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NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES



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TOM BROWN'S SCHOOL DAYS













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X THOMAS HUGHES,Q.C.,M.P.

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TOM BROWN'S

SCHOOL- DAYS

BY AN OLD BOY
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WITH
ILLUSTRATIONS
MADE AT RUGBY
5CHOOL

IpUIS^HEAD

WEHAN INTRODUCTION BY



HARPER & BROTHERS

NEW YORK AND LONDON








COPYRIGHT. 1911. BY HARPER ft BROTHERS



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



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CON EN' 'S




PART I



CHAP. PAGE

INTRODUCTION BY W. D. HOWELLS ix

REMARKS OF THE ILLUSTRATOR xiii

PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION xvii

I. THE BROWN FAMILY 3

II. THE VEAST 21

III. SUNDRY WARS AND ALLIANCES 44

IV. THE STAGE-COACH 68

V. RUGBY AND FOOTBALL 87

VI. AFTER THE MATCH 112

VII. SETTLING TO THE COLLAR 134

VIII. THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 158

IX. A CHAPTER OF ACCIDENTS . 181

PART II

I. How THE TIDE TURNED . 209

II. THE NEW BOY ....... 224

III. ARTHUR MAKES A FRIEND ........... 242

IV. THE BIRD-FANCIERS 258



CONTENTS

CHAP. PAGE

V. THE FIGHT 276

VI. FEVER IN THE SCHOOL . 298

VII. HARRY EAST'S DILEMMAS AND DELIVERANCES 319

VIII. TOM BROWN'S LAST MATCH . 339

IX. FINIS . 365










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LIST OF

ILLUSTRATIONS



THOMAS HUGHES, Q.C., M.P

RUGBY SCHOOL MAP OF BOUNDS

THE GREAT SAXON WHITE HORSE OF KING ALFRED . . . .
BENJY WOULD INSTRUCT TOM IN THE DOINGS OF THE DECEASED

BROWNS

THE GYPSY SCOWLS AT JOE

THEY GRAPPLED AND CLOSED AND SWAYED

HE WAS CAUGHT WITH A BOX OF PHOSPHORUS IN HIS GUILTY

HAND .



"GOOD-BYE, FATHER MY LOVE AT HOME"



AWAY WENT TWO BOYS ALONG THE FOOT-PATH

"AND HEARK 'EE, COOEY, IT MUST BE UP IN TEN MINUTES, OR

NO MORE JOBS FROM ME"

"GET UP THERE THERE'S A LITTLE FELLOW UNDER YOU" .

SET TOM TO TOAST THE SAUSAGES .

TOM TOOK HIS THREE TOSSES WITHOUT A KICK OR A CRY . .
WHO WERE ON THE LOOKOUT FOR THE HOT-WATER CONVOYS
OLD THOMAS SAT IN HIS DEN



