Eye." Proc. Boston Soc. for Medical Improvement, Vol. iii, p. 181.
1S58, Sept. 23. " Six Cases of Successful Operation, in one Family, on
Children born Blind." Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., lix, 8.
1858, Dec. 2"]. "Dislocation of the Transparent Crystalline Lens into
the Anterior Chamber." Proc. Boston Soc. for Med. Improvement,
Vol. iii, p. 307.
1859, March 17. "On the Treatment of Certain Diseases of the Lachry-
mal Passag Read before the Boston Society for Medical Observa-
tion. Boston Med. and Surg. Jour.. In, 12.
1859, April 21. "Ulceration of the Cornea." Read before the Boston
Soc. for Medical Observation. Boston Med. and Surg. Jour.. 1\, 12.
880 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
J859, June 27. " Ossification of the Crystalline Lens." Proc. Boston
Soc. for Med. Improvement, Vol. iv, p. 49.
i860, Aug. 2. "Traumatic Injury of Both Eyes â€” Operation for Resto-
ration of Vision." Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., lxiii, 1.
1861, June 10. " Ophthalmia Neonatorum." Proc. Boston Soc. for
Medical Improvement, Vol. iv, p. 218.
1862. " A Practical Guide to the Study of the Diseases of the Eye."
1862, April 28. " A Case of Acute Glaucoma â€” Performance of Iridec-
tomy, with Complete Restoration of Vision." Proc. Boston Soc. for Med-
ical Improvement, Vol. v, Appendix.
1863, Jan. 1. *' Case of Glaucoma Relieved by Iridectomy." Read
before the Boston Soc. for Med. Improvement, Dec. 22. 1862. Bost. Med.
and Surg. Jr., lxvii, 22.
1863, July 30, Aug. 13, 27, Sept. 3, 17, 24. " European Ophthalmic In-
stitutions â€” Six letters from Europe." Bost. Med. and Surg. Jr., lxviii,
26; lxix, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8.
1863, Dec. 31. "Various Applications of the Operation of Iridectomy."
Read before the Boston Soc. for Med. Observation. Boston Med. and
Surg. Jour., lxix, 22.
1864. " Cataracts with Unusual Toughness of the Capsule." Proc.
Boston Soc. for Medical Improvement, Vol. v, p. 121.
1864, Jan. 28. ' The Properties and Uses of the Calabar Bean." Trans-
lated from the Annales d' Oculistique. Boston Med. and Surg. Jr., lxix, 26.
1864, Dec. 1. Report of Operations in the Dept. of Ophthalmic Surgery
at the City IIosp. of Boston, under the care of Dr. Williams, for three
months, ending Aug. 30, 1864. Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., lxxi, 18.
1864, Dec. 15. " Case of Glaucoma of more than Three Months' Stand-
ing, in which Perception of Light had been lost, Successfully Treated by
Iridectomy." Read before the Boston Soc. for Med. Improvement, Nov.
28, 1864. Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., lxxi, 20.
1865, Jan. 26. Report of Operations in the Department of Ophthalmic
Surgery at the City Hospital of Boston, under the care of Dr. Williams
for four months ending Dec. 31, 1864. Bost. Med. and Surg. Jour.,
1865, Feb. 23. " Early Diagnosis of Puerperal Inflammation of the
Eyeball." Read before the Boston Soc. for Med. Improvement, Feb. 13,
1865. Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., Ixxii, 4.
1865, March 13. " Hereditary Syphilis." Proc. Boston Soc. for Med.
Improvement, Vol. v, p. 169.
1865, May 4. Report of Operations in the Ophthalmic Dept. of the
City Hosp. of Boston, under the care of Dr. Williams, for the three
months ending April 1. [865. Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., Ixxii, 14.
1865, Aug. 24. " Nearsightedness a Disease, and not merely an In-
EMINENT ALUMNI 881
firmity." Read before the Soc. for Med. Improvement, Aug. 14, 1865.
Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., lxxiii, 4.
