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HISTORY



OP



THE ROMAN EMPIRE,

FROM THE ACCESSION OF AUGUSTUS TO THE
END OF THE EMPIRE OF THE WEST;

BEING A CONTINUATION OF

THE HISTORY OF ROME.

BY

THOMAS KEIGHTLEY,

AUTHOR OF "history OF GREECE," " HISTORY OF ROME,"
"history of ENGLAND," &C.




EDITED



JOSHUA TOULMIN SMITH,

AUTHOR OF "progress OF PHILOSOPHY AMONG THE ANCIENTS," "COMPARATIVE
VIEW OF ANCIENT HISTORY," " NORTHMEN IN NEW ENGLAND," &C.



BOSTON
HILLIARD, GRAY, AND COMPANY
1841.'



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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1840,
By Harrison Gray,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.



/ 7









STEREOTYPEI* AT THE
BOSTON TYPE AND SrEIlEOTYPE FOUNDRY.



/



"- y



PREFACE



TO THE AMERICAN EDITION.



S^

»*»»



The present valuable addition to the " History of
Rome " was not published in England when that work
was prepared for the press in this country. It is, therefore,
thought better to publish it, as it was published in England,
as a separate work, than as a second volume of that work,
although none can feel the history of Rome to be complete
without tracing it, not only from its rise to its highest pitch
of greatness, but through the gradual steps of its decline
and fall.

The present volume is peculiarly valuable on many
accounts. It embraces a period, the history of which exists
in no accessible form, while its facts are of a most interest-
ing and important nature, as connected with the rise, and
spread, and influence, and corruptions of the Christian
church. It forms a connecting link between the times
and nations properly called ancient, and those properly
called modern, inasmuch as it displays the first inroads
of the peoples and races destined gradually to mould the
latter, upon the strength, and power, and sway of the
former, and their final rise upon their ruins.

The same impartiality marks this History, both in its
treatment of civil and ecclesiastical affairs, as marks Mr.
Keightley's other histories.



IV PREFACE TO THE AMERICAN EDITION.

The labor of the editor has been somewhat more called
for in this volume than in the " History of Rome." More
points seemed to need note and illustration, it being a
period less familiar. In some places, too, owing to the
confusion of authorities, errors of dates, he, had crept in,
all of which have been carefully altered. In this case,
the alterations have been made without any distinctive
mark. In all other cases, the same marks of addition or
alteration as have been used in the other volumes of this
series of historical works have been here used. That series,
comprising the Histories of Greece, Rome, and England, is
completed with this volume.

J. T. S.

Boston, December 1, 1840.



PREFACE .



The present work completes my History of Rome. In-
stead, however, of entitling it a second volume, I have made
it a distinct work ; for, having been induced to depart from
ray original plan, and write a History of England after the
completion of that of the Roman Republic, and fearing lest
some event might occur to prevent my completing my de-
sign, I was desirous that a work on which I had employed
so much time and thought should not present an imperfect
appearance. A further motive was, that some persons were
of opinion that the History of the Empire would not be
read so generally in schools as that of the Republic ; and
I wished to shun the imputation of forcing any one to buy
a volume that he might not want.

This last opinion I am disposed to regard as erroneous.
There is no part of the Roman history more necessary to
be read in classical schools than the reio;ns of Augustus and
his successors to the end of that of Domitian ; for, without
a knowledge of the history of that period, the writers of
the Augustan age, and Juvenal, cannot be fully understood.
Of this period we have actually no history, at least none
adapted to schools ; and hence arises the imperfect acquaint-
ance with the historic allusions in Horace and the other
poets which most readers possess, in consequence of being
obliged to derive their information piecemeal from annota-
tions. I have, therefore, taken especial care, in the present
volume, to obviate this inconvenience ; and I believe that
scarcely any historic allusion in those poets will be found
unnoticed.

Another feature of this work is, the sketch of the history
of the church, its persecutions, sects, and heresies, during
the first four centuries, with brief notices of the principal



VI PREFACE.

