Thomas Keightley.

The history of England online

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VOL. ni.



Commonwealth established. — Mutinies in the anny.— Affidn of Scotland.—
Fate of Montrose.— Charles II. in Scotland.— Affairs of Irehind.— Cromwell
in Scotland.^Battle of Dunbar.— Invasion of Enghmd.— Battle of Worcester.
Esci^ of Charles.-— Conquest of Ireland.^Dutch war.— Designs of Cromwell ;
— >he dissolves the parliament ;— its character, 1.



Form of government.— Barebone's parliament — Cromwell made Protector.
— ^nspirades.— The pariiament. — Rising of royalists.— Conquest of Jamaica.
— Conspiracy.— New parliament,-— The Petition and Advice.— The protector's
inauguration. — Death of Blake.— A fourth parliameBt.-«>Plots.— Dhiess and
death of the Protector ;— his character* 41.



The Protector's funeraL— State of parties.— Dissolution of parliament— The
Rump recalled.— Royalist inBurrection.-«>De8poti8m of the officers.- Proceed-
ings of general Monk.- Restoration of the king, 75.


CHARLES II. 1660—1667.

First measures oi the crown.— Trials and executions of the r^ddes.*-
Crown- and church-lands. — ^Duke of York's manriage.->-Savoy conference.-^
Trial and execution of sir Henry Vane. — Affiedrs of Scotland ;— of Ireland.* -

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King's marriage. — Sale of Dtmkiik.— Act of Uniformity.— Dutch war.—
Great plagoe.— Five-mile act.— Fire of London.— End of the Dutch war.—
Fall of Clarendon, 95.


CHARLES IL (copttinubd). 1668—1678.

The CabaL— Plot of the long against the protestant religion.— Royal mis-
tresses. — Coventry act.— Attempts of Blood. — Second Dutch war. — ^Parties in
parliament. — ^Pensions given by France. — ^Marriage of the prince 6i Orange. —
Pariiament. — ^Peace of Nimegoen.— Conduct of the country-party, 129.



Popish plot. — Sir Edmundbury Godfrey.— The Plot. — Impeachment of
Danby. — ^Parliament dissolved. — Trials.— New parliament. — ^Trials. — ^Persecu-
tion in Scotland.— Murder of archbishop Sharp.— Battle of Bothwell-bridge.
—Efforts of Shafte8bury.^Meal-tub plot. — Bill of exclusion.— Trial and ex*
ecution of lord Stafford, 164.


CHARLES II. (continubd). 1681—1686.

Oxford parliament and triumph of the court— Execution of Oliver Plunket.
Duke of York in Scotland.— Sunr^der of charters.— Rye-house plot— Trial
and execution of lord RussdL — Oxford decrec^^Trial and execution of Alger-
non Sidney. — Plans of the king ^— his death and character, 198.


JAMES II. 1685—1688.

Accession ot James ;— he goes publicly to mass. — ^Parliaments— Invasion of
Argyle ^— of Monmouth;— his execution.— JeflRreys's campaign. — Overthrow of
the Test act.*— Attacks on the church.— Parties at court.— Negotiations with
the court of Rome. — ^FaUure of the king in making converts.— Attacks on the
universities.— State of Ireland. — Fallacioas prospects of the king.^ — ^Prosecution
of the seven bishops.— Birth of the prince of Wales. — Invitation to the prince
of Orange.— State of the continent — Invasion of England.— Desertion of
James ; — his flight ;>-^etum to London ;— second flight ^— The Conventi<m. —
Prince and princessof Orange declared king and queen.- BeflecCions, 221.

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WILLIAM III. AND MARY II.— 1689— 1694.

Conveiitioii partiament. — ^Affairs of Scotland. — Battle of Kinicranlde. — Af-
ftin of Irdand.— Siege of Deny.—- Irish parHament.— Battle of the Boyne.—
English pailiament.— Conspiracy. — ^Taking of Athlone. — ^Battle of Aghrim. —
Siege of Limerick.— liassacre of Olenco.— Battle of La Hogue.«-Plot8 to re-
store James. — ^Death of the queen, 269.


