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THE



HISTORY OF THE WORLD,



FROM THE



iSarlicst ^txioti to tje ^reisent Cime :

iSRANGED SO THAT THE WHOLE MAT BE READ BY PERIODS, OR
THE HISTORY OF ANY COUNTRY BY ITSELF.

EMBELLISHED WITH

©nt lliunbrtli anb qr^tntj Bufirabtb Illustrations.



" - -7

BY DIONYSIUS LARDNER, LL.D.



WITH



EXTENSIVE ADDITIONS, BRINGING THE HISTORY OF EACH
COUNTRY DOWN TO THE LATEST PERIDI>.- ^



PHILADELPHIA:
CLAXTON, REMSEN & HAFFELFINGER,

G24, 626 & 628 Market Street.
1875.




.K^r^



THE LIBRARY
OF CONGRESS

WASHINGTON



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1874, by

CLAXTON, REMSEN &. lIArEELFIX(ii:E,

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.



Extract from a iiotice of Lardner^s Universal Hisionj, hy Dr. Frost,
the celebrated American Historiographer.

*' It is drawn with a masterly hand. The broad lines, the cha-
racteristic features, are all there. The lover of antiquity — the
admirer of cliivalry — the student of modern politics — will alike be
struck with its force and truth ; and the youthful reader may con-
template its bold outline without fear of its corrupting his taste or
misleading his judgment."



' t\



PREFACE.



The object of the writer of the present volume has been
to give a correct and comprehensive view of the history of
the world, which accuracy of narration and chronology
would render valuable as a book of reference, and in which
general views and reflections would remove the dryness
inseparable from a mere enumeration of facts. To the
separate histories of different countries it is as a general
map of the whole combined, representing in connection
what they exhibit isolated, and displaying the relative pro-
portions and importance of the several parts. So that the
attentive reader will find himself conversant and his mind
impressed wJrh most of the great characters and events
which occur in the history of the world.

For the plan of dividing the work into periods, the
author is indebted to the celebrated Mliller, and has adopted
several of the divisions employed by him in his Universal
History. That work, with those of Schlosser, Gibbon,
Hallam, and others, has been used in the preparation of the
work, with constant reference to contemporary and national
histories.



▼I PREFACE.

To prevent any misconception, the reader is requested to
bear in mind that this is a national and political history
mankind being regarded in it as divided into great societies
" Consequently, when religions are treated of, whether the
true or the false, they are regarded only in their political
relations and their bearings on national progress and
character. Theological discussion would be entirely out
of place in a work of this kind. \

There is an Index at the end of the work, by consulting
"which, under the head of any country, the history of that
country may be read in its historical and chronological
order. This will be done by referring to the pages under
its name. The wars and political relations of two countries
will be best known by reading the corresponding parts of
the history of each.



CONTENTS.
PART I.

ANCIENT HISTORY.

CHAP. I.

Introduction.
Of Man, 15. Original Seat of Man— Original State of Man, 16.
Ethiopians, 17. Chinese, 18. India, 22.

CHAP. 11.

Ancient States of Central and Western Asia.
Bactria, 23. Babylon and Assyria, 24. Egypt, 27. Phoenida, 29.
Philistines, 29. Arabia — Israelites, 30. Medes and Persians, 38.

CHAP. III.

Greece.
Early State of Greece, 45. Dorian Migration, 49. Sparta, 60.
Athens, 51.

CHAP. IV.
Greece to her Subversion hy the Macedoniant,
Persian War, 56. Peloponnesian War, 68. Lacedaemonian Do-
minion, 63. Theban Dominion, 64. Philip of Macedon, 67.

CHAP. V.

Alexander and hie Successors.
Alexander, 69. Division of Alexander's Dominions, 70. Macedon —
Greece, 74. Thrace — Bithynia, 75. Pergamus — Pontus, 76. Ar-
menia — Syria, 7P. Judea, 80. Parthia — Egypt, 81. Carthage, 82.

CHAP. VI.

