other school in the country. Ellis was assisted by Dean.
Many students of the North Grove Street School remember
this little room in the basement of the building and to the left
of the steps as one entered. The two branches, Histology and
Pathology, remained united under the same teachers until
about 1882. Students also had the advantage of J. C. White's
clinic on Diseases of the Skin at the Out-patient Department
of the Massachusetts General Hospital.
The organization of the School at the close of the Civil
War was as follows :
COURSE OF INSTRUCTION FOR THE YEAR 1865-66.
Lecture Term. Nov. t. 1865, to Fed. 28, 1866.
Anatomy and Physiology, Professor Holmes, Monday. Tuesday, Wed-
nesday, Thursday and Friday, at 1 o'clock.
546 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
Surgery, Professor Bigelow, Monday, Tuesday and Thursday, at n
o'clock, at the Medical College; Saturday at 10 o'clock, at the Massa-
chusetts General Hospital.
Obstetrics, Professor Storer, Monday at 10 o'clock ; Wednesday and
Friday, at 12 o'clock.
Pathological Anatomy, Professor Jackson, Monday at 12 o'clock; Tues-
day, at 9 o'clock.
Chemistry, Professor Bacon, at the Massachusetts Medical College.
Tuesday and Thursday, at 12 o'clock.
Materia Medica, Professor Clarke, Monday at 9 o'clock ; Tuesday and
Saturday, at 8 o'clock.
Clinical Medicine, Professors Bowditch and Ellis, at the Massachusetts
General Hospital, Monday and Thursday at 8 o'clock, and Tuesday at 4
o'clock; at the Massachusetts Medical College, Thursday at 10 o'clock,
and Saturday at 9 o'clock.
Theory and Practice of Physic, Professors Shattuck and Buckingham,
Tuesday at 10 o'clock, and Wednesday at 3^4 o'clock ; Monday at 4
o'clock, at the Massachusetts Medical College; Monday and Thursday
at 8 o'clock, at the Massachusetts General Plospital ; Friday, at 10 o'clock,
at the City Hospital.
Anatomy, Dr. D. W. Cheever, Monday and Thursday at 5 o'clock ;
Wednesday and Friday, at 5 o'clock, at the Dissecting-room.
Clinical Chemistry, Dr. J. C. White, Thursday, at 8^4 o'clock, at the
Massachusetts General Hospital.
Clinical Medicine, Doctors S. L. Abbot and R. M. Hodges, Tuesday, at
4 o'clock, at the Massachusetts General Plospital.
Psychological Medicine, Dr. J. E. Tyler, Thursday, at ^A o'clock.
Massachusetts General Hospital.â€” Monday and Thursday, at 8 o'clock;
Wednesday and Saturday at 10 o'clock. City Hospital. â€” Wednesday at
9 o'clock. Ophthalmic Clinic; 10 o'clock, Surgical Visit; 11 o'clock, Opera-
tions ; Friday, at 8 o'clock, Medical Visit ; 9 o'clock, Medical Lecture ;
10 o'clock, Surgical Clinic. Dispensary, â€” Wednesday and Friday, at 9
Spring Term, Monday, March 12, to Monday, June ii, 1866.
Anatomy and Physiology, Professor Holmes and Dr. D. W. Cheever,
Tuesday and Friday, at 4 o'clock; 5 o'clock, daily, March and April, in
Pathological Anatomy, Professor Ellis. Thursday and Satin day, at 8
MEN AND MANNERS 547
Obstetrics, Professor Siorer and Dr. H. R. Storer, Monday and Thurs-
day, at 12 o'clock.
Surgery, Professor Bigelow and Dr. R. M. Hodges, Tuesday and Fri-
day, at 12 o'clock.
Theory and Practice of Physic. Dr. F. Minot, Monday and Thursday,
at 9 o'clock.
