and discovery in regard to the circulation of the blood." Philadelphia,
1884. 269 pp., 8Â°.
" Position of the Embryo in the Fowl's Egg." Medical Record, New
York, 1 881, xx, 589.
" Buffon and Bonnet in the Eighteenth Century." (Cartright Lectures.)
Lecture 11. Medical Record. New York, 1882, xxi, 113-121.
" Nervous Degenerations and the Theory of Sir Charles Bell." Medical
Record, New York, 1882, xxi, 141-150.
Cartright Lectures : " On the Experimental Method in Medical Science."
Medical News, Philadelphia, 1882, xl, 145-180. Same, G. P. Putnam's
Sons, New York, 1882, 108 pp., 8Â°.
" History of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in the City of
New York, Medical Department of Columbia College." New York,
1888. 208 pp., 8Â°.
" Cerebral Anatomy.'' Medical Record, New York, 1879, xvi, 426-428.
" Brain Sections." Trans. Medical Society, New York, Syracuse,
1879, I22 -
" Centres of Vision in the Cerebral Hemispheres." Medical Record,
New York, 1881, xix, 337-339-
,: Magendie as a Physiologist." International Review, New York, 1880,
n. s. viii, 120-125.
" A Ready Method of making Brain Section for Post-mortem Exami-
nations." Medical Record. New York, 1880, xviii, 134. Also, Boston
Medical and Surgical Journal, 1880, ciii, 57.
"On the Form and Topographical Relations of the Corpus Striatum."
Brain, London, 1880-81, iii, 145-159.
"An Introductory Address to the Medical Class of 1860-61 of tin
College of Physicians and Surgeons." 24 pp., 8Â°. New York, i860.
Another. October 16, 1855. 20 pp.. 8Â°. New York, 1855.
"Motor Centres in the Cerebral Convolutions: Their Existence and
Localization." Report on the above subject, December 21, 1S7.4, by the
committee appointed by the New York Society of Neurology and Elec
trology, consisting of J. C. Dalton, George M. Beard, J. W. S. Arnold,
A Flint. Jr., J. J. Mason. New York Medical Journal. March, [875.
18 pp., 8Â°. New York, 1875.
"Vivisection." 2 pp., roy. 8Â°. New York (n. d.).
902 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
Calvin Ellis was born in Boston, on August 15, 1826. He
was a lineal descendant in the seventh generation of the men
who founded the town of Dedham in 1634. All his ancestors
were noted for intellect and high character, and he was their
worthy descendant, â€” especially for his belief in work, for his
love of letters, and for his firm religious convictions.
After a good preparatory course at schools in Boston, Ellis
entered Harvard College, where he was graduated in the class
of 1846. While at College he took a great interest in sports,
and was a member of the first Harvard Boat Club. He used
to say that during his college life he "played," and that he
first awoke to the full meaning of life when he studied med-
icine. He was graduated from the Harvard Medical School
in 1849, ar, d tne same year was appointed house-pupil at the
Massachusetts General Hospital. There he showed the traits
which endeared him to patients, physicians, students, and
friends during his later life. Of a cheerful, sunny disposition,
he was respectful, unassuming in manner, a scholar and a gen-
After two years in the hospitals of France and Germany,
where he devoted the greater part of his time to clinical med-
icine, morbid anatomy and pathology, he returned to his na-
tive city and became assistant to J. B. S. Jackson, Professor
of Pathological Anatomy at the Harvard School. He was
also made Admitting Physician and Pathologist to the Massa-
chusetts General Hospital. Seldom was any one more for-
tunately placed. With the best of teachers to guide him and
great opportunities for observation, it would be unlikely that
he should not make progress.
We shall see that Ellis was alive to his opportunities. In
1865 he was elected Visiting Physician to the Hospital, which
increased his chances of securing a better position in the
A. B. 1846; M. I). 1849.
Adjunct Professor Theory and Practice 1863-1865.
Professor Clinical Medicine 1867-1883.
Dean Medical School 1869-1883.