Frontispiece

Facing p. 2

10

24

" 34

54

62

" 72
82



1 06
114
128
136
152



ILLUSTRATIONS

"ARE YOU MUCH HURT, DEAR OLD BOY?" Facing p. 176

"IT'S ALL SHAM HE'S ONLY AFRAID TO FIGHT IT OUT" . . " 184

"OH, BE UP THER', BE 'EE ?" " 198

"CONFOUND YOU, BROWN, WHAT'S THAT FOR?" .... 218

"BLEST IF YOU AIN'T THE BEST OLD FELLOW EVER WAS" . . 226

TOM SHUT HIS BIBLE WITH A SLAP . 236

"WHAT CAN YOU BE ABOUT, MARTIN?" 244

"WE MUST TRY A PYRAMID," SAID TOM 262

"OH, THERE'S A WHACKER!" CRIED EAST 270

THE SLOGGER IS THROWN HEAVILY FOR THE THIRD TIME . . " 288

"l EXPECT YOU TO STOP ALL FIGHTS IN FUTURE AT ONCE" 2Q2

TOM PUT HIS ARM ROUND ARTHUR'S HEAD 302






SHE HELD OUT HER HAND TO TOM ......... 314

THEY JUMPED UP TO SHAKE HANDS WITH HIM ..... 326

EAST FOLLOWED THE DOCTOR AND THE OLD VERGER . . . 334

IT IS TOM BROWN, GROWN INTO A YOUNG MAN ..... 346

TOM WAS BORNE ALOFT BY THE ELEVEN ....... 360

"YOUR OLD MASTER, ARNOLD, OF RUGBY, IS DEAD*' . . . 366

"YOU'VE HEARD ALL ABOUT IT, I SEE" ........ 370



INTRODUCTION BY W. D. HOWELLS



IT is not often that in later years one finds any book as good
as one remembers it from one's youth; but it has been my
interesting experience to find the story of Tom Brown s School
Days even better than I once thought it, say, fifty years ago;
not only better, but more charming, more kindly, manlier, truer,
realler. So far as I have been able to note there is not a moment
of snobbishness in it, or meanness of whatever sort. Of course
it is of its period, the period which people call Middle Victorian
because the great Queen was then nearly at the end of the first
half of her long reign, and not because she personally charac-
terized the mood of arts, of letters, of morals then prevalent.

The author openly preaches and praises himself for preaching;
he does not hesitate to slip into the drama and deliver a sermon;
he talks the story out with many self-interruptions and excursions;
he knows nothing of the modern method of letting it walk along
on its own legs, but is always putting his hands under its arms
and helping it, or his arm across its shoulder and caressing it.
In all this, which I think wrong, he is probably doing quite
right for the boys who formed and will always form the greatest
number of his readers; boys like to have things fully explained
and commentated, whether they are grown up or not. In much
else, in what I will not say are not the great matters, he is
altogether right. By precept and by example he teaches boys to
be good, that is, to be true, honest, clean-minded and clean-
mouthed, kind and thoughtful. He forgives them the follies of
their youth, but makes them see that they are follies.

[is]



INTRODUCTION BY W. D. HOWELLS

I suppose that American boys' schools are fashioned largely
on what the English call their public schools; and so far as they
emulate the democratic spirit of the English schools, with their
sense of equality and their honor of personal worth, the American
schools cannot be too like them. I have heard that some of our
schools are cultures of unrepublican feeling, and that the meaner
little souls in them make their account of what families it will be
well to know after they leave school and restrict their school
friendships accordingly; but I am not certain this is true. What
I am certain of is that our school-boys can learn nothing of such
baseness from the warm-hearted and large-minded man who
wrote Tom Brown s School Days. He was one of our best friends
in the Civil War, when we sorely needed friends in England, and
it was his magnanimous admiration which made our great
patriotic poet known to a public which had scarcely heard of
James Russell Lowell before.

But the manners and customs painted in this book are the man-
ners and customs of the middle eighteen-fifties. It appears from
its witness that English school-boys then freely drank beer and
ale, and fought out their quarrels like prize-fighters with their
naked fists, though the beer was allowed and the fighting dis-
allowed by the school. Now, however, even the ruffians of the
ring put on gloves, and probably the quarrels of our own school-
boys are not fought out even with gloves. Beer and ale must
always have been as clandestine vices in our schools as pitched
battles with fists in English schools; water was the rule, but
probably if an American boy now went to an English school he
would not have to teach by his singular example that water was
a better drink for boys than beer.

Our author had apparently no misgiving as to the beer; he
does not blink it or defend it; beer was too merely a matter
of course; but he makes a set argument for fighting, based upon
the good old safe ground that there always had been fighting.
Even in the heyday of muscular Christianity it seems that there



INTRODUCTION BY W. D. HO WELLS

must have been some question of fighting and it was necessary to
defend it on the large and little scale, and his argument as to fisti-
cuffs defeats itself. Concerning war, which we are now hoping
that we see the beginning of the end of, he need only have looked
into The Biglow Papers to find his idolized Lowell saying:

"Ez fur war I call it murder;

There ye hev it plain an' flat;
An' I don't want to go no furder
Then my Testament fur that."

I feel it laid upon me in commending this book to a new genera-
tion of readers, to guard them, so far as I may, against such errors
of it. Possibly it might have been cleansed of them by editing,
but that would have taken much of the life out of it, and would
have been a grievous wrong to the author. They must remain
a part of literature as many other regrettable things remain.
They are a part of history, a color of the contemporary manners,
and an excellently honest piece of self-portraiture. They are as
the wart on Cromwell's face, and are essentially an element of a
most Cromwellian genius. It was Puritanism, Macaulay says,
that stamped with its ideal the modern English gentleman in
dress and manner, and Puritanism has stamped the modern
Englishman, the liberal, the radical, in morals. The author of
Tom Brown was strongly of the English Church and the English
State, but of the broad church and of the broad state. He was
not only the best sort of Englishman, but he was the making of
the best sort of American; and the American father can trust the
American boy with his book, and fear no hurt to his republicanism,
still less his democracy.