Fathers and their writings. To write a history of the Ro-
man Empire without including that of the church, would
have been absurd ; but, as readers might not have sufficient
confidence in me as an ecclesiastical guide, and as my
works are chiefly designed for youth, I have deemed it the
safer course to take as my usual authority the learned and
candid Mosheim, whose works have stood the test of nearly
a century, and are always included in the list of those
recommended to students in divinity. It is the work De
Rebus Christianis ante Constantinum, in the excellent
translation of Mr. Vidal, that I have chiefly used. At the
same time, I must declare that I am by no means a stran-
ger to the Fathers. Many years ago, I had occasion to
read them a good deal ; and the opinions which I then
formed of them as writers and teachers have been con-
firmed by my renewed acquaintance with their works.

The advantages, therefore, to be derived by students
from this volume are, illustrations of the Latin poets, some
knowledge of the early history of the church, and tolerably
correct ideas of the causes and course of the decline and
fall of the mighty empire whose rise and progress have been
traced in the History of Rome. Nearly one half of it, it
will be observed, is devoted to the history anterior to the
commencement of Gibbon's work, which begins with the
reign of Commodus. As I have already said, that part of
the history is not generally accessible ; and with respect to
the remainder, few, I believe, would willingly put Gibbon
into the hands of youth.

The same attention has been directed to chronology and
geography as in my other histories. The Roman proper
names had become so confused in this period, that it was
not possible for me to mark the prcenomina, and arrange
names under their gentes, as I have so carefully done in the
History of Rome. I have further employed the modern
forms of the names, as it would have seemed mere affecta-
tion to use Vespasianus, Constantinus, etc.

T. K.

London, August 26, 1840.



CONTENTS.



PART I.

THE CiESARIAN FAMILY.

CHAPTER 1.

C. JULIUS CiESAR OCTAVIANUS AUGUSTUS.

A. u. 725—746. B. c. 29—8. page.

The Roman empire. — Regulation of it by Augustus. — Augus-
tus in Spain — in Asia. — Laws. — Family of Augustus.-^
Death of Agrippa. — German wars. — Death of Drusus, and of
Maecenas. — Literature 1

CHAPTER H.

AUGUSTUS, (continued.)

A. tj. 746—767. B. c. 8— A. d. 14.

Tiberius. — Banishment of Julia. — German wars of Tiberius. —
Defeat of Varus. — Death and character of Augustus. — Form
and condition of the Roman empire 20

CHAPTER HI.

TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS NERO CiESAR.

A. u. 767—790. A. D. 14—37.

Funeral of Augustus. — Mutiny of the legions. — Victories of Ger-
manicus. — His death. — Civil government of Tiberius. — Rise
and fall of Sejanus. — Death of Agrippina and her children, —
Death of Tiberius 39

CHAPTER IV.

CAIUS JULIUS CaeSAR CALIGULA.

A. u. 790—794. A. D. 37—41.

Accession of Cams. — His vices and cruelty. — Bridge over the
Bay of Baiae. — His expedition to Germany. — His mad ca-
prices. — His death _. 67



Vin CONTENTS.

CHAPTER V.
TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS DRUSUS CSBSAR.

A. u. 794—807. A. D. 41—55. page.

Accession of Claudius. — His character. — His useful measures. —
Messalina and the freedmen. — Her lust and cruelty. — Claudi-
us in Britain. — Vicious conduct of Messalina. — Her death. —
Claudius marries Agrippina. — Is poisoned by her 77

CHAPTER VI.

NERO CLAUDIUS CAESAR.

A. u. 808—821. A. D. 55—68.

Decline of Agrippina's power. — Poisoning of Britannicus. —
Murder of Agrippina. — Nero appears on the stage. — Murder
of Octavia. — Excesses of Nero. — Burning of Rome. — Conspir-
acy against Nero. — Death of Seneca. — Deaths of Petronius,
Thraseas, and Soranus. — Nero visits Greece. — Galba pro-
claimed emperor. — Death of Nero 90

CHAPTER VII.

THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.

The Jewish Messiah. — Jesus Christ.- — His religion. — Its propa-
gation. — Causes of its success. — Church government 116



PART II.