EMINENT ALUMNI 903
School. Accordingly on April 25, 1863, the Corporation ap-
pointed Ellis Adjunct Professor of the Theory and Practice of
Physic. After serving George C. Shattuck for two years in
this place, he was transferred to the Department of Clinical
Medicine, and on October 20, 1865, was made Adjunct Pro-
fessor to Henry I. Bowditch, whom he succeeded on Septem-
ber 28, 1867, as Professor of Clinical Medicine. Two years
later he was chosen Dean of the Medical School, and held this
office till June 25, 1883.*
Whether we consider Calvin Ellis as the cheerful, cour-
teous, successful physician; the able, forceful, writer; the lucid,
systematic, scientific teacher ; the progressive reformer of med-
ical thought and methods of teaching; or as one of Harvard's
generous benefactors, we find that he did all things well.
Ellis w y as unquestionably one of the most valuable teachers
the Harvard Medical School has had. He showed that we
must place the diagnosis of disease upon a scientific basis, he
scouted mere authority. Nothing was to be regarded settled
until proven. "Snap" diagnoses were beneath his notice, and
so-called intuition in diagnosis was to him little less than
charlatanism. He taught that every step in the diagnosis
should be proven. In this he drilled his pupils in a fashion
which to many other teachers seemed slow and overdone.
Diagnosis by elimination was his method. How well he suc-
ceeded is shown by the fact that if there is one distinguishing
* The Corporation of Harvard College passed the following resolution
October 8, 1883: "In view of the retirement of Dr. Calvin Ellis as Dean.
the President and Fellows desire to record their high opinion of his
services in that office during the past fourteen years. They believe that
the safe conduct of the School through the grave changes of constitution
and policy which this eventful period has witnessed is in large measure
due to the disinterestedness, good judgement and firmness of Dr. Ellis, and
that his professional and personal standing with the Medical Profession
and the public has been of great assistance to the Faculty in their im-
904 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
mark about Harvard Medical graduates to-day it is their ad-
herence to this method. The foundation for practice was well
laid by Ellis and his followers. Nor was this reform his only
work of reconstruction.
He was Dean of the Medical School in the reformation
period, and the newly elected President found in him a leader
ready and able to carry out reforms in that department of the
University where custom, tradition, and personal interests
seemed strong- enough to defeat any attack. It will not seem
invidious to claim a great share of the victory for this gentle,
fearless, honest teacher. He lived to see success assured. Not
so with his life work on Symptomatology. It must be one of
our keenest regrets, as it is a loss to medicine, that this able
man did not leave this last work of his in form for publication.
But many of his writings survive. A full list includes some
forty-two articles published between 1855 and the year of his
death. His Boylston Prize Essay in i860 on "Tubercle" was
perhaps the best paper on that subject prior to Koch's dis-
covery of the bacillus. Then his introductory lecture to the
Medical Class in 1866 remains luminous for him who looks
for good things in medicine.
Ellis became a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts
and Sciences on November 9, 1859, an ^ was a distinguished
member of that learned body at the time of his death. During
the Civil War he went twice to the front upon errands of
mercy, and twice returned a victim to the infection from which
he tried to rescue others.
His generous bequests to the School so faithfully executed
by his sister have been as helpful in a material manner as was
his teaching to the intellectual side of student life. His old
friends and pupils quote him with pride and affection. Said
his former teacher, Holmes:
" Of the large number of students with whom I have been in relation
as teacher 1 do not remember one about whose future I felt more assured.
EMINENT ALUMNI 905
He had all the signs of promise; active intellegence, industerous habits,
love of his work, a vigorous frame, a cheerful temperment, an agree-
able presence stamped with every outward sign of a sincere and manly
character. ... He united many rare qualities. He had studied
disease long and delligently. He never forgot that medical science is
only the handle of the medical art. His assiduity, his patience, his self-
devotion as a practitioner were unmeasured and unstinted, as I have
known from personal observation. He forgot everything but his patient."
Another of his teachers, Henry I. Bowditch, said :
" He was my pupil in his days of medical study, my assistant at the
Massachusetts General Hospital, and afterwards my successor there and
also in the Professorship of Clinical Medicine in Harvard University ;
and finally he was always a most beloved friend. For many years past
I have often sought his advice, and no one that I met gave wiser counsel
than he did ; for his words were uttered only after a most rigid exam-
ination of the matter in hand.
Ellis acquired his interest in morbid anatomy from J. B. S.
Jackson, with whom he was a favorite assistant. This knowl-
edge and training were important factors in his life as a
teacher. He was the friend of students, and entered into
their life and studies with the enthusiasm of a junior; he was
appreciative of their endeavors, but the critic of their mis-
takes. The trustees of the Massachusetts General Hospital
wanted him for Visiting Physician and were glad to get him.