1865, Aug. 31. " Removal of a Cataract of Eighty-three Years' Stand-
ing, from a Man Ninety-three Years Old." Bost. Med. and Surg. Jour.,
1866. " Recent Advances in Ophthalmic Science." Boyleston Prize
Essay for 1865. Boston. 1866.
1866. " Remarkable Voluntary Power over the Muscles of the Eyeball
Acquired by Training." Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital Reports,
Vol. v, pt. 3, 1866.
1866, Feb. 12. " Penetration of the Eye by a Foreign Body and its
Discovery at the Fundus of the Globe by means of the Ophthalmoscope."
Proc. Boston Soc. for Med. Improvement, Vol. v, p. 204.
1866, Feb. 22. " Spontaneous Dislocation of the Crystalline in Both
Eyes â€” Subsequent Severe Symptoms in One Eye, requiring the removal
of the Degenerated Lens by Out-scooping combined with Iridectomy."
Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., lxxiv, 4.
1S66, June 12. " Suture of the Flap after Extraction of Cataract." Read
before the American Ophthalmological Society. June 12, 1866. Trans-
actions of the Ophthalmological Society, 1866.
1S06, July 26. " Some Conservative Measures required in Certain
Diseases of the Eye." Read at the Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts
Medical Society. Boston, May, 1866. Boston Med. and Surg. Jour.,
1S66, Aug. 30. "An Improvement in the Form of Probes for the
Lachrymal Passages." Read before the Boston Soc. for Med. Improve-
ment, July 9, 1866. Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., lxxv. 5.
1867. " A Practical Guide to the Study of Diseases of the Eye." 2d Ed-,
Revised and Enlarged. Boston, 1867.
1867. " Use of a Suture of the Cornea to Close the Wound after Cata-
ract Extraction." Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital Reports, Vol. vi,
pt. 1, 1867.
[867, Feb. 28. "Report of the Operations performed in the Ophthalmic
Department of the City Hospital, Boston, during the year ending Dec. 31,
1866." Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., lxxvi, 4.
1868. "Optical Defects in School Children." Read before the Massa-
chusetts Teachers' Association. .Mass. Teacher, 1868.
1868, July 21. " Modification of Probes for the Lachrymal Passages."
Read before the American Ophthalmological Society, July 21, [868. Trans-
actions of the Am. Ophthalmological Society, 1868.
1868, July 21. "Suture of the Wound of Cornea after Flap Extraction
â€” Report of Forty-four Cases." Read before the American Ophthal-
mological Soc, July 21. iS(>8. Transactions of the American Ophthal-
mological Society, 1868.
882 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
1869, Feb. 22. "Interesting and Unusual Cases of Traumatic Injury
of the Eye." Proc. Boston Soc. for Med. Improvement, Vol. vi, p. 79.
1869. Aug. 23. " Dislocation of the Lens through a Rupture of the
Sclerotica." Proc. Boston Soc. for Medical Improvement, vol. vi, p. 118.
1870. First Medical and Surgical Report of the Boston City Hospital
(for five years ending Dec. 31, 1869). Boston, 1870 â€” Ophthalmic. Rept. â€”
Table of Ophthalmic Operations â€” Table of Ophthalmic Out-Patients â€” by
H. W. Williams, M. D.
1870, Jan. 6. ' Two Cases of Double Spontaneous Dislocation of the
Lens." Boston Medical and Surgical Jour., New Series, v (lxxxii), 1.
1870, Feb. 17. " New Form of Crayons of Sulphate of Copper." Boston
Med. and Surg. Jour., New Series, v (lxxxii), 7.
1870, March 31. " Exophthalmos with Intracranial Disease â€” Death â€”
Autopsy." Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., New Series, v (lxxxii), 13.
1870, May 9. " Cretaceous Degeneration of the Crystalline Lens." Proc.
Boston Soc. for Med. Improvement, Vol. vi, p. 148.
1871. "Our Eyes and How to Take Care of Them." Boston, 1871.
1871, Aug. 31. 'The Causes and Prevention of Nearsightedness."