WILLIAM III. 1694—1702.

Proceedings in parliament — ^Assassination plot— Attainder oi Fenwick.—
Peace of RyswidL — ^Proceedings in parliament— Act oi Settlement — ^Parti-
tion treaty.— Death of William III ;— Ms character, 298.


ANNE. 1702—1714.

Qoeen's accession. — ^Expedition to Cadiz.— Admiral Benbow. — ^War of the
Sucoestion, — ^Battle of Blenheim. — ^War in Spain. — Battle of Ramillies ;— ^
Almanza;— of Ondenarde ;— <»f Malplaqnet— Campaign in Spain. — Union
with Scotland. — Stmggles of parties. — ^Tnal of SachererelL — ^Triumph of the
tories^ — Harley stabbed by Gtdscard. — N^;otiations for peace. — Charges
against liariborong^ — Peace of Utrecht— Oxford and Bolingfarokeir— Death
of the queen.— State of the constitution, 315.


GEORGE I. 1714—1727.

New ministry. — ^Impeachments. — Msfa rebellion.— Septennial bill.— Hano*
Yerian Junto. — ^Peerage biU. — South-sea scheme. — Death and character of
Marlborough.—- Atterbur/s plot— Death of the king, 355.

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GEORGE II. 1727—1760.

Character of the long. — Bifiiiistry and parliament. — ^Walpole's Exdae-scheme
— Murder of Porteous. — Death and diaracter of the queen. — ^Anson's Voyage
—Overthrow of Walpole ^-his character.— The Siledan war.— Scottish rebel-
lion.— Battle of CuUoden.— Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.— Contest in America.—
Seven Years* War.— Admiral Byng.— Changes of ministry.— Victories of Bos-
cawen and Hawke.— Taking of Quebec— Death of Geoige II.— State of the
nation, 372.


GEORGE III. 1760—1784.

Accession of George III.— Resignation of Mr. Pitt.— Capture of the Ha-
vanna and Manilla. — Peace of Fontainebleau. — Change of ministry. — John
Wilkes. — Public writers. — Dispute with the American colonies. — ^American
war.— Change of ministry.— Rodney's victory.— Attack on Gibraltar.— Coali-
tion-ministry, 404.


GEORGE III. (continued). 1600—1789.
East India Company.— State of India.— First exploits of Clive.— Capture of
Calcutta.— Successes of Clivc^Battle of Plassey.— English in India.— Vigor-
ous reforms of Clive ;— his death.— Warren Hastings.— The Rohillas.— Cheyte
Sing.— The Begums.— Impeachment of Hastings.— East India bills of Fox and
Pitt. — Marquess Comwallis, 443.


GEORGE III. (continued). 1789—1802.

The Freneh revolution ;— its ^fect in England. — War with France. — ^Lord
Howe's victory. — Mutiny in the navy.— Batdes of St. Vincent and Camper-
down.— State of Ireland. — United Irishmen. — Irish rebellion. — Union with
Ireland. — Battle of the Nile; — of Copenhagen;-— of Alexandria.— Peace of
Amiens, 466.


War renewed.— Battle of Trafalgar.— Widg ministry.— Seizure of the Da-
nish fleet. — ^Peninsular War. — ^Battle of Yimiero ;— of Corunna ;— of Talavera.
Expedition to Walcheren.— Lines of Torres Yedras. — Battle of Albuera; — of
Salamanca ;— of Yittoria, Orthes, and Toulouse. — ^War with the United States.
—Battleof Waterloo.— State of the country.— <3eorge lY. and Catholic Eman-
dpation. — ^William lY. ; the Reform-bill. — Victoria.— Concluding observations,

Appendix ^ &29

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HOUSE OP STUART.— Part I. (continued).