Massachusetts General Hospital, daily, at 9 o'clock. City Hospital,
Wednesday and Friday, at 9 o'clock; Clinical Lecture on Surgery, by
Dr. D. W. Cheever, Friday, at 10 o'clock. Dispensary. Tuesday, Wednes-
day, and Friday, at 9 o'clock. Marine Hospital at Chelsea, Wednesday
at 9 o'clock. Eye and Ear Infirmary, Thursday, at 11 o'clock.
LECTURES AT CAMBRIDGE.
On the Mutual Relations of Science, by President Hill, Tuesday, at
11 o'clock; on Botany, by Professor Gray, Tuesday and Thursday, at 10
o'clock ; on Natural Philosophy, by Professor Lovering, at No. 2 Univer-
sity Hall, Tuesday, at it o'clock; at the Museum of Comparative Zoology,
by Professor Agassiz, Wednesday, at 3 o'clock, and Saturday at 10
o'clock; Rumford Lectures on Heat, by Professor Gibbs, Tuesday at
"Summer Term, Monday, June n, to Saturday, July 14, 1866."
Theory and Practice, Professors Shattuck and Buckingham, Monday
and Thursday, at 9 o'clock, at the Massachusetts General Hospital ; Tues-
day and Friday, at 12 o'clock, at the Medical College.
Chemistry, Professor Bacon and Dr. White, Monday and Thursday,
at 12 o'clock.
Materia Medica, Professors Clarke and Dr. F. E. Oliver, Monday and
Thursday, at 4 o'clock.
Clinical Medicine, Professors Bowditch and Ellis, and Drs. Abbot and
Sinclair. Wednesday, at 4V2 o'clock, and Saturday, at 9 o'clock.
Clinical Surgery, Dr. Hodges. Thursday, at 11 o'clock.
Massachusetts General Hospital, daily at 9 o'clock; City Hospital.
Wednesday and Friday, at 9 o'clock; Marine Hospital, Chelsea. Wednes-
day at 9 o'clock; Eye and Ear Infirmary, Thursday, at 11 o'clock; Boston
Dispensary, luesday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 9 o'clock.
Lectures at No. 2 University Hall, Cambridge, on Natural Philosophy,
by Professor Lovering, Tuesday and Thursday, at 12 o'clock.
Autumn Term, September 13. to November 4. 1866.
Anatomy and Physiology, Tuesday and Friday, at 4 o'clock; Monday,
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, at 5 o'clock.
548 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
Theory and Fractice, Monday and Thursday, at Massachusetts General
Hospital, at g o'clock; Tuesday and Friday, at the Medical College, at
Chemistry, Monday and Thursday, at 12 o'clock.
Materia Medica, Monday and Thursday, at 4 o'clock.
Clinical Medicine, Wednesday, at 4^ P. M., and Saturday at A. M.
Massachusetts General Hospital, daily, at 9 o'clock ; City Hospital.
Wednesday and Friday, at 9 o'clock ; Marine Flospital, Chelsea, Wednes-
day, at 9 o'clock; Eye and Ear Infirmary, Thursday at 11 o'clock; Boston
Dispensary, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 9 o'clock ; Prof. Wyman,
Anatomy, Boylston Hall, Cambridge, Tuesday and Thursday, at 11 o'clock.
Lectures on Microscope, by Professor Holmes."
The Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and the United
States Marine Hospital at Chelsea were both open to' stu-
dents in Medicine. Six house pupils at the Massachusetts
General, and five at the City Hospital were appointed an-
On March 13, 1867. the title of the "Professorship of the
Physiology and Pathology of the Nervous System" was
altered to "Professorship of Physiology and Pathology". On
August 31, 1867, Henry I. Bowditch resigned the Jackson
Professorship of Clinical Medicine, and on September 28th
Calvin Ellis was chosen to fill the vacancy. Other Faculty
changes at this period were the resignation of Brown-Sequard
December 28, 1867 ; the resignation of D. W. Cheever as
Assistant Professor of Anatomy (January 5, 1868) and his
appointment as Adjunct Professor of Clinical Surgery; the
resignation of D. H. Storer as Professor of Obstetrics (July
15, 1868); the election of Charles E. Buckingham as Pro-
fessor of Obstetrics and Medical Jurisprudence; and the ap-
pointment, October 27. 1868, of the following' University Lec-
turers:* On Opthahnology, Henry W. Williams, reappoint-
ment 1866-71 ; on Hygiene, George Derby, reappointment
* University Lectures had been reestablished January 31, 1863.