Translated from the Wiener Medisinische zeitung. Boston Med. and Surg.
Jour., New Series, viii (lxxxv), 9.
1871, Dec. 7. " Enucleation of the Eyeball." Boston Med. and Surg.
Jour., New Series, x (lxxxvii), 23.
1872, Dec. 5. "Improvement in Cataract Operations." Boston Med.
and Surg. Jour., New Series, x (lxxxvii), 23.
1873, July 3. ' Tattooing the Cornea." Boston Med. and Surg. Jour.,
^73, July T 7- " Report of Twenty-five Cases of Median Flap Extrac-
tion." Read before the American Ophthalmological Society, July 17, 1873.
Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, 1873.
1873, Oct. 16. " Puerperal Amaurosis ; its Importance as a Symptom."
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, lxxxix, 16.
1874, March 26. "Decussation of the Optic Nerves, and Hemiopia."
Translated from the Archiv fur Ophthalmologic. Bost. Med. and Surg.
Jour., xc, 13.
1874, Oct. 29. "Serious Pathological Changes in Myopic Eyes." But-
ton Med. and Surg. Jour., xci, 18.
1875, Jan. 28, March 11. "Babies' Sore Eyes." Boston Med. and Surg.
Jour., xcii, 4, 10.
1875, July 22. " Some Peculiar Phenomena attending a Case of Sudden
Temporary Loss of Hearing and Sight." Read before the American
Ophthalmological Society, July 22, 1875. Transactions of The American
Ophthalmological Society, 1875.
1875, Oct. 11. "Foreign Body in the Eye." Proc. of the Boston Society
for Medical Improvement, Vol. vii, p. ^.
EMINENT ALUMNI 883
1876, Sept. 5. " On the Comparative Value of Caustics and Astringents
in the Treatment of Diseases of the Conjunctiva, and on the Best Mode
of Applying these Remedies." Trans, of t he International Medical Con-
gress of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, 1877.
1876, Dec. 21. "The Origin and Causes of Nearsightedness.'* Extracted
and Translated from Professor F. Arlt â€” " Uber die Urasachen und die
Entstehung der Kurzsichtigkeit." Bost. Med. and Surg. Jour., xcv, 25.
1878, March 14. " Eserine and Pilocarpine in the Treatment of Eye
Diseases." Read before the Boston Soc. for Med. Improvement, Jan. 28,
1878. Boston Medical and Surgical Jour., xcviii, 11.
1878, July 25. " Extirpation of the Ossified Choroid without Enucle-
ation of the Eyeball." Read before the American Ophthalmological So-
ciety, July 25. 1878. Trans, of the Am. Ophthalmological Soc, 1878.
1880, Jan. 22. " Neurotomy of the Optic and Ciliary Nerves as a Sub-
stitute for Enucleation of the Eyeball." Read before the Boston Soc.
for Med. Improvement, Jan. 13, 1880. Bost. Med. and Surg. Jour., cii, 4.
1880, July 22. " Optico-Ciliary Neurotomy." Read before the American
Ophthalmological Society, July 22, 1880. Trans. Am. Ophthal. Soc, 1880.
1881. "The Diagnosis and Treatment of the Diseases of the Eye."
1881, Jan. 27. " Continued Toleration of Foreign Bodies within the
Eyeball, for Fifteen and Twenty-two Years." Boston Med. and Surg.
Jr., civ, 4.
1881, June 16, 23. Addresses delivered at Saunders Theatre, Cambridge,
and at the Centennial Dinner of the Mass. Medical Society, in Boston,
June 7 and 8, 1881. Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., civ, 24, 25.
1882, Jan. 18. "Orbital Cellulitis as a Sequel of Facial Erysipelas."
Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., cviii, 3.
1883, Oct. 17. Address of Welcome in Behalf of the Faculty on the
Occasion of the Opening of the new Medical College Building on the
One Hundredth Anniversary of the Foundation of the Medical School
of the Harvard University. Addresses and Exercises at the One Hun-
dredth Anniversary, etc., Cambridge, 1884.