Commonwealth established. — Matinies in the anny.— AiRun of Scotland.—
Fate of Montrose. — Charles U. in Scotland. — AfMn of Ireland.-^Cromwell
in Scotland. — Battle of Dunbar.— Invasion of England. — Battle of Worces-
ter—Escape of Charles.— Conquest of Ireland.— Dutch war.— Designs of
Cromwell ;— he diasolTes the pariiament ;— its character.

XHE very day of the execution of the king^ the commons
passed an act making it treason to proclaim the prince of
Wales or any other to be king of England or Ireland* On
the 6th of February they voted by a majority of forty-four
to twenty-nine that ^^ the house of peers is useless and dan*
gerous^ and ought to be abolished^'f; and the following

* Authorities same as for Charles I. with Thurloe, Milton and Burton. See
Appendix (A).

t The peers were allowed to retain their titles, but they lost their privileges ;
in return they became eligible to be elected into the house of commons, of
which Pembroke, Salisbury, and Howard of Escrick took advantage.

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day it was resolved that the office of a king is ^^ unneces-
sary^ burdensome^ and dangerous to the liberty, etc., of the
nation, and ought to be abolished.^' The next day (8th)
the great seal was broken to pieces by order of the house
and in their presence, and a new one substituted, of which
Whitelock, Lisle and sergeant Keble were appointed lord-
commissioners, to hold their office guamdiu se bene gesee^
rinU Of the judges six resigned, the others consented to
remain provided the parliament engaged not to alter the
fundamental laws. The Eing's-bench was henceforth to
be styled the Upper^bench 5 writs were to run in the name
of the ^^ Keepers of the liberty of England by the authority
of parliament''; an engagement to be true to the common-
wetfth of England took the place of the oaths of allegiance
and supremacy. In order to form an executive, five mem-
bers of the house* were directed to select a certain number
of persons to be a Council of State.

While the commons were thus converting the ancient
monarchy of England into a republic, a High Court of Jus-
tice was sitting in judgement on the royalists of rank who
were prisoners in their hands. On the night after the death
of the king, the duke of Hamilton had made his escape
from Windsor, but he was recognised and arrested by some
troopers next day as he was knocking in disgiuse at an inn-
gate in Southwark. Lord Capel also escap^i^ dnt of the
Tower, but he was discovered and seized by two ^^rmen
at a house in Lambeth. These two noblemen, wil|b lord
Norwich and sir John Owen, were some days after (10th)
brought before a High Court of Justice, presided over by

* Ntinely, Jolm lisle, Comdhu Holland, Thomai Soot, Edmund Lndlow
and Luke RoHnaon, all regiddes ezc^ the laat Godwin sayt, that " a re-
markable delicacy was observed in this business," as <* none of them had been
habitually concerned in the conduct of public affairs.'' They were however
as much oonoemed in them as most others. He adds, that the fire were
directed to nominate forty persons, and that (out of delicacy no doubt) they
did nominate only tlurty-fiTe, of course expecting, as it came to pass, that
they themselves would be added. Ludlow's own account is more honourable
to himself and finenda.