It is full of the delight in nature and human nature, unpatron-
ized and unsentimentalized. From his earliest boyhood up Tom
Brown is the free and equal comrade of other decent boys of
whatever station, and he ranges the woods, the fields, the streams

[xij



INTRODUCTION BY W. D. HOWELLS

with the joy in the sylvan life which is the birthright of all the
boys born within reach of them. The American school-boy of
this generation will as freshly taste the pleasure of the school life
at Rugby as the American school-boys of the two generations
past, and he can hardly fail to rise from it with the noble inten-
tions, the magnanimous ambitions which only good books can
inspire.

W. D. HOWELLS.



REMARKS OF THE ILLUSTRATOR ON
PRESENT ASPECTS OF RUGBY SCHOOL



MOST young readers (and many old ones) read a book for the
fun it contains, taking no notice of the time when written. A
boy will naturally exclaim, after reading the following pages,
"What a fine time I'd have if I went to that school!" There is a
difference, however, for many things have changed during seventy
years or so. If you remember, Tom started before daybreak
from the Peacock Inn at Islington on the top of a stage-coach;
now you go by railway train. At that time the school was less
than half its present size and held only a quarter the number of
boys. The pound of candles served to each boy, some of which
Martin used to sell for birds' eggs, is no more. Electric lights
now guide the many feet along the devious study passages and
winding turret stairs. East used to set Tom toasting sausages
before the great fireplace, but it could not be done now over
steam radiators. The fireplaces are still there, but stoutly cov-
ered over with wire and iron bars. The fags, among their pres-
ent duties, are not made to go down to the kitchen to get hot
water for their lords and masters. In short, modern con-
veniences have replaced the primitive ways of bygone days.

In 1842 lucifer matches had just been invented. Tea and coffee
were expensive. It was the custom of that day for boys (old and
young) to be served with a pewter mug of beer at their meals, and
boys of the "Sixth Form" frequented taverns without restraint.
Old traditional customs, in an ancient institution like Rugby, are



REMARKS OF THE ILLUSTRATOR ON

hard to break. Though Doctor Arnold brushed away many
objectionable things in his time, yet even to-day there still remain
traces of the old order of things.

The most interesting is that of the school bounds with which
every boy soon becomes familiar. In the early days Rugby town
(except in the main streets) was ill-protected and poorly lighted,
consequently the boys were molested and enticed into undesirable
places. Fights were frequent with the town boys, or, as East dubs
them, the louts. Out-of-bound maps were placed in the school
and other houses to show in what streets the boys could go. In
the early days to be caught out of bounds meant a "birching" or
five hundred lines of Virgil.

It will be observed that all boys keep on the east side of High
Street; or, if cross they must, they cross to their destination at
right angles, and so back again. As they go back to the house,
each keeps on the side of the road where his own house stands.
However muddy the road, none but a "swell" is supposed to turn
up his trousers at the bottom.

If a boy is in his first term he must keep his hands out of his
pockets. If you see a boy with one hand in, he will, perhaps, be
in the second term; after that both may be put in the pockets.
The duties of fags are less irksome than once they were, but (such
as they are) strictly exacted. They may be called to run errands
and make themselves generally useful. The house fags have to
" fag out" the " dens " of their superiors, to light their fires, to make
toast for them at tea, and so forth. Is any errand to be done, the
" Sixth Form " potentate has but to issue forth from his den and
shout, "Fag!" Immediately, like the rats of Hamelin City, out
rush all the fags of the first term; or, if the word be twice shouted,
all those of the first two terms, and so forth. The last fag in
gets the job, so their speed may be imagined.

The old "tuck shops" have been replaced by expensive
pastry and fruit stores which are crowded with eager buyers
during the day and especially after football practice, however

[xiv]



PRESENT ASPECTS OF RUGBY SCHOOL

sufficient and full is the house supply. No longer do the boys
go down to the "Planks and Swifts" on the River Avon for summer
bathing; a well-appointed swimming-bath is quite near in the
close.

Thus it is that most of the old customs have been abolished or
died out. New boys are no longer clodded, cobbed, or chaired.

In regard to costume, according to old documents and prints
the boys in early days wore white ducks, short or Eton jackets,
and tall hats. To-day the costume is strictly regulated. The
jacket for small boys is longer, or what is known as the Marlbor-
ough jacket, over which is worn the broad white collar, and the
bigger boys wear a cutaway. All are in black, including the tall
hat, which is worn at the present time by young and old on Sun-
days only. Week-days each house is denoted by the varied colored
caps or straw-hat ribbons, and the same with football and cricket
costume.