So too felt the Corporation of the University when they
elected him Professor of Clinical Medicine. Finally, when
his failing health made these duties impossible, the Corpora-
tion waited three years in the hope that his strength might
return and his labor be renewed. He died on December 14,
Calvin Ellis' method of instruction has been mentioned.
Here is a tribute; "Dr. Ellis while unravelling any case was
less brilliant than some other more fluent professors, and he
was called a little 'slow' and tedious, as some thought. But,
upon our arrival at Vienna, by comparing our method of grap-
pling with cases in the German Hospitals with the desultory
906 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
and imperfect examinations made by students of some noted
schools in other large cities of our country, we soon found that
we had been more thoroughly drilled than they. The result
was that we understood more quickly and fully than they did
all of the intricacies of a case." In his connection with the
Medical School, Ellis stood for higher education. In the
changes of 1870-71 he was known as a "conservative re-
former." He was slow and deliberate in coming to a decision,
but once he had decided that a certain course of action was
the best, no opposition could turn him. It is to this spirit
of determination that the younger members of the Medical
Faculty owe the victory won under his leadership.
As a practitioner Ellis was very eminent. He was vigorous,
kindly, firm, gentle. In the sick room all attention was for
the patient. He was straight-forward, and neither misrepre-
sented conditions nor encouraged false hope. His regard for
the rights and feelings of his associates made him the confi-
dant of many of his fellow practitioners. One grateful friend
said "He was simplicity incarnate, a medical saint." Ellis was
generous to poor folks and to deserving charities ; he gave
freely of his time and money, and helped many educational
undertakings also. When the new Medical Library needed
funds for a card catalogue, Ellis gave one thousand dollars,
and at his death he left one hundred and fifty thousand dollars
to the Medical School.*
* " All the residue and remainder of the said trust property my trustees,
in the event aforesaid, shall convey in fee-simple, transfer and pay over
to the said President and Fellows to hold the same as a permanent fund,
and apply the net rents and income thereof and of all substituted property;
in every year, after first deducting and accumulating in every year five
per centum of such net income as an increase of the fund towards paying
the salary of a professor of pathological anatomy. Provided, however,
that if such professor would receive in any one year, if the whole of the
said net income remaining after such deduction of five per centum were
paid to him, a salary of more than $5000 for such year, arising from
EMINENT ALUMNI 907
President Eliot in his report for 1883-84 pays the following
tribute to Ellis :
" Cautious, exact, conscientious, earnest and cheerful, he was one of the
best teachers of medicine the University has ever had. His daily example,
as a wise and high minded practitioner, and a kindly, honorable and
disinterested man, was of great worth to the students, for they saw that
these qualities were the foundation of his success as a physician, and of
his wholesome influence in the Hospital, the School and the Medical pro-
fession. He was Dean of the Medical School from 1869 to 1883, and in
this important office contributed with all his weight to the reform in
medical education which the Faculty effected within that period. Of his
strong faith in the beneficence of medical science he gave proof by leav-
ing large bequests for the promotion of that science at the University."
At a meeting of the Medical Faculty of Harvard Univer-
sity, held February 2, 1884, the following was adopted :
" For nearly a quarter of a century Dr. Calvin Ellis has been connected
with the Medical School of Harvard University. He had been recognized
as a student, as a young man of good promise, endowed not only with
superior abilities but with the sterling elements of character which enable
those who know the student to predict his future success with no mis-
gifts, legacies and other permanent endowments, (including the income
of this legacy) then, and in every such year, the amount paid him from
the income of this legacy shall be reduced so that the total income from
such sources shall be $5000 and no more. And if the income from gifts,
legacies, and other permanent endowments, exclusive of the income of
this legacy, shall amount in any year to $5000, then, and in every such
year, the income from this legacy shall be witheld altogether from
such professor. The amount so witheld, whether it be the whole or a part
of the net income, after deducting five per centum, shall be applied to
the salary of the professor of physiology, with the same provision and
limitations as those herein declared touching the salary of the professor
of pathological anatomy. And any amount in every such year still remain-
ing unapplied shall next be applied to the salary of the professor of
anatomy with the same provisions and limitations as arc herein declared
touching the salary of the two professors first named. And if the whole
or any part of such income still remains unexpended in any year, the
same shall be expended in such year for such purposes in the Medical
Department of the said College as the said President and Fellows shall
deem most useful."