EMPERORS CHOSEN BY THE ARMY.

CHAPTER I.

GALBA, OTHO, VITELLIUS.

A. u. 821—823. A. D. 68—70.
Galba. — Adoption of Piso. — Murder of Galba. — Otho. — Civil
war. — Battle of Bedriacum. — Death of Otho. — Vitellius. —
Vespasian proclaimed emperor. — Advance of the Flavians. —
Storming of Cremona. — Burning of the Capitol. — Capture of
Rome. — Death of Vitellius 124

CHAPTER II.

THE FLAVIAN FAMILY.

A. u. 823—849. A. D. 70—96.

State of affairs at Rome. — German war. — Capture and destruc-
tion of Jerusalem. — Return of Titus. — Vespasian. — Character



CONTENTS. IX

PAGE.

of his government. — His death. — Character and reign of Ti-
tus. — rublic calamities. — Death of Titus. — Character of Do-
mitian. — Conquest of Britain. — Dacian war. — Other wars. —
Cruelty of Domitian. — His death. — Literature of this period. . 145



CHAPTER in.

NERVA, TRAJAN, HADRIAN, ANTONINUS, AURELIUS.

A. u. 849—933. A. D. 96—180.

Nerva. — Adoption of Trajan. — His origin and character. — Da-
cian wars. — Parthian wars. — Death of Trajan. — Observations.

— Succession of Hadrian. — His character. — Aifairs at Rome.

— Hadrian in Gaul and Britain — in Asia and Greece — in
Egypt. — Antinous. — Adoptions. — Death of Hadrian. — His
character as an emperor. — Rebellion of the Jews. — Reign ot
Antoninus Pius. — M. Aurelius. — Parthian war. — German wars.

— Revolt of Cassius. — Death of Aurelius. — His character. . . . 167



CHAPTER HI.

COMMODUS, PERTINAX, JULIANUS, SEVERUS.

A. u. 933—964. A. D. 180—211.

Commodus, — Conspiracy against him. — Perennis. — Cleander.
— Maternus and the deserters. — Death of Cleander. — Vices
of Commodus. — His death, — Elevation and murder of Perti-
nax. — Empire put to auction. — Pescennius Niger. — Septimius
Severus. — Clodius Albinus. — March of Severus. — Death of
Julian. — Praetorians disbanded. — Severus at Rome. — War
with Niger — with Albinus. — Parthian war. — Family of Se-
verus. — Plautianus. — Severus in Britain. — His death. — Max-
ims of government 189



CHAPTER IV.
CARACALLA, MACRINUS, ELAGABALUS, ALEXANDER.

A. u. 964—988. A. D. 211—235.

Caracalla and Geta. — Murder of Geta. — Cruelty of Caracalla. —
German war. — Parthian war. — Massacre at Alexandria. —
Murder of Caracalla. — Elevation of Macrinus. — His origin
and character. — Conspiracy against him. — His defeat and
death. — Elagabalus. — His superstition and cruelty. — Adop-
tion of Alexander. — Death of Elagabalus. — Mamaea. — Alex-
ander's character and mode of hfe. — Murder of Ulpian. —
Revolution in Persia. — Persian war. — Alexander in Gaul. —
His murder. — The Roman army 207



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER V.

MAXIMIN, PUPIENUS, BALBINUS, AND GORDIAN, PHILIP,
DECIUS, GALLUS, ^MILIAN, VALERIAN, GALLIENUS.

A. u. 988—1021. A. D. 235—268. page.

The empire. — Maximin. — His tyranny. — Insurrection in Africa.

— The Gordians. — Pupienus and Balbinus. — Death of Maxi-
min. — Murder of the emperors. — Gordian. — Persian war. —
Murder of Gordian. — Philip. — Secular Games. — Decius. —
Death of Philip. — The Goths. — Gothic war. — Death of Decius.

— Gallus. — .^milian. — Valerian. — The Franks. — The Ale-
mans. — Gothic invasions. — Persian war. — Defeat and captiv-
ity of Valerian. — Gallienus. — The Thirty Tyrants. — Death

of Gallienus 223



CHAPTER VI.