Rome till the Punic Wars.
Rome under Kings. 85. Tuscans — War with Porsenna, 91. Dicta-
tor — Secession — Tribunes, 92. Spurius Cassius, and the Agrarian
Law, 94. The Decemvirs and the Twelve Tables, 97. Spurius
Moelius, 98. Wars anterior to the Gallic invasion, 101. Gauls —
Capture of Rome, 102. Rebuilding of the City — Manlius, 103.
Licinian Rogations, 104. Samnite War — Latin War, 108. War
with Pyrrhus, 109.

CHAP. VIL
Borne till the Time of the Gracchi.
Tirst Punic War, 110. Illyrian War— Gailic War, 123. Second
Punic War, 114. Macedonian and Syrian Wars, 115. Conqueat

vii



Till CONTENTS.

of Macedon — Third Punie War, 116. Achaean War, 119. Spanish
Wars, 12U

CHAP. VIII.

Rome till the End of the Repuhlic,

The Gracchi, 121. Jugurthine War — Cimbric War, 125. State of
Rome — Social or Marsian War, 126. Mithridatic and Civil Wars,
127. From the death of Sulla to that of Mithridates, 132. Cati-
line's Conspiracy — The Gallic War of Csesar, 134. Civil War of
Caesar and Pompeiua, 139. Events till the Death of Caesar, 143.
Civil War with Brutus and Cassius, 144. War between Octavianua
and Antonius, 147.

CHAP. IX.
Rome an Empire.

Emperors of the Caesarian Family, 151. Emperors chosen by the
Army, 155. Flavian Family, 156. Good Emperors, 159. From
Commodus to Diocletian, 161. Change in the Form of Govern-
ment, 168. Corruption of Christianity, 170.

CHAP. X.

Decline of the Empire.
Successors of Constantine, 174. The Huns, 179. Wars with the
Goths, 180. Genseric and Attila, 185. Fall of the Western Em-
pire, 187.



PART II.

THE MIDDLE AGES.

CHAP. I.

Eatabliahment of the Barbarians in the Western Empire.

Gotho-Germans, 192. East-Goths in Italy, 192. Lombards in Italy
— Burgundians, 194. Allemanni, 195. Franks, 196. Anglo-
Saxons, 199. West-Goths in Spain, 200. Byzantine Empire, 201.
Persia, 206.

CHAP. II.
TTie Times of 3fohammed and the First Khalifs.

Mohammed, 208. First Khalifs, 214. Conquest of Syria, 215. Con-
quest of Persia — Conquest of Egypt, 219. Invasion of Africa. 220.
Ommiyades — Conquest of Africa — Conquest of Spain, 221. Inva-
sion of France by the Arabs, 222. France — Lombards, 225. Con-
stantinople, 226. Germany — England, 227.

CHAP. IIL

The Times of Charlemagne and Haroon-er-rasheed.

Italy, 227. Empire of Charlemagne, 231. Feudal System, 232.
England — Constantinople, 234. Abbaside Khalifs, 237.



COr^l-ENTS. is

CHAP. IV.

Diasohition of the Great Emjnrea of the East and West.

Empire of Charlemagne, 240. Hungarians, 2-43. Northmen, 244.
France — Germany — House of Saxony, 246. Italy, 250. England,
251. Russia, 252. Constantinople, 255. Decline of the Arabian
Empire — Africa, 256. Decline of the Arabian Empire — Asia, 256.
Causes of the Decline of the Power of the Khalifs, 261. Gas-
nevides, 262. Spain, 263.

CHAP. V.

Increase of the Papal Power.

Italy — Normans, 264. Italy — Popes, 269. Italy — Lombard Cities,
274. Germany — House of Franconia— France, 275. England, 276.
Spain — Constantinople — Seljookians, 280, First Crusade, 285.

CHAP. VI.

The Papal Power at its Greatest Height.

Italy — Popes, 287. Italy — Lombard Cities, 292. Italy — Naples
and Sicily — Germany — Swabian Line, 293. France, 298. En-
gland — Plantagenets, 299. Ireland — Spain, 304. Portugal — Al-
mohades, 305. Persia — Saladin, 306. Mamelukes — Constantino-
ple, 309. Crusades, 310. Mongols— Chingis Khan, 315. End of
the Khalifat at Bagdad, 316.