PREFACE



TOTHLSIXTHLDITION





RECEIVED the following letter from an old
friend soon after the last edition of this book
was published, and resolved, if ever another
edition were called for, to print it. For it
is clear from this and other like comments
that something more should have been said
expressly on the subject of bullying, and
how it is to be met.

"Mv DEAR . . ., I blame myself for not having earlier suggested
whether you could not, in another edition of Tom Brown, or another
story, denounce more decidedly the evils of bullying at schools. You
have indeed done so, and in the best way, by making Flashman the bully
the most contemptible character; but in that scene of the tossing, and
similar passages, you hardly suggest that such things should be stopped
and do not suggest any means of putting an end to them.

"This subject has been on my mind for years. It fills me with grief
and misery to think what weak and nervous children go through at school
how their health and character for life are destroyed by rough and
brutal treatment.

"It was some comfort to be under the old delusion that fear and ner-
vousness can be cured by violence, and that knocking about will turn a

[ xvii ]



PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION

timid boy into a bold one. But now we know well enough that is not
true. Gradually training a timid child to do bold acts would be most
desirable; but frightening him and ill-treating him will not make him
courageous. Every medical man knows the fatal effects of terror or
agitation or excitement to nerves that are oversensitive. There are dif-
ferent kinds of courage, as you have shown in your character of Arthur.

"A boy may have moral courage and a finely organized brain and
nervous system. Such a boy is calculated, if judiciously educated, to be
a great, wise, and useful man; but he may not possess animal courage;
and one night's tossing, or bullying, may produce such an injury to his
brain and nerves that his usefulness is spoiled for life. I verily believe
that hundreds of noble organizations are thus destroyed every year.
Horse-jockeys have learned to be wiser; they know that a highly nervous
horse is utterly destroyed by harshness. A groom who tried to cure a
shying horse by roughness and violence would be discharged as a brute
and a fool. A man who would regulate his watch with a crowbar would
be considered an ass. But the person who thinks a child of delicate and
nervous organization can be made bold by bullying is no better.

"He can be made bold by healthy exercise and games and sports; but
that is quite a different thing. And even these games and sports should
bear some proportion to his strength and capacities.

"I very much doubt whether small children should play with big ones
the rush of a set of great fellows at football, or the speed of a cricket-ball
sent by a strong hitter, must be very alarming to a mere child, to a child
who might stand up boldly enough among children of his own size and
height,

"Look at half a dozen small children playing cricket by themselves;
how feeble are their blows, how slowly they bowl! You can measure in
that way their capacity.

'Tom Brown and his eleven were bold enough playing against an
eleven of about their own calibre; but I suspect they would have been in
a precious funk if they had played against eleven giants whose bowling
bore the same proportion to theirs that theirs does to the small children's
above.

'To return to the tossing, I must say I think some means might be
devised to enable school-boys to go to bed in quietness and peace, and
that some means ought to be devised and enforced. No good, moral or
physical, to those who bully or those who are bullied, can ensue from such
scenes as take place in the dormitories of schools. I suspect that British

[ xviii ]



PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION

wisdom and ingenuity are sufficient to discover a remedy for this evil, if
directed in the right direction.

"The fact is, that the condition of a small boy at a large school is one
of peculiar hardship and suffering. He is entirely at the mercy of pro-
verbially the roughest things in the universe great school-boys; and he
is deprived of the protection which the weak have in civilized society, for
he may not complain; if he does, he is an outlaw he has no protector but
public opinion, and that a public opinion of the very lowest grade, the
opinion of rude and ignorant boys.

"What do school-boys know of those deep questions of moral and
physical philosophy, of the anatomy of mind and body, by which the
treatment of a child should be regulated ?

"Why should the laws of civilization be suspended for schools ? Why
should boys be left to herd together with no law but that of force or cun-
ning ? What would become of society if it were constituted on the same
principles ? It would be plunged into anarchy in a week.

"One of our judges, not long ago, refused to extend the protection of
the law to a child who had been ill-treated at school. If a party of navvies
had given him a licking, and he had brought the case before a magistrate,
what would he have thought if the magistrate had refused to protect him,
on the ground that if such cases were brought before him he might have
fifty a day from one town only ?