CLAUDIUS, AURELIAN, TACITUS, PROBUS, CARUS, CARINUS,

AND NUMERIAN.

A. u. 1021—1038. A. D. 268—285.

Claudius. — Invasions of the Goths. — Aurelian. — Alemannic
war. — War against Zenobia. — Tetricus. — Death of Aurelian.
— Tacitus. — His death. — Probus. — His military successes. —
His death. — Cams. — Persian war. — His death. — Death of
Numerian. — Election of Diocletian. — Battle of Margus 240

CHAPTER VII.

THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH.

Persecutions of the church. — Corruption of religion. — The
Ebionites. — Gnostic heresies. — Montanus. — The Paschal
Question. — Councils. — The hierarchy. — Platonic philoso-
phy, its effects. — Rites and ceremonies. — Christian writers. . 259



PART III.

THE CHRISTIAN EMPERORS.

CHAPTER I.

DIOCLETIAN AND MAXIMIAN.

A. u. 1038—1056. A, D. 285—303.

State of the empire. — Character of Diocletian. — Imperial power
divided. — The Bagauds. — Carausius. — Rebellion in Egypt.
— Persian war. — Triumph of the emperors. — Their resigna-
tion. — Persecution of the church 286



CONTENTS. XI

CHAPTER 11.

GALERIUS, CONSTANTIUS, SEVERUS, MAXENTIUS, MAXIMIAN,

LICINIUS, MAXIMIN, CONSTANTINE.

A. u. 1057—1090. A. D. 304—337. page.

The emperors and Csesars. — Constantine. — Maxentius. — Fate
of Maximian. — War between Constantine and Maxentius. —
Constantine and Licinius. — Constantine sole emperor. — Con-
stantinople founded. — Hierarchy of the state. — The army. —
^The great officers. — Conversion of Constantine. — Deaths of
Crispus and Fausta. — The imperial family. — War with the
Goths. — Death and character of Constantine 299



CHAPTER HI.

CONSTANTINE II., CONSTANTIUS, CONSTANS.

A. u. 1090—1114. A. D. 337—361.

Slaughter of the imperial family. — Persian war. — Deaths of Con-
stantine and Constans. — Magnentius. — Gallus. — Julian. —
Silvanus. — Court of Constantius. — War with the Limigantes.
— Persian war. — Julian in Gaul. — Battle of Strasburg. — Ju-
lian proclaimed emperor. — His march from Gaul. — Death of
Constantius 318



CHAPTER IV.

JULIAN, JOVIAN.

A. u. 1114—1117. A. D. 361—364.

Reformations of Julian. — His religion. — His tolerance. — Julian
at Antioch. — Attempt to rebuild the temple at Jerusalem. — The
Persian war. — Death of Julian. — Election of Jovian. — Sur-
render of territory to the Persians. — Retreat of the Roman ar-
my. — Death of Jovian 337

CHAPTER V.

VALENTINIAN, VALENS, GRATIAN, VALENTINIAN 11., AND

THEODOSIUS.

A. u. 1117—1148. A. D. 364—395.

Elevation of Valentinian and of Valens. — Procopius. — German
wars. — Recovery of Britain. — Rebellion in Africa. — Quadan
war. — Death of Valentinian. — His character. — Gratian. —
The Goths. — The Huns. — The Gothic war. — Battle of Ha-
drianople and death of Valens. — Ravages of the Goths. — The-
odosius. — Settlements of the Goths. — Maximus. — Death of
Gratian. — Defeat of Maximus. — Massacre at Thessalonica. —
Clemency of Theodosius. — Death of Valentinian II. — Defeat
and death of Eugenius. — Death and character of Theodosius. —
State of the empire 358



Xll CONTENTS.

CHAPTER Vi.

THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH.

PAGi:.

Suppression of paganism. — Religion of the fourth century. —
State of morals. — The Donatists. — The Arians. — Other her-
etics. — Ecclesiastical constitution. — Fathers of the church.
— The Manichseans 387



CHAPTER Vn.