CHAP. VIL

Decline of the Papal Power, and Formation of Great Monarchies.

Italy — Popes, 317. Italy — Republics, 323. Italy — Naples and Sicily,
328. Germany, 330. Switzerland — France, 334. England — Plan-
tagenets, 342. Wars between France and England, 349. Scotland,
355. Scandinavia, 360. Poland, 361. Hungary — Ottomans, 362.
Tatars — Timoor, 367. Spain, 371. Portugal, 372. Discovery of
America, 373.



PART III.
MODERN HISTORY.

CHAP. L

View of the State of Europe.

England, 379. France — Germany — Russia, Poland, Scandinavia-
Switzerland and Savoy, 380. Italy, 383. League of Cambray—
Spain and Portugal, 384. Turkey, 385. Persia, 386.

CHAP. IL

Times of Charles V.

Accession of Charles V., 389. Reformation, 390. Wars of Charlea
V. and Francis I., 391. Affairs of Germany, 396. Renewed War
■with France, 397. Affairs of Germany, 398. England, 402. Spain
and Portugal — Italy, 403. Denmark and Sweden — Turkey, 407.

2



Z CONTENTS-

CHAP, in.

Timea of Philip fl.

Btate of Europe at Philip's Accession, 408. France, 409. Nether-
lands, 416. England, 422. Portugal, 426. Germany— Poland,
427. Italy, 428. Turkey, 431.

CHAP. IV.

Times of the Thirty Years' War,
Germany, 432. France, 429. Spain, 443. Portugal — Italy — Eng-
land—The Civil War, 444. Holland, 448. Russiar— Turkey and
Persia, 449.

CHAP. V.

Timea of Louia XIV.
France to the Peace of the Pyrenees, 450. England to the Restora-
tion — Wars till the Peace of Nimeguen, 453. England to the
Revolution, 459. Wars to the Peace of Ryswiek, 460. England —
Spanish Succession, 462. North of Europe — Peter the Great —
Charles XII., 471. England, 472.

CHAP. VI.

Period of Comparative Repose,

England — Quadruple Alliance, 475. Russia — Turkish Wars, 477.
Persia — Nadir Shah, 478.

CHAP. VII.
Timea of Frederic II.

Silesian Wars, 481. England, 487. Russia — Seven Years' War, 488.
Suppression of the Jesuits, 493. First Partition of Poland, 494.
Turkish War — American Revolutionary War, 495. India — Persia,
603.

CHAP. VIII.

Times of the French Revolution and Empire.

State of Europe, 506. French Revolution, 511. Europe to the Peace
of Campo Formio, 515. Affairs to the Assumption of the chief
power by Bonaparte, 516. Affairs till the Peace of Amiens, 518.
Affairs of Europe to the Treaty of Tilsit, 521. Affairs to the Treaty
of Vienna, 522. Progress of the Peninsular War, 524. Invasion
of Russia, and Fall of Napoleon, 527.

CHAP. IX.

Times of the Restoration and Louia Philippe.

State of Europe, 536. France, 539. Great Britain, 551. Spain,
554. Portugal, 559. Italy, 564.* Germany and Prussia, 567.
Netherland, 568. Austria, 570. Russia, 573. Sweden, 574.
Turkey, 577. Greece, 578. United States, 582. Mexico and
Central America, 590. South America, 591.

CHAP. X.

Times of the Continental Revolufion».

France, 596. Great Britain, 598. Italy, 601. (^rmany and Prussia
— Austria, 602. Russia and Turkey— The United States, 605,



HISTORY OF THE WORLD.



PART I.
ANCIENT HISTORY.

CHAP I.

INTRODUCTION.



Of Man.