908 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
" He began early his professional life, giving his especial attention to
the subject of morbid anatomy, following in the steps which had marked
the long and patient career of our lamented friend, the late Dr. J. B. S.
Jackson. This branch of science involves great labor and self sacrifice,
and repays them with an exact knowledge of the nature and course of
disease not to be obtained by any easier method of study. His devotion
to this arduous pursuit laid the foundation in science of the skill which
he carried into the art of healing, and of his success as a teacher of
pathology and clinical medicine.
" Dr. Ellis took an active and never flagging interest in all that related
to the administration of the Medical School of the University. He had a
special care for the microscopic department, which was largely developed
under his influence, and for the use of which he made a gift in 1872.
of five hundred dollars. From 1S69 to 1883 he was dean of the Medical
Faculty, and discharged all the duties of that office with the fidelity which
he carried into whatever he undertook. It is now several years since
he began to suffer from the disease which caused his death. Even after
this disease had greatly impaired his active powers he would still attend
the meetings of the Faculty and when at length he was missed from
his usual place those who knew him felt that he was doomed, for no
less than some imperative hindrance could keep him from being with
" His long period of suffering bravely borne has at last come to an
end, and he has left us to mourne the loss of a precious life cut off in
the midst of its usefulness. Of that diligent, faithful, honorable life this
Faculty has reaped some of the best fruits. His memory will alway
be gratefully cherished by those who have been associated with him in
the work of medical education, and they leave on record for those who
come after them this affectionate tribute to the virtues and talents of their
able, upright, noble-hearted colleague and friend."
Writings of Calvin Ellis.
1855. " Evidences of Arrest of Tuberculosis Disease in the Lungs."
Am. Journal of the Medical Sciences, Philadelphia.
1855. " Induration of the Brain in a Child." Am. Jour. Med. Sc,
1S55. "Glandular Proliferous Cyst. Disease of the Liver. Autopsy."
Am. Jour. Med. Sc, Philadelphia.
1856. " Inflammation and Abscesses of the Lung, caused by Closure of
the Primary Bronchus." Boston Med. and Surg. Jour.
1856. "Case of Suicide by Antimony." Boston Med. and Surg. Jour.
1857. "Remarkable Case of Extra-uterine Fnctation, coexisting with
Uterine Pregnancy." Boston Med. and Surg. Jour.
EMINENT ALUMNI 909
1858. " Case of Purpura simulating Rheumatism and Erysipelas." Bos-
ton M. & S. Jour.
i860. " Leucocythaemia." Boston Med. and Surg. Jour.
i860. " Two Cases of Malformation." Boston Med. and Surg. Jour.
i860. "On Tubercle." (Boylston Prize Essay.) Am. Jour. Med. Sc,
And the following, printed in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal :
1861. " Autopsy of a Case of Cerebral Disease without Cerebral Lesion."
1 861. " Softening of the Heart as a Cause of Sudden Death."
1861. " Obstinate Vomiting terminating in Death. Disease of Kidneys."
1861. " Two Cases of Leucocythaemia, in which Crystals formed in the
Blood after its Removal from the Body."
1863. " Case of Addison's Disease."
1864. " A Malformed Heart."
1864. Reports of Cases. Cerebro-spinal Meningitis, Typhoid Pneu-
monia, Disease of Heart, and Aorta ; Intestinal Hemorrhage. 1865. The
Action of Causes of Depression in the Production of Structural Change ;
the Pathological Anatomy of Pneumonia.
1865. " Congenital Tumors, containing Foetal Structures."
1865. " Spontaneous Laceration of the Aorta. Two Cases."
1865. " The Relations of Health and Disease." An Introductory Ad-
dress at the Harvard Medical School.
1866. " Spontaneous Evolution in Labor. (Curious Powers of Na-
1867. " Letter Explanatory of a Criticism on his ' Relations of Health
and Disease.' "
1869. " Letter from Berlin. Account of the Medical School there."
1870. " The Tendency of so-called Local Diseases to Generalization."
1871. "Vomiting as the Sole Prominent Symptom of Disease of the
1871. "Autopsy of a Double Monster (Ischiopagus Tripus)."
1874. "On a Case of Echinococcus Cyst." (Interesting as foreshadow-
ing his "Symptomatology.")
1874. " Ovarian Cyst."
1875. "Capillary Bronchitis of Adults." (In Am. Clin. Lect. Series.)