HONORIUS, VALENTINIAN III., ETC.

A. u. 1148—1229. A. D. 395—476.

Division of the empire. — Rufinus. — The Goths in Greece. —
Gildo. — Invasion of Italy by Alaric — by Radagaisus. — Mur-
der of Stilicho. — Claudian. — Alaric's second invasion. — Sack
of Rome. — Death of Alaric. — Barbarians in the empire. — Val-
entinian III. — Boniface and ^tius. — Genseric. — His con-
quest of Africa. — Attila. — Theodoric. — Battle of Chalons. —
Attila's invasion of Italy. — Murder of^tius — and ofValen-
tinian. — Maximus. — Sack of Rome by Genseric. — Avitus. —
Majorian. — Severus. — Anthemius. — Nepos and Glycerius. —
Romulus Augustus. — End of the empire. — Conclusion 409



HISTORY



OF



THE ROMAN EMPIRE



PART I.

THE C^SARIAN FAMILY.



CHAPTER L*

C. JULIUS C^SAR OCTAVIANUS AUGUSTUS.
A. u. 725—746. B. c. 29—8.

THE ROMAN EMPIRE. REGULATION OF IT BY AUGUSTUS.

AUGUSTUS IN SPAIN IN ASIA. LAWS. FAMILY OF

AUGUSTUS. DEATH OF AGRIPPA. GERMAN WARS.

DEATH OF DRUSUS, AND OF MAECENAS. LITERATURE.

The battle of Actium, fought between M. Antonius and
C. CsBsar Octavianus, in the 723d t year of Rome, termina-

* Authorities : Velleius Paterculus, Suetonius, Dion Cassius. For
a fall account of the authorities for this History, see Appendix (A.)

t We shall use the Varronian chronology in this volume, as it is the
one followed by Tacitus, Dion, and other historians. [In the former
part of this work, Mr. K. made use of the Catonian computation. It
is immaterial which is used, though the Varronian is undoubtedly the
more correct, and was employed by the editor in the " Chronological
Table," at the end of that work. The difference is only two years —
a difference of little importance with respect to the history of the Re-
public, but of more in reference to the history of the Empire. See the
editor's " Comparative View of Ancient History, and Explanation of
Chronological Eras," p. 92, title, Era of the Foundation of Rome. —
J.T. S.] > 1- > J J

CONTIN. 1 A



2 AUGUSTUS.

ted the contest for. the supreme power in the Roman state,
which had continued for so many years. After the death of
his rival, Caesar, now in the thirty-fourth year of his age, saw
himself the undoubted master of the Roman world. An
army of forty-four legions* regarded him as its chief; the
civil wars and the proscription had cut off all the men of em-
inence at Rome ; the senate and people vied with each other
in their willingness to accept a sovereign ; and though we may
despise their servility, reason will evince that they were right
in their determination ; for he must be strangely inthralled
by sounds, who, charmed by the mere words liberty and repub-
lic, looks back through the last century of the history of Rome,
and prefers the turbulent anarchy, which then prevailed, to
the steady, firm rule of a single hand. We will add, though
the assertion may appear paradoxical, that their knowledge
of Caesar's character may have given them fair hopes of his
proving an equitable sovereign.

But, independently of all other considerations, the enor-
mous magnitude of the Roman empire was incompatible
with any other form of government than the monarchic, if
the happiness of the subjects was to be a matter of moment.
The formation of this empire is perhaps the most striking
phenomenon in the annals of the world. Fabulous as is
the early history of Rome, the fact of its having been in its
commencement nothing more than a single town, or rather
village, with a territory of a very few miles in compass, may
be regarded as certain. Step by step it thence advanced in
extent ; under its kings it became respectable among the
Italian states : when the supreme magistracy was made an-
nual, the consuls were anxious to distinguish their year by
some military achievement; their ambition was sustained by
the valor and discipline of the legions, and the wisdom of
the senate cemented together into one strong and firm mass
the various territories reduced by the arms of Rome. In
the East, empires of huge extent are at times formed with
rapidity, but their decay is in general equally rapid ; modern
Europe has seen great empires formed by a Charlemagne
and a Napoleon, but they fell to pieces almost as soon as
erected : the Roman empire, on the contrary, endured for
centuries. Perhaps the nearest parallel is that of Russia;
but of this the stability remains to be proved : watched by

* Orosius, vi. 18. These legions, however, were far from complete,
some of them being mere skeletons.