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1649.] COUNCIL OP iTATB. 3

Bradshaw^ and arraigned for treason. The duke^ who was
arraigned as earl of Cambridge^ pleaded that he was of an-
other nation^ under an order of whose parliament he had
acted; but to this it was replied^ that he had sat and voted
and otherwise acted as an English peer. Lord Norwich
and Owen simply pleaded not guilty. Capel pleaded the
articles of Colchester^ but Fairfax^ Ireton and colonel Berk-
sted asserted that these were only ^to free him from im-
mediate power of the sword to take his life.'* The court
sat on several days. Lord Holland^ who had been brought
up from Warwick^ was also put on his trial (27th); he
pleaded that quarter had been given him. None of their
pleas however availed ; th^ were all sentenced to lose their
heads (Mar. 6). A petition was presented to the parliament
the next day by the lady Holland and other ladies^ which
only procured a respite of two days ; the following day new
petitions were presented. The house then proceeded to
vote on their several cases; it was determined that the
duke and lord Capel should not be reprieved ; the votes
for and against were equal in the cases of Holland and
Norwich^ and the speaker^ by his casting vote^ condemned
the former and saved the latter. Colonel Hutchinson see-
ing sir John Owen without any one to make an exertion in
his favour, took pity on him and prevailed on Ireton to
give him his interest, and by their joint influence he was
saved by a majority of five *. Hamilton, Holland and
Capel were beheaded the next day (9th) in Palace-yard :
they met their fate with courage and constancy, especially
the last, who behaved, we are told, ^like a stout Roman.'*
The new Council of State when completed consisted of
forty-one members, of whom five were peersf. Bradshaw
was chosen president, and the office of Latin secretary was
bestowed on his kinsman John Milton |. The council was
appointed for a year ; the army, navy and ordnance were
placed under its authority; it had power to regulate trade

* life of Hixtcliiiiion, p. 807. f See Appendix (B).

t See Appendbi (C).


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and to negotiate with foreign states. The members were
required to take an oath expressing their approval of all
the late proceedings^ but only nineteen (among whom
fourteen were regicides) would subscribe it; the remainder^
headed by Fairfax and Vane^ positively refused. A new
form was therefore devised (Feb. 22) 5 they were only re-
quired ^ to approve of what shall be done by the commons
in parliament) the supreme authority of this nation.'^

This supreme authority was such a miserable remnant
of the parliament of England^ that they could not but feel
ashamed and uneasy as they gazed on their shrunken di-
mensions. To increase their number, they consented to
re-admit such members as had not voted in the a£Srmative
on the 5th of December, and who would record their dis^
sent from that vote on the journals ; they also from time
to time issued writs for new elections in places where their
interest was strong, and their number thus gradually rose
to about one hundred and fifty.

*^ Never/' says the panegyrist of the heads of the repub-
lican party, *^ never did any governors enter upon their
functions under more formidable difficulties than the men
who now undertook to steer and direct the vessel of the
new commonwealth. They were, in a certain sense, a
handful of men with the whole people of England against
them.*' In these words he has, we think, pronounced
their condemnation ; for a handful of men had no right to
take upon them to decide what form of government was
best for the people of England, and to force it on them by
the swords of a fanatic soldiery. Against them were the
royalists^ who though depressed were numerous and
wealthy ; and the presbyterians, whose hostility had been
to the church, not to the crown. On their side were their
great personal qualities, the arms of upwards of forty
thousand soldiers, and the greater part of the independ-
ents and the other minor religious sects.

The new government was in fact that species of tyranny
denominated oligarchy, and depending, like all other ^rran-

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nies, for its existence on the power of the sword. But it
was here that its chief source of danger lay ; the fanatic
principles of the levellers were widely spread among the
Praetorian guards of the new commonwealth^ and it was
not long ere they broke out into action. The fearless
John Ldlbume^ the sworn foe to despotism of every kind,
led the way by a petition against the Agreement of the
People ; petitions from officers and soldiers^ and from the
weD-affected in various parts, poured in, calling for annual
parliaments with entirely new members ; the enforcement
of the self-denying ordinance ; the abolition of the Council
of State and the High Court of Justice ; requiring legal
proceedings to be in English, and the fees of lawyers to be
reduced; the excise and customs to be abolished, and the
estates of delinquents to be sold ; liberty of conscience,
abolition of tithes, and fixed salaries of 100/. a year for the
ministers of the Gospel.