1884, Dec. 1S. " Apparent and Real Amaurosis." Read before the Bos-
ton Soc. for Med. Improvement, Dec. 8, 1884. Boston Med. and Surg.
Jour., cxi, 25.
1885, Oct. 22, 29. " Simple Cataract Extraction." Boston Med. and
Surg. Jr., cxiii, 17, 18.
1886, "The Diagnosis and Treatment of the Diseases of the Eye."
2d Ed., Boston, 1886.
1887, Oct. 20. "The Importance of Re-examinations a- to the Accuracy
of Vision of Railroad Employes and Mariners." Bost. Med. and Surg. J.,
884 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
18S9, May 23. " Franciscus Cornelius Donders â€” Biographical Notice."
Proc. of American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. xxiv, Boston, 1889.
1889, July 17. " Multiple Cysts of the Iris in Both Eyes." Read before
the American Ophthalmological Society, July 17, 1889. Transactions of
The American Ophthalmological Society, 1889.
1889, Nov. 16. " Advances in our Knowledge of some Cerebral, Ocular,
and Intraorbital Lesions, which Facilitate the Diagnosis and Treatment of
Important Diseases." Read in the section on Ophthalmology at the
Fortieth Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association, June,
1889. Jour, of the American Medical Association, Nov. 16, 1889.
1891, May 26. " Alfred Hosmer. M. D. Biographical Notice." Proc.
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. xxvi, Boston, 1891.
1892, May 24. " George Hinkley Lyman, M. D. Biographical Notice."
Proc. of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. xxvii, Boston,
1893, May 10. " Sir William Bowman, Baronet. Biographical Notice."
Proc. of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. xxviii, Boston,
1894, Sept. 13. " Death of Professor Helmholtz." Boston Med. and
Surg. Jour., cxxxi, II.
1894, Nov. 8. " The First Administration of Ether in Paris." Boston
Med. and Surg. Jour., cxxxi, 19.
1895, May 8. " Hermann von Helmholtz. Biographical Notice." Proc.
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. xxx, Boston, 1895.
Francis Minot was born in Boston, on April 12, 182 1. His
education was procured in the Boston Schools and at Harvard
College. He was graduated from Harvard in 1841 (A. B.)
and from the Medical School in 1844. He then spent a year or
more stndying in Europe. Both by inheritance and training,
Minot was blessed with a highly cultured taste, and was an ad-
mirable example of the scholar and gentleman in medicine. He
devoted himself to the forwarding of a broad training in med-
ical education. His high ideals, however, did not carry with
them any snobbishness or caste-making. On the contrary, they
meant to him the fostering of consideration and charity for the
defects of others. Wisely conservative, he exercised a remark-
able tact which he combined with abundant resources. This
EMINENT ALUMNI 885
combination fitted him admirably for private practice, and
made him a valuable hospital physician. Moreover, he had a
happy sense of humor and a love of nature which greatly
enhanced his value both as a teacher and practitioner. The
following anecdote illustrates the man : Early in his profes-
sional career he was called to a young lady who had taken
poison with suicidal intent. She refused to swallow an emetic.
So Minot sent for two coal heavers from a neighborhood
wharf on Charles Street, and, when they appeared, he gave
his patient the choice of taking the emetic or being held by
the coal heavers while it was poured down her throat. It is
needless to add that the young woman took the emetic.
In 1859 Minot began a service which was to last twenty-
seven years, as Visiting Physician to the Massachusetts Gen-
eral Hospital. From 1886 to the time of his death he was
Consulting Physician there.
On October 26, 1869, the Harvard Corporation appointed
Minot Instructor in the Theory and Practice of Medicine. On
October 30th, 1871, he was made Assistant Professor, and
at the same time was appointed Clinical Lecturer on Diseases
of Women and Children, a new branch then established. On
May 25, 1874, he was elected Hersey Professor of the Theory
and Practice of Physic, and continued in that chair until Sep-
tember 1. 1 89 1, when he resigned. Trinity College conferred
the A. M. upon him in i860.
