Medical Jurisprudence; and the resignation, December 30,
1854, of Jacob Bigelow as Professor of Materia Medica in
the University and Lecturer in Clinical Medicine, "which I
hold by a separate vote of the Corporation". At this same
meeting (December 30, 1854) Edward Hammond Clarke was
elected Professor of Materia Medica, and it was voted that
a Professorship of Clinical Medicine be established in place
of the present Lectureship.* George Cheyne Shattuck was
thereupon elected Professor of Clinical Medicine.
O. W. Holmes resigned March 26, 1853, his Deanship of
the Medical School, and J. B. S. Jackson was elected to that
* The Professorship of Clinical Medicine, created for James Jackson
in 1810, had never been abolished, but was allowed to become a Lectureship
when Jackson was elected Mersey Professor in 1812.
522 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
office. The commotion occasioned at this period (1850) by
the admission of colored students to the school, as well as
by a vote of the Corporation "that this Board, if the Medical
Faculty deem it expedient, perceive no objection arising from
the Statutes of the Medical School to admitting female stu-
dents to their lectures, expressing hereby no opinion as to
the claim of such students to a medical degree" was settled
by one Harriot K. Hunt's withdrawing her request for the ad-
mission of women to Medical Lectures. The faculty, how-
ever, refused their consent to a protest of the students against
The title "Professorship of Pathological Anatomy" was
changed (October 15, 1853) to "The Shattuck Professorship
of Morbid Anatomy". This was in consequence of the fol-
lowing bequest :
" Boston, Aug. 30, 1853.
"Hon. Samuel A. Eliot,
" Treasurer Harvard University :
" My dear Sir : Through you I beg leave to offer to the Trustees for
their acceptance seven shares of the Stark Mills at Manchester, N. H.,
and seven shares in the Atlantic Cotton Mills at Lawrence, Mass., as a
contribution towards sustaining the Chair of Pathological Anatomy in
the Massachusetts Medical College, an appendage of Harvard University,
nevertheless on the following conditions. That the income only on said
shares be paid to the encumbant as received, and in case of vacancy the
income during the vacancy be added to the principal to increase the salary
of the Professor, also that the Trustees have the approbation of the con-
tributor to change the investment provided the financial committee deem
a change expedient or for a more equable salary to the incumbent.
" That Harvard may ever come up to the wants of the people by furnish-
ing the means for their instruction is the earnest desire of her humble
" (Signed) Geo. C. Shattuck."
" Voted. That the Corporation receive with grateful respect this dona-
tion from a valued member of a profession of such importance in the
community, and responding cordially to the wishes of the giver will
* The first two colored medical students were admitted in 1850. These
two were destined for missionary work in Liberia.
A. B. 1831; A. M.: M. I). 1835.
Professor Clinical Medicine 1855-1859
llersey Professor Theory and Practice 1859-1874.
Dean of Medical School 1864-1869.
NORTH GROVE STREET BUILDING 523
carefully endeavor to conform to his views in maintaining the Professor-
" They look with peculiar satisfaction at this donation from one who
has attained so prominent a position in his profession and who is an
honored alumnus of another college."
Here is the interesting- manner of deciding upon medical
degrees, as late as 1854. The Professors assembled in the
Museum, and seven candidates were introduced, one for each
Professor. After an examination of five minutes, at a given
signal, every candidate moved on to the next Professor, and
so on until each applicant had been examined in every depart-
ment. A five minutes examination on his dissertation fol-
lowed. Then a ballot was taken, three negative votes rejected,
â€” the vote of rejection being subject to revision on the mo-
tion of any Professor. A rejected candidate could not be
examined until the next semi-annual examination.
Early in 1854 (Jan. 21) the Corporation voted: That here-
after no person shall receive the diploma of Doctor in Medi-
cine until it has been approved by the Overseers of the Col-
lege, and that this vote be communicated to the Dean of the
Medical Faculty. A committee was appointed to devise and
report a suitable method of conferring Medical Degrees in
due form upon those entitled to them at the close of Medi-
cal lectures each year. At the next meeting (January 28, 1854)
of the Medical Faculty it was recommended that "the two
examinations now held be dispensed with, and that an annual
examination be held at or near the termination of the course
of Lectures to which all candidates shall be admitted who
have studied three years, or who, being graduated at a col-
lege in good standing, will have completed three years from
the time of their graduation at the next Commencement, pro-
vided they bring evidence of having attended while under-
graduates, satisfactory courses of instruction in Anatomy and
Physiology, and in Chemistry". A discussion of the expedi-
524 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
ency of abolishing oral examinations and substituting printed
questions requiring written answers was referred to a com-
mittee instructed to revise the statutes of the Medical School.