To quell the spirit of the army vigorous means were
employed. Five troopers, the bearers of a remonstrance
from several regiments, were sentenced by a court-martial
to ride the wooden horse, have their swords broken over
their heads, and be cashiered. Lilbume, who was keeping
up a constant fire of pamphlets*, was, with his associates
Walwyn, Prince and Overton, committed to the Tower
(Mar. 29). Numerous petitions, especially from the wo-
men t^ were presented in their favour, but without effect.
Mutinies broke out in the regiments destined for Ireland ;
the first was at Bishopsgate, in the city, where a troop of
horse seized the colours and refused to march. For this
five of them were sentenced to be shot, but with the ex-

* ** Eogland's New Chains Discovered ;" " A Second Part '' of the same ;
and ** The Honting of the Foxes from Newmarket and Triploe-heath to West-
minster, hy five small Beagles," alluding to the five troopers, &c

t *' They were bid/' says Walker, *' to go home and wash their dishes, to
which some of them replied. They had neither dishes nor meat left." A very
diiltanent answer, he says, from what they used to receive " when they had
money, plate, rings, bodkins and thimbles to sacrifice to these legislative

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ception of one named Lockier they were pardoned by the
general. At the funeral of Lockier^ (Apr. 30) the corpse^
adorned with bundles of rosemary dipped in bloody was
preceded by one hundred men in files; six trumpeters
Bounding a soldier's knell went on each side of it ; his horse
covered with mourning was led after it; then came thou-
sands of people with sea-green and black ribbons at their
breasts. The women brought up the rear; thousands
more of the better sort met them at the grave. This fu-
neral convinced the government of the necessity of acting
with energy^ for the mutiny was spreading fast. A captain
Thompson^ at the head of two hundred men^ set forth at
Banbury a manifesto named ' England's Standard Ad-
vanced.^ They were, however, surprised by colonel Rey-
nolds (May 13); Thompson fled, and his men surrendered.
A body of more than one thousand men moved from Salis-
buiy to Burford, where Fairfax came up with them. At
midnight Cromwell forced his way into the town and made
four hundred of them prisoners, several of whom were shot
by sentence of a court-martial (19th) ; the rest were par-
doned. Thompson was slain shortly after at Welling-
borough (21st), and the mutiny was finally suppressed.
On Cromwell's making a report to that effect to the house
(26th), a general day of thanksgiving for that great mercy
was ordered*.

It is now time that we should take a view of the state
of afiairs in Scotland at this conjuncture. The parliament
there, now under the control of Argyle, had sent instruc-
tions to their commissioners to protest against the trial
and execution of the king ; but it was evident that Argyle
feared to offend, and the men who drove on that measure
were not to be diverted from their purpose. No notice,

* There was another land of leyellera at this tune, named the ' Diggers,'
whose principle it was that the barren earth was to be made fruitfuL They
accordin^y repaired to St. GeorgeVhill, near Walton, in Smrreyi and began
to dig a common there, and to sow beans and other plants in it. Fair&x sent
two troops of horse and easily dispersed them, as their nomber was only

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therefore, wa« taken <>f the Scottish protest Whentidings
of the execution of the king reached Edinburgh^ the par-
liament forthwith (Feb. 5) proclaimed Charles IL provided
he would take the covenant and adhere to the solemn
league between the two kingdoms. Afterwards, when they
found themselves treated with contempt by the English
parliament, and their commissioners actually sent under a
guard to the fiontiers, they appointed oommissionero to
proceed to the Hague to treat with the king. These on
arriving (Mar. 26)> found Lanark (now duke of Hamilton)^
Lauderdale and Callendar, the chie& of the engagers^ and
the royalists Montrose, Kinnoul and Seaforth already there.
The antipathies and disputes of these parties caused dis-
traction and concision I and Charles, whose real design
was to repair to Ormond and the catholics in Ireland, was
little inclined to give them satis&ction. The murder of
Dr. Dorislaus, which occurred soon after, made it expedient
for him to quit the Hague. This civilian had been sent
as envoy from the parliament to the states. On the veiy
evening of his arrival (May 3), as he was at supper in an
inn, six gentlemen entered the room with drawn swords,

Online LibraryThomas KeightleyThe history of England → online text (page 1 of 47)