Minot's wide attainments and large experience in both hos-
pital and private practice made him a valuable teacher of med-
icine. By his associates he was frequently honored ; he was
treasurer of the Massachusetts Medical Society from 1863
to 1875. Tn 1878 he delivered the annual address before that
body, his topic being "Hints in Ethics and Hygiene." He was
a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences,
founder of the Massachusetts Benevolent Society and its treas-
urer, president (1889) of the Association of American Phy-
886 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
sicians, and president of the Massachusetts Emergency and
Hygiene Association (1885-1895). He was a member also
of the Boston Medical Improvement Society. In all these
positions Minot exercised that tact and industry which I have
mentioned. It was said of him that "There must always be
something unusual in one who could do what he did in the
way he did it. We have abundant examples of men who have
achieved success, but whose methods and motives do not com-
mand our respect ; his were of the best and highest." His
writings were not confined to those medical subjects only in
which he was especially interested, but covered a wide field.
Among his publications were "The Importance of Estimating
the Average Duration of Disease," "Cases of Pulmonary Con-
gestion Followed by Recovery or Arrest of the Disease," and
''Treatment of Acute Pneumonia." His death occurred at
Readville, Massachusetts, on May 11, 1899, at the age of
JOHN CALL DALTON.
One of the boasts of the Harvard Medical School in the
middle decades of the last century was that it had furnished
more skilled and practical teachers of medicine than any other
one medical school in the country. Among those eminent
alumni perhaps no one is more prominent than John Call Dal-
ton, Jr. The medical students of the College of Physicians
and Surgeons of New York, when they see that great teacher's
portrait in the large theatre of the College, should feel its in-
Dalton was born in the little town of Chelmsford, near
Lowell, Massachusetts, on February 2, 1825. New York par-
ticularly, and the medical profession generally, owes another
debt to this country-town in that there too was bred Willard
Parker, for many years a leader among medical teachers, and
JOHN CALL DALTON, M. D.
r. s. v. 1861.
A. B. 1844; M. I). 1847.
EMINENT ALUMNI 887
one of the founders of the New York Academy of Medicine.
The Harvard Medical School claims him also.
John C. Dalton, Sr., the father of our subject, studied med-
icine at Harvard after his graduation from the College
(1814), and was graduated M. D. in 1818. In this same
year Rufus Wyman of Chelmsford, was appointed superin-
tendent of the McLean Asylum, then just established at
Charlestown. A mass meeting of the citizens of Chelmsford
was called to take action upon his leaving that place, and it
was voted that he be requested to name his successor. The
extraordinary confidence which they had in Wyman was
shown by a solemn pledge that they would admit into their
fellowship and employ the man whom he should recommend.
John C. Dalton, Sr., then but twenty-three years of age, was
his choice. "No recommendation could have been more de-
sirable and essential to success, and no appointment could
have been more satisfactory and fortunate in its results to all
parties." In 183 1 the elder Dalton moved to Lowell, where
he practiced for twenty-eight years. It was during this period
that his sons conceived that love for medicine which was to
bear fruit in after years. A fdlow practitioner at Lowell said
of Dalton, "As a physician he presents to the younger mem-
bers of the profession an example worthy of study and imita-
tion. He was an ardent lover of his profession, and sought,
by careful study and investigation, to glean from every source
those acquisitions which should enable him to take high rank
among the first in his calling, not only by his medical brethren
of the city, but which should cause him also to be recognized
among the leading physicians of the State. With a fine per-
sonal appearance, accomplished manners, and a melodious
voice, he united in himself those mental acquirements and
personal habits which are essential to usefulness and popu-
larity." There are to-day in Lowell charitable organizations
founded and fostered by "Old Doctor Dalton;" and they bear
888 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
testimony to his keen interest in humanity and to his Chris-
From his father the son imbibed a love for the medical pro-
fession, a high appreciation of its power of doing good, an
eagerness to make himself acquainted with every improvement
in medical science, to confirm every doubtful point in path-
ology, and to exhibit to others in the profession everything
of special interest and importance. From his father, too, he
inherited a thirst for knowledge, not for self-aggrandizement,
but for the benefit of others. The son's life developed under
such inspirations as these in a home which was a model of
moral strength and purity ; and we find him among those lead-
ing his class at Harvard College, where he was entered at the
age of fifteen. In that class of '44 he was known as "the
ideal member," and a brilliant future was foretold for him.