The manner of granting degrees was accordingly adopted to
follow this plan : â€”
The President was to confer the Degrees at the Medical
College in Boston in the presence of the Corporation and
Board of Overseers, and the Medical Faculty. The Profes-
sors were to hold a meeting for this purpose as early as pos-
sible after the Degrees had been voted by the Corporation and
Overseers, at which meeting one of the Medical Professors,
selected for the purpose, was to deliver an address to the can-
didates. These exercises were to be public.
This programme was carried out in March, 1855, for the
first time, and was as follows :
" 1. A prayer â€” with the approbation of President Walker.
" 2. Selection from Dissertations by the Graduates, time limit three-
quarters of an hour.
"3. Address by Professor Cooke (Prof. Storer having declined), time
limit, one-half hour.
"4. Degrees conferred by President Walker. (Thirty-three graduates.)
" 5. Benediction, with I he approbation of the President."
New statutes were adopted in 1854. Among the changes
was the institution of a single examination for the Degree, in
March of each year. These statutes were revised in January,
1856, and the plan of holding two meetings each year for
the purpose of examining candidates was adopted, while three
jears of study under a regular practitioner of medicine were
required. Morbid Anatomy and Clinical Medicine were
added to the requirements for a degree. Both sets of Stat-
utes follow :
"Rules and Statutes of the Mudical School in Harvard University.
"Article I. The Faculty of Medicine of this University shall consist
of the President, and of the Professors and Lecturers authorized to give
instruction to the Medical Students.
NORTH GROVE STREET BUILDING 525
" The Faculty shall always have a Dean elected hy themselves for such
periods as they may think proper, and may also adopt rules for their own
government, provided that the same do not in any respect contravene the
laws of the University.
" Article II. Students of Medicine designing to attend the Medical
Lectures or any of them, shall he matriculated in the University by enter-
ing their names with the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, to be enrolled
by him, and by signing an obligation to submit to the laws of the Uni-
versity, and to the direction of the Faculty of Medicine.
" Article III. There shall be holden by the Faculty an annual meeting
for the purpose of examining candidates for the degree of Doctor of
Medicine. This should be holden in the Massachusetts Medical Col-
lege unless otherwise specially ordered. It may be continued by ad-
journment, by vote of the members present, and if only one member attend
at the time and place designated he may adjourn the meeting from day
to day till three members of the Faculty may attend the meeting. Three
members of the Faculty must be present at every examination.
" Article IV. The annual meeting for examination shall be holden on
the day next succeeding that on which the Winter course of Medical Lec-
tures shall terminate, at ten o'clock A. M. In extraordinary cases the
Faculty may hold meetings for examinations at other periods.
" Article V. Every candidate for the degree of Doctor in Medicine
must comply with the following conditions before being admitted to
examinations, viz. :
" ist. He shall satisfy the Faculty that he has arrived at the age of
" 2nd. He shall have attended two courses of Lectures delivered at the
Massachusetts Medical College by each of the Professors; except that
he have attended a course of similar lectures in any other College or
University the same may take place of one of the above courses.
'* 3rd. He shall have employed three years in his professional study
under the direction of a regular practitioner of medicine except that
Graduates of College in good standing who will have completed three
years of study from the time of their Graduation at the next annual
Commencement, may be admitted to examinations, provided they bring
evidence of having attended, while undergraduates, satisfactory courses of
instruction in Anatomy, Physiology, and Chemistry.
"4th. If he has not received a University education he shall satisfy
the Faculty of Medicine in respect to his knowledge of the Latin language
and experimental philosophy.