MEN AND MANNERS . r ,49
1867-71; on Tumors, Algernon Coolidge; on Psychological
Medicine and Jurisprudence, John E. Tyler, reappointment
At the meeting of the Corporation November 21, 1868, the
following appointments were made :* Francis Minot, In-
structor in Theory and Practice; J. Nelson Borland, Instruc-
tor in Clinical Medicine ; John P. Reynolds, Instructor in Ob-
stetrics and Medical Jurisprudence; Fitch E. Oliver, Instruc-
tor in Materia Medica ; Algernon Coolidge, Instructor in
On February 27, 1869, George C. Shattuck resigned the
Deanship, and Calvin Ellis was established as his successor.
These various changes resulted in the following teaching
corps of 1869: Calvin Ellis, Dean, Professor of Clinical
Medicine; J. B. S. Jackson, Shattuck Professor of Morbid
Anatomy; O. W. Holmes, Parkman Professor of Anatomy
and Physiology ; George C. Shattuck, Hersey Professor of
Theory and Practice; Jeffries Wyman, Hersey Professor of
Anatomy; H. J. Bigelow, Professor of Surgery; John Bacon,
Professor of Chemistry; Chas. E. Buckingham, Professor of
Obstetrics and Medical Jurisprudence ; E. H. Clarke, Profes-
sor of Materia Medica ; R. M. Hodges, Adjunct Professor of
Surgery; James C. White, Adjunct Professor of Chemistry;
David W. Cheever, Adjunct Professor of Clinical Surgery;
Josiah Stickney Lombard, Assistant Professor of Physiology.
Instructors: John P. Reynolds, in Obstetrics and Medical
Jurisprudence; Fitch E. Oliver, in Materia Medica; Francis
Minot, in Theory and Practice; J. Nelson Borland, in Clinical
Medicine; Charles B. Porter, Demonstrator of Anatomy:
Henry H. A. Beach, Assistant Demonstrator of Anatomy.
From such a list it may be seen that the School had reached
a considerable size. In fact, the point frequently was raised,
* The Quinquennial dates refer to Overseers' confirmations of appoint-
550 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
at the meeting's of the Faculty, whether the number of lec-
tures had not already gone beyond the capacity of any one
student. It was a vexed question whether an alteration in
the time of beginning the lectures or in the length of the term
was the more feasible. Two committees were appointed, one
to consider the question of a new building, and the other the
course of studies. Upon the recommendation of the latter
committee it was voted (March 22, 1867) that the Faculty
deem it expedient to omit a part of the regular subjects of the
winter course, and teach them in the summer instead ; that
it is inexpedient to lengthen the winter course ; that no teach-
ing from text books or by recitation shall be given at the
hospital, nor, in fact, any other instruction than that grow-
ing out of cases under observation; that no special charges
shall be made for special courses by those already belonging
to the Faculty, the department of Chemistry excepted; that
the present fees be not increased ; that the graduate's fees
be increased to thirty dollars ; that the matriculation fee be in-
creased to five dollars ; that the winter exercises shall begin at
8 A. M. and end at 8 P. M., divided as follows: 8 A. M. to
2 P. M. ; 3 130 P. M. to 6 P. M. ; 7 P. M. to 8 P. M. ; that
twenty morning hours during each week be assigned to Col-
lege lectures, fifteen morning hours to hospital and clinical
instruction, and eight hours to college exercises, thus : In the
morning: Anatomy and Physiology, five hours; Physiology
and Pathology, two hours; Surgery, three hours; Clinical
Surgery, one hour; Materia Medica, three hours; Chemistry,
two hours; Obstetrics, three hours: Pathological Anatomy,
one hour; and in the afternoon: Pathological Anatomy, one
hour; Theory and Practice, four hours; Clinical Medicine,
three hours. Massachusetts General Hospital, Medicine two
hours, Surgery four hours. City Hospital, Medicine three
hours; Surgery, four hours.