1876. " General Softening of the Brain, seldom seen as a Pathological
Condition ; never as a Clinical Disease."
1876. "The Curved Line of Pleuritic Effusion."
1877. "Constant Irrigation in a case of Chronic Cystitis."
1877. "The Point of Origin of the so-called 'Bronchial Respiration.'"
1877. "Ulcerative Endocarditis: Embolism of the Arteries of the
1878. "Osteomalacia in a Man."
910 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
1879. " Chest Expansion in Pleurisy."
1879. "Dilated Bronchi."
1879. " Probable Acute Nephritis."
1879. " Effusion of Blood into the Left Hemisphere and Lateral Ven-
1880. ' The Significance of Albuminuria as a Symptom."
1884. "Symptomatology." (An unfinished manuscript.)
RICHARD MANNING HODGES.
Richard M. Hodges was born at Bridgewater, Massachu-
setts, November 6, 1827. He was graduated from Harvard
College in 1847, an d received his M. D. at the Medical School
in 1850. After a course in midwifery at Dublin and a course
in anatomy and surgery at Paris he returned to Boston and
began the practice of medicine. Among Hodges' contem-
poraries in Paris were Calvin Ellis, C. D. Homans, J. Nelson
Borland and B. S. Shaw.
Hodges was appointed Demonstrator in Anatomy at the
Harvard School on September 24, 1853, and served for eight
years. O. W. Holmes was the Professor of Anatomy and
Physiology at the School in this period. The preparation of
material for the class was a matter of great personal pride to
Holmes. Every little detail was arranged with special care,
and nothing was left undone to present the subject-matter
properly and effectively. Hodges was fitted to meet the wishes
of his chief. He had an exceptional knowledge of anatomy,
and competent judges say that his dissections "were marvels
of beauty and skill." In the museum at the Medical School
are many handsome specimens of his handiwork, all finely
injected and colored by processes then quite new. About this
time Hodges was fortunate in winning the friendship of H.
J. Bigelow, then well established in his career. Bigelow's
extensive practice and the great demands made upon his time
by other labors gave Hodges many opportunities to find prac-
EMINENT ALUMNI 911
tice through the recommendations of his friend. This solid
endorsement had its effect, and he rose rapidly in the profes-
sion. With a natural, pleasing manner and a winning person-
ality which we know Hodges possessed, it does not seem like
an exaggeration to read that "as a fashionable and popular
physician he has rarely had an equal in Boston; and his de-
cided, sensible advice and warm sympathy made him a great
Bigelow found in Hodges an apt pupil, with an earnestness,
decision and self-confidence which appealed strongly to his
own nature. Upon the resignation of S. D. Townsend in
1863, Hodges was appointed Visiting Surgeon to the Massa-
chusetts General Hospital. There he was associated with
Cabot, Bigelow, Clark, Gay, and J. Mason Warren. He was
always the friend as well as the teacher of house-officers at the
Hospital, and many surgeons who in after years became dis-
tinguished owe much to the patient, careful oversight of their
old chief, Hodges. As an operator he was one of the best as
well as one of the neatest. He was well grounded in anatomy,
schooled under one of America's greatest surgeons, and pos-
sessed of broad, scientific views. His writings upon excision
of joints, upon spiroidal fractures and upon other surgical
conditions, became authoritative. He was the first to point
out the frequency of a sinus in the sacro-coccygeal region, to
which he gave the name "Pilo-nidal sinus" from its hairy
contents and nest-like shape.
Hodges was elected Adjunct Professor of Surgery on Jan-
uary 27, 1866, and proved himself of great assistance to Bige-
low, who was then perfecting his well known demonstration of
the Y ligament and its bearing cm hip dislocations. Teaching
did not appeal especially to Hodges, whose nervous tempera-
ment made each course of lectures more laborious, so he re-
signed on July 10th, 1872. He continued his services, how-
ever, at the Hospital until [885, when lie resigned. The loss
912 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
to the hospital was expressed upon a later occasion by the
Trustees in the following terms :
" Wise in council, energetic and efficient in action, clearheaded, skilful,
manly and sympathetic, Dr. Hodges combined to an unusual degree the
qualities essential to the model surgeon. Through them he rapidly attained
a leading position among the surgeons of New England, second only to
that of his esteemed and illustrious colleague with whose name his own
was usually coupled. A successful and experienced teacher, the import-
ance of his example and of his services to the Hospital in the training