" 5th. He shall, four weeks previous to the day on which he presents
himself for examination, have given notice of his intention n> the Dean
of the Faculty, and at the same time shall have delivered or transmitted
526 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
to the Dean a dissertation written by himself on some subject connected
"Article VI. Every dissertation shall be submitted by the Dean to the
examination of the Faculty in the mode which they shall point out.
" Article VII. At a meeting for examinations, the Faculty shall exam-
ine all those candidates who shall present themselves after having com-
plied with the conditions enumerated in the fifth of these statutes upon
the following branches of medical science, namely : Anatomy, Physiology,
Chemistry, Materia Medica, Pharmacy, Surgery, and the Theory and
Practice of Medicine. A decision in respect to each candidate shall be
determined by the vote of the major part of the members of the Faculty
present at the examination of the same, and their decision, if favorable
to the candidate, shall be recorded by the Dean. In the decision to be
made at these meetings regard should be had to the dissertation as well
as to the examination.
" Article VIII. At the close of the examination the Faculty shall decide
in respect to each candidate whether he shall be recommended as worthy
of the degree for which he has applied. The decision of the Faculty in
respect to all these candidates, whom they do so recommend, shall be
recorded by the Dean, and shall by him be certified to the President, to
be laid before the Senatus Academicus.
" Article IX. Those candidates who have received from the Senatus
Academicus the final approbation shall be admitted to the degree of Doctor
in Medicine by the President of the University at a public Commencement
holden at the Massachusetts Medical College on the Wednesday next
succeeding the day of the examinations, on which occasion an address
shall be made by one of the Medical Professors, selected for this purpose
by the Medical Faculty.
" Public invitation to attend the ceremony shall be given by the Dean
of the Medical Faculty to the Fellows of the Massachusetts Medical
Society, to all medical students, and to every person who may take an
interest in medical science.
"All which is respectfully submitted
" James Walker."
"June 3, 1854."
The foregoing Rules and Statutes were revised January 26,
1856, with the following alterations:
" Article III. To read : There shall be holden by the Faculty two
meetings in each year for the purpose of examining candidates for the
degree of Doctor in Medicine. These shall be holden in the Massachusetts
Medical College unless otherwise specially ordered. They may be con-
tinued by adjournment, by vote of the members present, and if only one
NORTH GROVE STREET BUILDING 527
member attend at the time and place designated he may adjourn the meet-
ing from day to day till three members of the Faculty may attend the
meeting. Three members of the Faculty must be present at every exam-
"Art. IV. To read: The first meeting for examination shall be held
on the day next succeeding that on which the winter courses end. The
second, on Monday next but one preceeding the Commencement in July.
In extraordinary cases the Faculty may hold meetings for examination at
"Art. V. 3rd condition to read: He shall have employed three years
in his professional studies under the direction of a regular practitioner of
" Art. VII. To read : At the meeting the Faculty shall
examine all those candidates .... upon the following branches of
medical science : Anatomy, Physiology, Morbid Anatomy, Chemistry,
Materia Medica, Pharmacy, Surgery, Clinical Medicine, and the Theory
and Practice of Medicine. A decision, etc as
well as to the examination.
" Art. IX. To read : Those candidates who have at the Spring exam-
ination received from the Senatus Academicus, etc
On which occasion an address shall be made by some one selected for
this purpose by the Medical Faculty.
' Those who may be approved at the summer examination will receive
their degree in Cambridge on Commencement day.
" Public invitation, etc "
APPENDIX, CHAPTER XXI.
" To The President of Harvard University.
" Dear Sir,â€”
' The Collection of Anatomical Preparations, which I have with much
interest and pleasure been making since the year 1800, is now deposited
in the room prepared for it in the Medical College, in Grove Street, Boston.
It occupies the entire room, except about one-third of the gallery.
" My long connection with the University, my interest in its prosperity,
and my desire to contribute to the improvement of medical education,
led me many years since to make a provision for bequeathing it to the
University; but, it having pleased Him who gave me existence to continue
it to this time, I am enabled to present it during my life.
" This Collection I now propose to give to the University at Cam
bridge, for the use of the Medical College, together with five thousand
dollars of slock in the Pittsfield and North Adams Railroad, â€” guaranteed
528 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
by the Western Railroad to pay an interest of six per cent., or three
hundred dollars per annum, tor thirty years, â€” on the following con-
ditions : â€”
" First, The Collection shall be kept insured perpetually for a sum not
less than ten thousand dollars. In case of loss, the sum recovered from
the insurance to be applied to forming another collection for purposes
similar to those for which this is intended.
