,). Wherever occurs a distinct
natural division of a sentence ; or where two
or more words are connected, without the con-
necting word being expressed, the comma is
used ; as
" Dealer in hats, caps, boots, shoes, etc." " Hedges, trees,
groves, houses, and people, all went rushing by." " Towering
far above us stood the pines, silent, majestic, and grand."
" Verily, verily, I say unto you."
The Semicolon (;) is used where a sentence
consists of several members each constituting a
distinct proposition, and yet having dependence
upon each other; as
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION.
" Some men are born great ; some acquire greatness ; some
have greatness thrust upon them." "Contributors: Will. M.
Carleton ; Wm. C. Bryant ; B. F. Taylor ; John G. Saxe."
" Contents : Riches ; Poverty ; Religion."
The Colon (:) is used to divide a sentence
into two or more parts, which, although the
sense is complete in each, are not wholly inde-
pendent ; as
" Temperance begets virtue : virtue begets happiness." " Two
questions grow out of the subject : 1st : What is the necessity of
a classical education ? 2d : How far can a classical education
be made applicable to the ordinary business affairs of life ? "
The Period (.) is placed at the end of every
complete and independent sentence ; before
decimals ; between pounds and shillings ; after
initial letters, and for abbreviations; as
"Man, know thyself." "Chas. Williams, M.D." "J. Q.
Adams." " Genl. Supt. of C., B., and Q. R. R." " 25. 8s. 4d."
" 4.24 miles."
The Exclamation Point (!) denotes sudden
or violent emotion ; as
" O blissful days ! Ah me ! How soon ye passed ! " " Charge,
Chester, charge! On, Stanley, on! " " Great bargains! Clothing
sold at forty per cent, below cost ! " " Rejoice ! Rejoice ! the
summer months are coming."
The Note of Interrogation (?) is used after
every sentence in which a question is asked ; as
" What season of the year do you enjoy most ? "
It is also used to denote sneeringly the
unbelief of the speaker ; as
" His wise counsels (?) failed to accomplish their end."
Brackets [ ] and Parentheses ( ) are employed
to enclose words thrown into a sentence by way
of explanation, which could be omitted without
injury to its construction ; as
" I have met (and who has not) with many disappointments."
" Eight (8) miles and one hundred (100) yards." " In con-
clusion, gentlemen, I am for the constitution, the whole consti-
tution, and nothing but the constitution." [Great applause.]
The Dash ( ) is used when the subject
breaks off suddenly, and to show the omission
of words, letters and figures ; thus :
"I would but ah! I fear it is impossible I would I
will reform." "The pulse fluttered stopped went on
stopped again moved stopped."
"This agreement entered into this day of , 18 ,
between of the first part, and of
the second part, witnesseth, etc."
The Hyphen (-) is employed as a character
between two words to show that they are con-
nected together as a compound word ; thus :
Thirty -fold, super-heated, four-leaved, etc.
It is also used at the end of a syllable when
the remainder of the word follows on the next
line. Also in dividing a word to show its pro-
nunciation ; as
Pro-cras-ti-nate ; val-e-tud-i-na-ri-an ; co-op-e-rate.
The Ellipsis (....) is used to represent the
omission of words, syllables, and letters, and is
sometimes represented by a dash ; thus, k g
for king : occasionally by stars ; thus, * * * * :
and sometimes by periods ; like these
The following examples illustrate its use.
" Mrs. W , of C , is said to be the for-
tunate individual." " This was in 1850. * * * * Twenty
years later, in 1870, we gather up, again, the thread of our dis-
course." "If he had married .... Ah, well! it was not
so to be."
The Apostrophe (') is employed to distinguish
the possessive case ; thus :
" John's Book." " Superintendent's Office." " Wells'
Grammar : "
And the omission of letters in the beginning or
middle of a word , thus ,
" I'll, " for " I will." " Thou'lt," for " Thou wilt."
" Prop'r," for " Proprietor." " In'st," for " Interest," etc.
See rules for punctuation, in the chapter
relating to " Sign Painting."
The Caret ( A ) is employed, in writing, to
show where a word, or several words have been
omitted in the sentence, and have been placed
above the line ; as
handmaid of e
" Temperance is the virtue." " Improvment."
Quotation Marks (" ") are used by the writer
to designate a word or sentence quoted or
copied from another author ; as
" Three things bear mighty sway with men,
The Sword, the Sceptre, and the Pen"
The Marks of Reference (* t t II 1D are
used to call attention to notes of explanation at
the bottom of the page. If many notes are
used and these are all exhausted, they can be
MARKS DIRECTING ATTENTION.
doubled. Some writers use letters, and some
figures, for reference.
Marks of Pronunciation.
For the purpose of giving inflection to cer-
tain words, or to designate the prolongation of
occasional syllables in a word, the author
frequently finds it convenient to use certain
characters to denote such accents. To illus-
The Acute (a) gives the rising inflection ; as
" Will you ride ? "
The G-rave (a) the falling ; as
" Will you walk or ride."
The Circumflex (iV) indicates the rising and
falling inflection in the same syllable ; as,
" Machine," Montreal," etc.
The Macron (-) placed above a letter desig-
nates a full, long vowel sound ; as
" Fate." " Home." " Note." " Eve," etc.
A Breve ( w ) denotes a short sound, when
placed above a vowel ; as
" A-dore." " Glo-ri-ous." .