It was not thought necessary to increase the number of the
MEN AND MANNERS 551
Faculty. The Summer School was divided : Anatomy and
Physiology, Holmes, Cheever and Porter; Physiology and
Pathology, Brown-Sequard ; Surgery and Clinical Surgery,
Bigelow and Hodges ; Chemistry, Bacon and White ; Theory
and Practice, Shattuck, Buckingham, Tyler and Minot; Ob-
stetrics, Storer and Abbot; Pathological Anatomy, J. B. S.
Jackson and Ellis; Materia Medica, Clarke and F. E. Oliver;
Comparative Anatomy, J. Wyman ; Clinical Medicine, Bow-
ditch, Ellis, White, Minot, Abbot, Borland, Reynolds and H.
K. Oliver; Ophthalmology, Williams.
The proceeds of the Summer School were to be divided
among the departments enumerated, in which any instruction
The trustees of the Massachusetts General Hospital con-
sidered the advisability of charging each student attending
the hospital a fee of five dollars. This the Faculty deemed
unwise, and their view prevailed. It soon became evident that
if the teaching corps was to go on increasing in number, the
management of the school must be separated from the teach-
ing Faculty. This led to the request that the President and
Fellows so modify the existing statutes of the School as to
provide an executive Faculty to consist of the professors in
the following departments : Anatomy, Chemistry, Theory
and Practice, Materia Medica, Obstetrics, Pathological Anat-
omy ; it being understood that the existing Faculty should
not be disturbed. This led to the adoption of the following
Statutes ok the Medical School.
" The government of the Medical School shall be administered by
an Executive Faculty, consisting of the President of the University and
the Professors now members of the Faculty of the School : but as the
present incumbents cease to hold office, the number of members shall be
reduced to eight, and those members, (excepting the President, who shall
be a member ex officio,) shall all be Professors in the Medical School,
designated for that purpose by the Corporation. The Executive Faculty
552 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
shall have a Dean elected by themselves for such periods as may be deter-
mined with the consent of the Corporation, and may also adopt rules for
their own government and for that of the School, provided the same do
not contravene the laws of the University.
"The Professors, Adjunct Professors, Special Professors, Assistant
Professors, and Instructors for the time being, shall constitute the Faculty
of Instruction, which shall be charged with the instruction of the
students, under the direction of the Executive Faculty.
"The Instructors shall be appointed annually, in September; the
Adjunct Professors shall hold office during the term of the Professor to
whom they are severally attached. The Special Professors and Assistant
Professors shall hold office for five years. The Professors shall alone be
eligible to the Executive F?.culty.
" Students of Medicine designing to attend the medical lectures, or
any of them, shall be matriculated in the University, by entering their
names with the Dean of the Executive Faculty, to be enrolled by him,
and by signing an obligation to submit to the laws of the University, and
to the direction of the Faculty of Medicine.
" There shall be holden by the Executive Faculty two meetings in
each year, for the purpose of examining candidates for the degree of
Doctor in Medicine. These shall be holden in the Massachusetts Medical
College, unless otherwise specially ordered. They may be continued by
adjournment by vote of the members present, and if only one member
attend at the time and place designated, he may adjourn the meeting from
day to day till three members of this Faculty attend the meeting. Three
members of this Faculty must be present at every examination. The first
meeting for examination shall be held on the day next succeeding that
on which the winter session ends ; the second on the Monday next but
one preceeding the Commencement in July. In extraordinary cases the
Faculty may hold meetings for examination at other times.