"Second, The Preparations shall be maintained in good order, and
shall be increased as fast as the income of the funds will admit ; mean-
ing, that the income shall be applied to this object after paying the
insurance before named.
" Third, That this Anatomical Museum shall be annually inspected, as
are other collections in the University, by a committee appointed for the
purpose, of which one of my descendants shall be a member, provided
there be such descendant residing in the vicinity and willing to attend
to the duty.
" Should it please the Government of the University to accept the pro-
posed donation with the foregoing conditions, I will cause the stock to
be transferred to them on the first day of January next.
" I have the honor to be, respectfully,
" Your friend and servant,
"John C. Warren."
"Boston, Dec. 16, 1847."
"History of the Anatomical Collection Deposited in the Massachu-
setts Medical College in Boston, November ist, 1847.
" The importance of illustrating the structure of the human body by
preparations displaying the different organs has been well understood
in Europe for more than a century. While pursuing my medical studies
in London, in the years 1799 and 1800, 1 learnt the mode of making these
preparations, and, with the hope of aiding my predecessor in his lectures,
formed a small collection, which I brought home about the end of 1802.
In the beginning of these labors I had the assistance of my friend, Mr.
Senter, of Newport, at that time a fellow-student in Guy's Hospital, and.
with myself, the only person engaged in this way in that great institu-
tion. After a short and brilliant career, Senter died, and I purchased
his collection from his heirs.
"In 1809, three years after being appointed Adjunct Professor, my
predecessor in office and myself formed an Anatomical Theatre and a
Dissecting-room at No. 49 Marlboro' Street. At that time being able
to obtain a considerable number of subjects, I had great opportunities
for prosecuting this labor, and by the year 1816, when we removed to the
Medical College in Mason Street, the number of preparations was suffi-
cient to occupy a room in that building.
NORTH GROVE STREET BUILDING 529
" The Medical School increasing gradually, I was encouraged to pur-
chase preparations occasionally, at the same time occupying myself, and
such students as exhibited the necessary talent and industry, in increasing
the collection. Some specimens belonging to the Linnaean Society, and
given, on its dissolution, to Harvard College, were deposited with me
for preservation. Most of these were sent to the Museum at Cambridge,
but some of them I received authority to add to the Museum in the
Massachusetts Medical College. In 1830 my son, Dr. J. Mason Warren,
purchased in Paris preparations to the amount of two thousand dollars.
'"By the year 1834. the collection had so much increased as to require
additional room. On representing this to the late Treasurer, T. VV. Ward,
Esq., that gentleman applied to the Corporation, and it was settled, that,
1 n my paying the sum of one thousand dollars, the Corporation would
appropriate as much, for the erection of a new dissecting-room, and the
arrangement of the old one for the anatomical collection.
" Soon after this, going to Europe, I made large purchases in different
cities ; particularly, I had specially prepared at the Hospital St. Louis
a number of wax pieces, exhibiting lively representations of the small-pox,
and other diseases of the skin.
'' I ought not to omit to mention the names of those who have from
time to time assisted in my labors. In the incipient state of the collection,
great assistance was given me by Dr. William Gamage, Jr., of Cambridge,
an able anatomist and learned physician. Drs. Winslow Lewis, J. Mason
Warren, Jeffries Wymnn, and Samuel Parlcman have afforded much time
and valuable aid. I am also indebted for occasional donations, among
others, to Dr. James Jackson. Professors Channing, Hayward, Webster,
and J. B. S. Jackson, Drs. A. L. Peirson and Winslow Lewis.