The Diaeresis (a) is used for the purpose of
dividing a diphthong, or syllable into two dis-
tinct syllables ; as
" Avenged." " Beloved."
Also when two vowels come together, this
character is sometimes used to show that they
are not contracted into a diphthong ; as
" Cooperate." " Reiterate." " Reappear."
The Cedilla (p) is a mark placed under the
c to denote that its sound is the same as the
letter s; as
" Qhaise." " Fagade."
The Tilde (n) placed over an n gives it the
sound of ny ; as
" Minon." " Senor."
Marks Directing Attention.
The Index (JJUjT'*) is used to call special
attention to an important line or clause in the
writing or printing , as :
Five per cent discount for cash."
The Asterism or /Stars ( # *#) is used to desig-
nate a general reference ; as
" *** The teacher should moke frequent use of the black-
The Brace \ is employed to unite two or
more parts of speech or names that are brought
Gender < Feminine,
A Paragraph (^[) is used by the author fre-
quently to designate, in the middle of a sen-
tence, when he re-reads his manuscript, those
words that he wishes to have commence a para-
graph. It shows where something new begins.
A Section () usually designates the smaller
distinct parts of a book.
As references they are frequently used with
numbers ; thus :
" T 87. Wedding Ceremonies in Different Countries."
" 172. The Law of Usury in Different States."
Leaders ( ) are employed to lead the eye
from one portion of the page to another across
blank space ; as
London - 123
Paris - 84
New York. 304
Words and sentences that the writer desires
should be emphatic, are designated by lines
drawn beneath the words that are to be empha-
sized. Thus one line indicates italics; two
lines, SMALL CAPITALS ; three lines, LARGE
CAPITALS ; four lines, ITALIC CAPITALS.
" To arms ! to arms ! ! to arms ! ! ! they cry,"
Underscored will appear in print thus
' To arms! TO ARMS!! TO ARMS!!! they cry."
" Upward and upward we went! gradually the scene grew
more and more entrancing! until at length, faster, RICHER,
WILDER, GRANDER the weird objects came and went,
fading away at last in the long dim distance."
NAMES OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.
RAMMAR is the art of writing
or speaking a language cor-
rectly. There are eight dis-
tinct parts of speech, named
as follows : Noun, Pronoun,
Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Prep-
osition, Conjunction and Inter-
THE NOUN is the name of an object, or some
quality of the same ; as knife, horse, house,
sharpness, speed, beauty. Nouns are of two
classes, proper and common. A proper noun
is the name of an individual object ; as England,
William, Washington; and should always be
capitalized. Names given to whole classes are
common nouns ; as sea, land, rmy, tree, etc.
A PRONOUN is a word that takes the place
of a noun ; as " He reads," " She studies,"
" It falls."
AN ADJECTIVE is a word used to describe a
noun; as ''sweet cider," ''educated people,"
THE VERB is a word that expresses action ;
as " He runs" " She sleeps," "It falls."
THE ADVERB tells how the action is per-
formed, and modifies the meaning of verbs,
adjectives, and other adverbs ; as " He walks
rapidly," " Very soon," " More pleasing,"
" Directly under," etc.
A PREPOSITION is a word that connects other
words, and shows the relation between them ;
as " The snow lies on the ground," " He went
A CONJUNCTION is a part of speech used
to connect words and sentences together ; as
" Houses and Lands." " I walked in the
meadows and in the groves, but I saw no birds,
nor animals of any kind, because of the dark-
AN INTERJECTION is a word used to express
sudden or strong emotion ; as ! Alas I Ah !
As a full consideration of the subject of
grammar requires a volume of itself, it is not
the purpose, therefore, of this book to enter
into a detailed explanation of the use of the
various parts of speech, along with the rules
for applying the same. Fuller instruction
relating to tho proper construction of language
may be obtained in any of the various text
books on grammar, which may be procured at
The object in introducing the subject of gram-
mar here is to call attention to the faults liable
to be made by the writer and speaker unac-
quainted with a knowledge of the correct use
of language. To illustrate : special care should
be taken to use the plural verb when the plural
nominative is used ; as " Trees grows " should
be " Trees grow." " Birds flies " should be
" Birds fly." " Some flowers is more fragrant
than others," should be " Some flowers are
more fragrant than others."
Care should be exercised in the use of the
adjective pronoun ; as "Them men " should be
The past tense of the word do is frequently
improperly used ; as " I done it " should be
" / did it."
Care should be taken with words terminating
with ly ; as " Birds fly swift " should be " Birds
fty swiftly;" "She sang beautiful" should be
"She sang beautifully;" "He walks rapid"
should be "rapidly;" "He talks eloquent"
should be " eloquently."
The word got is frequently unnecessarily
used ; as " I have got the book " should be " I
have the book."'
The word learn is often wrongly used in
place of teach ; as, " Will you learn me to
write ?" should be "Willyonteachme to write?"
The verbs lay and lie are frequently misused.
The following examples illustrate the dis-
tinction to be observed in their use. Thus,
"I lie down; you lie down; he lies down."
But " I lay down the book ; you lay down the
carpet ; he lays down the rules."
DECLAMATION AND COMPOSITION.
The verbs sit and set are often used improp-
erly. The following sentences illustrate the
difference between them. Thus, "I sit down;
you sit down ; he sits down." " I set the table ;