He had already shown a decided preference for medicine, and
after his graduation entered upon it at once.
In his second year at the Medical School he was appointed
house-pupil at the Massachusetts General Hospital. This was
the eventful year of 1846, when the first successful demon-
stration of ether in surgical operations was made. Dalton
was a participant, and the mystery surrounding the nature of
the compound used,* stimulated his curiosity and ambition.
He was graduated M. D. at the Harvard School in 1847.
In the establishment of the cholera hospital at Boston, as
well as in dealing with the sanitary and pathological questions
connected with the outbreak of cholera in this country at that
time, Dalton found problems which inspired him to devote his
life to study and teaching rather than to practice. The report
furnished at the close of the epidemic was written mainly by
him, and it was illustrated by his drawings. This report
* The first ether used was disguised in the hope that it might be
EMINENT ALUMNI 8S9
shows that a new light had arisen, that a more exact science
was in hand.
In 1850 Dalton went to Paris, seeking a teacher able and
willing to direct and encourage him in experimental physi-
ology. Claude Bernard was there and taught him to experi-
ment and prove, rather than to rely upon guesswork or the
words of others. In America there were no trained students
of physiology, and although there had been published here and
there a paper upon some physiological problem, such papers
were by general practitioners who followed the unfamiliar
path a short way and then returned to their routine work.
Dalton made a life study of physiology. He could announce
no great discoveries, but he placed the means of proving or
simplifying old observations within the reach of every student
of medicine. Students were no longer obliged to take half
their physiology from the word-of-mouth of their teachers,
and the other half from the workings of their own imagina-
tions. They were brought face to face with the phenomena
So Dalton may be called the pioneer American physiologist.
The discovery of ether suggested modes of illustrating physi-
ological experiments, which Dunglison and Samuel Jackson
felt justified in excluding, even in case they knew their value.
Dalton had the courage of his enthusiasm, and demonstra-
tions upon living animals were introduced into his laboratory.
He was the first in America to do this. Then he plunged
into research work. The idea of a physician sacrificing his
practice for such work was a novelty here, and had Dalton
been forced to practice it is probable that his achievements
would have been developed more slowly if at all. But his idea
in his own case was to divorce the study from the practice of
medicine, and to devote his energies wholly to the former.
So on his return home he made no attempt to gain a practice.
In 185 1 his essay on the "Corpus Luteuin" received a prize
890 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
from the American Medical Association. This stamped him
as an independent and careful investigator, and brought him
the recognition of the Medical School of the University of
Buffalo, whither he was invited (1852) to the chair of Physi-
ology. He held the place until 1854, when he resigned in
order to accept the Professorship of Physiology at the Ver-
mont Medical College. His teachings of physiology at both
these schools won for him a name on account of the novelty
of using vivisection in the illustrations of his lectures. He
also introduced impromptu drawings, in which he was un-
In 1859 Dalton accepted the Professorship of Physiology
at the Long Island College Hospital, then just taking perma-
nent form. He resigned in 1861 to enter the army. In the
meantime (1854-55) he had given a course of lectures on
physiology in the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New
York, in the place of Alonzo Clark; and in 1855 he was ap-
pointed Professor of Physiology and Microscopic Anatomy
there. At the College of Physicians and Surgeons he con-
tinued until his death, occupied successively as Professor of
Physiology, Emeritus Professor, and President.
In i860 Dalton published a "Treatise on Human Physi-
ology," a text book long familiar to thousands of American
physicians. At the time of its publication and for many years
after, it was the best English work on physiology, and its
influence upon medical teaching and thought has been very
important. The book reached its seventh edition during the
life of the author. Although this was a pioneer work, without