B. C. 29.] RETURN OF AUGUSTUS. 3

jealous and powerful rivals, its step is stealthy, artful, and
treacherous, while that of Rome was comparatively open,
bold, and daring.

The Roman empire, at the time of which we write, em-
braced all the countries contained between the Ocean, the
Rhine, and Euphrates, on the west and east, and the moun-
tain ranges of the Alps and Hasmus on the north, and that of
Atlas and the African sandy desert on the south. With respect
to the condition of the various nations and peoples contained
within its limits, it may be compared to that acquired with
such rapidity by England in India. A portion were under
the immediate government of the sovereign state, while
others, under the name of allies, possessed a certain degree
of independence in their internal relations, but their external
policy was under the control of Rome.* As aristocracy
and democracy are equally tyrannic to subjects, the oppres-
sions of the proconsuls and propraetors, set over the provinces
by the republic, had been such as to make the provincials
look forward with hope to the establishment of a monarchy
at Rome. Such, then, was the condition of the Roman world
at the time when our narrative commences.

When intelligence of the death of Antonius reached
Rome, the senate hastened to decree to Csesar the tribunitian
power for life, a casting-voice in all the tribunals, the power
of nominating to all the priesthoods, and various other hon-
ors. They ordered that he should be named in all the pub-
lic prayers, and libations be poured to him at both public
and private entertainments. It was directed that the gates
of Janus should be closed, as war was now at an end.f

Caesar, meantime, having regulated the affairs of Egypt,
over which he placed Cn. Cornelius Gallus as governor, set
out on his return for Rome. He spent the winter in the
province of Asia, adjusting the affairs of the surrounding
countries; and during his abode, there the Parthian king
Phraates sent his son to him to be conducted as a hostage to
Rome. In the summer (725) he proceeded to Italy, and on
coming to Rome he celebrated a triumph of three days' du-
ration for his own victories at Actium and Alexandria, and

* These allies were either kings or republics. The former were
those of Judaea, of the Arabs, the Nabathasans, Comagene, Cilicia,
Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Armenia, Thrace, Numidia ; the latter,
Cydonia and Lampeea in Crete, Cyzicus, Rhodes, Athens, Tyre and
Sidon, Lycia, and the Ligurians of the Maritime Alps.

t Dion, li. 19, 20. Suet. Oct. 31.



4 AUGUSTUS. [b. c. 29.

those of his lieutenants in Dalmatia and Pannonia. He dis-
tributed money to the people ; he paid all his debts and for-
gave his debtors ; and the abundance of money became so
great in Rome, that the rate of interest fell two thirds.*

We are told that at this time Caesar had serious thoughts
of laying down his power and restoring the republic, and
that he consulted with his friends Agrippa and Msecenas
on the subject. The historian Dion Cassius has composed
speeches for these two eminent men, the former of whom he
makes advocate, though with but feeble reasons, the cause of
the republic, while the latter lays down the whole system
of the future monarchy. It is almost needless to state that
these cannot be genuine speeches; yet the consultation may
have been held. Ceesar was of a cautious temper ; he had
the fate of his uncle, the dictator, before his eyes, and the ex-
amples of Sulla and Pompeius showed that power might be
resigned with safety. A conspiracy of young Lepidus, the
son of the triumvir and nephew of Brutus, to assassinate him
on his return to the city, had lately been discovered, and the
author put to death by Msecenas, who had the charge of the
city.f Still it is difficult to believe that Caesar could have
really intended to divest himself of his authority.

The counsel of Msecenas having prevailed, or such being
his previous resolution, Csesar prepared to establish his pow-
er on a firm basis. The object which he proposed was to



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