" Every candidate for the Degree of Doctor in Medicine must comply
with the following conditions before being admitted to examination :
" I. He shall satisfy the Executive Faculty that he is of good moral
character, and has arrived at the age of twenty-one.
" 2. He shall have attended two courses of lectures delivered at the
Massachusetts Medical College by each of the Professors of the depart-
ments of Anatomy, Physiology, Chemistry, Materia Medica and Pharmacy,
Morbid Anatomy, Midwifery, Surgery and Clinical Surgery, Clinical Med-
icine, and the theory and practice of Medicine ; but if he shall have
attended a similar course in any other College or University, approved
by the Executive Faculty, the same may be accepted in lieu of one of the
courses above required.
" 3. He shall have employed three years in his professional studies
under the direction of a regular practitioner of medicine.
MEN AND MANNERS 553
"4. If he has not received a University education, he shall satisfy the
Executive Faculty in respect to his knowledge of the Latin language and
" 5. He shall have given notice of his intention to the Dean of the
Executive Faculty four weeks previous to the day on which he presents
himself for examination, and at the same time shall have delivered or
transmitted to the Dean a dissertation, written by himself, on some subject
connected with medicine. Every dissertation shall be submitted by the
Dean to the examination of the Executive Faculty, in the mode which they
shall point out.
" At the meeting for examination the Executive Faculty, with the
aid of such of the other Professors, and of such adjunct Professors as
they may select, shall examine all candidates who have complied with the
foregoing conditions, in the nine departments following, viz. : Anatomy,
Physiology, Chemistry, Materia Medica and Pharmacy, Morbid Anatomy,
Mid\vifer> r , Surgery and Clinical Surgery, Clinical Medicine, and the
Theory and Practice of Medicine. The examiners shall make report in
writing to the Executive Faculty.
" To secure a recommendation to a degree, the candidate must pass
a satisfactory examination in at least five of the nine departments, and
have presented a satisfactory dissertation.
' The decision in respect to each candidate shall be made by vote of
the Executive Faculty, and, if favorable to the candidate, shall be recorded
by the Dean, and by him certified to the President, to be laid before the
Corporation and the Overseers.
" Those candidates who have at the Spring examination received from
the Corporation and Overseers the final approbation, shall be admitted
to the degree of Doctor in Medicine by the President of the University,
at a public Commencement holden on the Wednesday next succeeding
the day of examination, on which occasion an address shall be delivered
by some one selected for the purpose by the Executive Faculty. Those
who may be approved at the summer examination will receive their
degrees and diplomas in Cambridge on Commencement Day. Public invi-
tation to attend the ceremony at the Commencement immediately follow-
ing the Lectures, shall be given by the Dean of the Executive Faculty to
the Fellows of the Massachusetts Medical Society, to all Medical Students
and to every person who may take an interest in Medical Science."
" By-Laws of the Medical Faculty.
"Article 1. Stated Meetings of the Faculty. A staled meeting shall
be held on the third Monday of September and on the first Monday in
each month from October to March, inclusive. Other meetings may be
called by the Dean.
"Article 2. Quorum. A majority shall constitute a quorum. A <!<â€¢
554 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
partment may be represented by a Professor or bis Adjunct, but in all
cases each department shall have but one vote.
"Article 3. Order of Business. 1. Reading of Records. 2. Reading
memorandum of business. 3. Reports of Committees. 4. Incidental
" Article 4. Standing Committees. There shall be a Standing Com-
mittee of: 1. Finance. 2. Reception on Public Days. 3. Announce-
ments and Catalogues. 4. Winter and Summer Programme of Instruc-
tion. 5. Building. 6. Entertainments. 7. Library.