"Now I agree with you that a constant supervision of the master is not
desirable or possible, and that telling tales, or constantly referring to the
master for protection, would only produce ill - will and worse treat-
ment.

"If I rightly understand your book, it is an effort to improve the con-
dition of schools by improving the tone of morality and public opinion in
them. But your book contains the most indubitable proofs that the
condition of the younger boys at public schools, except under the rare
dictatorship of an Old Brooke, is one of great hardship and suffering.

"A timid and nervous boy is from morning till night in a state of bodily
fear. He is constantly tormented when trying to learn his lessons. His
play-hours are occupied in fagging, in a horrid funk of cricket-balls and
footballs, and the violent sport of creatures who, to him, are giants. He
goes to his bed in fear and trembling worse than the reality of the rough
treatment to which he is perhaps subjected.

"I believe there is only one complete remedy. It is not in magisterial
supervision; nor in telling tales; nor in raising the tone of public opinion
2 [XIX]



PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION

among school-boys but in the separation of boys of different ages into
different schools.

"There should be at least three different classes of schools the first for
boys from nine to twelve; the second for boys from twelve to fifteen; the
third for those above fifteen. And these schools should be in different
localities.

"There ought to be a certain amount of supervision by the master at
those times when there are special occasions for bullying, e. g., in the long
winter evenings, and when the boys are congregated together in the bed-
rooms. Surely it cannot be an impossibility to keep order and protect
the weak at such times. Whatever evils might arise *rom supervision,
they could hardly be greater than those produced by a system which
divides boys into despots and slaves.

"Ever yours, very truly, F. D."

The question of how to adapt English public-school education
to nervous and sensitive boys (often the highest and noblest sub-
jects which that education has to deal with) ought to be looked
at from every point of view.* I therefore add a few extracts from
the letter of an old friend and school-fellow, than whom no man
in England is better able to speak on the subject:

" What's the use of sorting the boys by ages, unless you do so by strength;
and who are often the real bullies ? the strong young dog of fourteen;
while the victim may be one year or two years older. ... I deny the fact
about the bedrooms; there is trouble at times, and always will be; but so
there is in nurseries my little girl, who looks like an angel, was bullying
the smallest twice to-day.

"Bullying must be fought with in other ways by getting not only the
Sixth to put it down, but the lower fellows to scorn it, and by eradicating

* For those who believe with me in public-school education, the fact stated
in the following extract from a note of Mr. G. de Bunsen will be hailed with
pleasure, especially now that our alliance with Prussia (the most natural and
healthy European alliance for Protestant England) is likely to be so much
stronger and deeper than heretofore. Speaking of this book, he says: "The
author is mistaken in saying that public schools, in the English sense, are peculiar
to England. Schul Pforte (in the Prussian province of Saxony) is similar in
antiquity and institution. I like his book all the more for having been there
for five years."

[XX]



PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION

mercilessly the incorrigible; and a master who really cares for his fellows
is pretty sure to know instinctively who in his house are likely to be bullied,
and, knowing a fellow to be really victimized and harassed, I am sure that
he can stop it if he is resolved. There are many kinds of annoyance
sometimes of real cutting persecution for righteousness' sake that he
can't stop; no more could all the ushers in the world; but he can do very
much in many ways to make the shafts of the wicked pointless,

" But though, for quite other reasons, I don't like to se.e very young boys
launched at a public school, and though I don't deny (I wish I could) the
existence from time to time of bullying, I deny its being a constant condi-
tion of school life, and, still more, the possibility of meeting it by the means
proposed. = .

"I don't wish to understate the amount of bullying that goes on, but
my conviction is that it must be fought, like all school evils, but it more
than any, by dynamics rather than mechanics, by getting the fellows to
respect themselves and one another, rather than by sitting by them with
a thick stick/'

And now, having broken my resolution never to write a Pref-
ace, there are just two or three things which I should like to say
a " T - n:d about.

Several persons, for whose judgment I have the highest respect,
while saying very kind things about this book, have added that
the great fault of it is "too much preaching"; but they hope I
shall amend in this matter should I ever write again. Now this
I most distinctly decline to do. Why, my whole object in writing
at all was to get the chance of preaching. When a man comes to
my time of life and has his bread to make, and very little time to
spare, is it likely that he will spend almost the whole of his yearly
vacation in writing a story just to amuse people ? I think not.
At any rate, I wouldn't do so myself.

The fact is, that I can scarcely ever call on one of my contempo-



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