"The preparations brought home in the year 1838, and a large number
purchased by Dr. J. M. Warren, at the expense of about one thousand
dollars, on his second visit to Europe, increased the collection so much
that it began to be an object of curiosity to medical students and other-,
and a desire was manifested of having the collection opened to the Medical
School. President Quincy applied to me on the subject, and expressed a
wish that this desire should be gratified. On investigation, however, he
and other gentlemen of the Government of the University were satisfied
that the exposed state of the preparations would render this object!
able, without some additional protection. But the Corporation did nol
think themselves justified in appropriating anything for this object. Not-
withstanding the wan* of security to the preparations, the desire mani-
fested by medical -indents to see the collection as a whole was so Strong,
that, some years since. I adopted the practice of admitting the Class
''The increase in the number of students, and the defective accomnr
dation of some of the Professors, having led to thi truction of the
530 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
new College, a spacious and elegant room was appropriated to the recep-
tion of the Anatomical Cabinet, in which the collection could be fairly
displayed, and sufficiently protected; thus affording the requisite means
for opening the new Museum to the inspection of medical students and
others interested in medical science. The preparations have been accord-
ingly deposited there, and presented to the University for the use of the
Medical School. .<j 0HN c Warren."
" The foregoing communication from Dr. Warren having been sub-
mitted to the Corporation by the President, on the 27th December, the
following resolutions were adopted by the Board :
" Voted, That the Corporation receive with great sensibility this new
and distinguished proof of the enlightened interest taken by Dr. Warren
in the prosperity of the Medical College ; that they accept with gratitude
his munificent donation on the conditions proposed in his letter to the
President, of the 16th instant, and will also recommend to the Overseers
to give effect to the same, in appointing the committees of examination.
" Voted, That in commemoration of the liberality evinced by Dr. War-
ren in this donation, and of the zealous, long-continued, and faithful
services of himself and his honored father for the promotion of medical
education, the collection of anatomical preparations now presented by Dr.
Warren to the President and Fellows be known and designated as the
' Warren Anatomical Museum,' and that this name be placed in gold letters
over the door of entrance to the Museum."
MEN AND MANNERS, CHARLES W. ELIOT,
THE SUMMER SCHOOL,
THE TEACHING STAFF THIRTY-FIVE YEARS AGO,
AN EXECUTIVE FACULTY,
THE BEGINNING OF A NEW ERA,
18^ TO 1871.
MEN AND MANNERS 533
MEN AND MANNERS. CHARLES W. ELIOT. THE SUMMER
SCHOOL. THE TEACHING STAFF THIRTY-FIVE YEARS
AGO. AN EXECUTIVE FACULTY. THE
BEGINNING OF A NEW ERA.
1855 to 1871.
The Faculty made an arrangement with Henry I. Bowditch
(May 25th, 1855) by which the students might be admitted for
Clinical Instruction to his wards at the Massachusetts General
Hospital. They also arranged with John Bacon that as
microscopist of the Hospital he should make microscopic dem-
onstrations to students of the specimens of cases which came
under his notice.
Extensive repairs were begun on the Medical School Build-
ing in [855, repairs which the College Treasurer was author-
ized to pay, "not exceeding $2000; provided the Faculty of
the department of the University shall obligate themselves to
pay so long as they continue in office the interest on the
sum thus advanced by the President and Fellows, and also
five percentum of the principal sum each year".
The principal changes in the workings of the School dur-
ing the year 1856 and '57 were, the releasing (Sept. 27, [856)
of the Erving Professor of Chemistry, at his own request
and agreeable to the wishes of the Medical Faculty, from de-
livering lectures at the Medical College in Boston: and the
appointment (Oct. 25, 1856) of Dr. John Bacon and Mr.
Charles W. Eliot* as Lecturers in Chemistry in the Medical
* Now President nf the University, 1005.
534 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
School for that year. On September 27, 1856, Morrill Wy-
man resigned as Adjunct Hersey Professor of Theory and
Practice. On November 15, 1856, Austin Flint (M.D. Harv.
1833) was appointed "to deliver such of the lectures on Theory
and Practice of Medicine as may be agreed upon between
him and Dr. Ware''. Flint found Buffalo more attractive, and
never took up his duties in Boston.
Candidates for degrees were now allowed ten minutes each
for examination, their theses to make a part of said examina-
tion. A surgical conference at the Hospital was added in
The following letter from Thomas Lee explains itself :
irr . â€ž. "Boston, November 15, 1856.
" T herewith hand you eleven shares of the Atlantic Cotton Mills
and eleven shares of the Great Falls Manufacturing Company, which are