" Article 5. Dean. The Dean shall be elected annually at the stated
meeting in February. He shall act as Secretary of the Faculty, notify
its meetings, and keep a record of its proceedings in a fair and ligible
handwriting. He shall read and lay upon the table, at each meeting, a list
of the items of business to be attended to at that meeting, and he shall
also keep and have at each meeting a book, exclusively devoted to the
purpose, containing a record of standing votes, so designated when
passed, and a list of the members of all Standing Committees. The Dean
shall be ready to receive students desiring to join the School and shall
answer letters of inquiry. He shall receive the Theses, and enter in a
book kept for that purpose, the names of candidates for degrees, examine
their credentials, and keep on file the certificates of their periods of study.
With these certificates he shall also collect the graduation fee. He shall
see that the Diplomas are printed, filled out and signed, and delivered
to the President of the University, before the day of commencement. The
Dean shall receive from students, to be refunded, the sum required to be
deposited before using the Library.
"Article 6. Chairman. A Chairman shall be elected annually, at the
stated meeting in February, to preside over the meetings of the Faculty.
" Article 7. Professors. Each Professor shall have sole charge of his
own department of instruction, subject to the approval of the Faculty.
He shall confine his lectures to his own subject, except by the special
consent both of the Professor of any department interested, and of the
Faculty. His lectures shall be delivered only at such hours and places
as are specified by the Faculty. Each Professor shall make an annual
report to the Committee for visiting the Medical School, and also, in
writing, to the Faculty, at the close of the Lecture season.
"Article 8. Adjunct Professors. Adjunct Professors shall hold office
only so long as the Professor of the department with which they are
connected, and shall perform such duties as that Professor shall request.
" Article 9. Special Professors. Special Professors shall hold office
for five (5) years only. They shall not give instruction except in their
own special branches, and with the concurrence of the Professors of the
departments to which their specialties belong. They shall lecture only at
such times and in such places as the Faculty may direct.
MEN AND MANNERS 555
"' Article 10. Assistant Professors. Assistant Professors shall hold
office for five (5) years only, and are to be appointed at the instance of
the Professors of the departments with which they are to be connected.
They shall perform, with the approval of the Faculty, such duties as the
Professors of their departments may indicate.
"Article 11. Instructors. Instructors shall be nominated annually at
the stated meeting in (September-February) at the suggestion of the Pro-
fessors of the departments interested. There shall not be more than one
Instructor in each department of instruction. It shall be the duty of In-
structors to hear recitations.
" Article 12. University Lecturers. University Lecturers shall hold
office for one (1) year only. They shall be nominated only by the Pro-
fessor of the department most interested, and at the stated meetings in
October and February.
" Article 13. Nominations. The nomination of no officer of instruction
shall be acted upon except at a stated meeting of the Executive Faculty,
or at one called for such purpose and notified as such.
"Article 14. Other Instruction. No officer of instruction shall take
pupils for private medical instruction, nor participate in, organize, or
countenance any medical instruction which has not received the formal
approval of the Faculty at one of the two stated meetings held in October
"Article 15. Qualification for Degrees. No part of the time spent in
the Academicle department of a college shall be allowed to count as time
spent in the study of Medicine.
" Article 16. Details of Examinations. 3. A list of Candidates shall
be furnished to each Professor, who shall mark each candidate according
to a scale of 8, â€” 8 being the mark of excellence ; and no candidate shall
receive an affirmative vote who has not received at least four marks.
5. Ten minutes shall be allowed to each Professor for the examination
of each candidate; questions may be asked on the dissertation during this
period. 7. (Statute.) The decision in respect to each candidate shall
be determined by the vote of the major part of the members of the Execu-
tive Faculty. 8. No affirmative vote shall be reconsidered except on the
demand of three Professors. 9. A vote in the negative may be recon-
sidered on the motion of any Professor. It is very desirable that each
Professor should vote independently, â€” YEA or NAY â€” the object of a
ballot being to elicit and to express a collective and averaged opinion.
Yet if any Professor cannot make up his mind without knowing how his
colleagues have made up theirs he has a right, either or both â€” 1. To