There are different races of our species occupying the vari-
ous portions of the earth, and distinguished from each other
in corporeal structure and in mental development. These nu-
merous varieties are, by the ablest investigators, reduced to
three principal stems, viz. the Caucasian or Europeo-Arabic,
the Mongol, and the Negro or Ethiopic. The first contains
the people of Asia north and south of the great mountain
range of Caucasus and its continuation to the Ganges, of Eu-
rope, and of Northern Africa; the second, the people of East-
ern Asia and of America ; the third, the tribes with woolly
hair and sable skin that people the African continent. Yet
many tribes can with difficulty be brought under any one of
these divisions: the endless variety of Nature is as apparent
in the human race as in the animal and vegetal)le kingdoms.

Original Seat of Man.

It is, perhaps, a useless inquiry to search after the rejrion
in which man was first placed, the paradise of his first days
of innocence and happiness. The only historic clew we pos-
sess are the names of the four rivers, said in the Hebrew re-
cords to have watered the land in which the progenitors of
the human race dwelt. But as no four rivers can be found
on the present surface of the earth afi^reeing in all points
with those mentioned by Moses, our safest course is to con- A^

fine ourselves to the inquiry after the region where those who J>^

escaped the great inundation which overwhelmed the earth,
resumed their destined course of life and occupation.

The general opinion, founded on the literal interpretation
of Scripture, has long been, that at the time of the flood all

15



16 HISTORY OF THE WORLD. PART L

mfinkind perished, save Noah and liis family. Some, how-
ever, contend, that the words of the inspired writer are not
to be taken so strictly, and that as his information was des-
tined for a particular poidon of mankind, it may have been
only intended to instruct them in the history of the race to
which they belonged, while that of other races may have
been passed over in silence. Hence they would infer that we
are not precluded by the Mosaic writings from supposing, that
at the time of the great inundation other portions of mankind
may have saved themselves in different manners and places.
They therefore look to the higher regions of the earth, and
find three elevated ranged m the neighborhood of the three
distinct stems into which we find mankind divided. The lofty
range extending from the Black Sea to the east of India has
been at all times regarded as being, either itself or the lands
south of it, the original seat of the Caucasian race. Still
more east, beyond Tibet and the desert of Gobi, rises another
range, regarded as the original seat of the Mongol race which
dwells around it : and the Mountains of the Moon and their
branches are thought to point out the primitive abodes of the
Negro race. America, it is probable, was not, till long after
adapted for the abode of man.

These, however, are all questions of curiosity rather than
of historical importance. At the dawn of all history we find
the various races of mankind distinct, and no history informs
us of the origin of the differences. We have therefore only
to consider them in their separate states, or as intermingled
with and affecting each other.

Original State of Man.

Another point which has given occasion to a good deal of
ingenious conjecture, is the original state of mankind. Philo-
sophers, on surveying the human race in its different situa-
tions, have traced out four distinct states. — those of the mere
fruit and plant-eater, the hunter, the herdsman, and the cul-
tivator, — and have generally inferred that man has pro-
gressively passed through all these states, commencing at the
lowest. Yet this is still but mere conjecture, unsupported by
any historic evidence. No tribe has ever yet been found to
civilize itself; instruction and unprovement always come to
it from abroad ; and experience would rather lead to the in-
ference, that the savage is a degeneration from the civilized
life. In the very earliest history, that of the Bible, we find
the pastoral and agricultural life coexisting almost from the
commencement of the world; at all periods we find man
possessed of the useful and necessary arts, the master of



;hap. l introduction. 17

flocks and herds, the employer of the spade, the plow, and
the sickle. It is in vain we seek for commencement, — all is
progress. In imagination, we may conceive a time, when
the human race was in the lowest degree of culture ; but, on
inquiry, we everywhere meet the arts, meet men collected
into societies, meet property, legislation, and government.

It may perhaps be collected from the testimony of the
sacred Scriptures, and from the deductions of philosophy, that
man has always existed in society, and that the first societies
were families, the first form of government patriarchal : and
the following may be stated as the most probable hypothesis ;
namely, that man commenced his existence in the social state
under the mild and gentle form of government denominated
patriarchal ; that his first nourishment was the fruits of trees
and plants, which ripened in abundance for the supply of his
wants in some temperate and fertile region of the earth,
possibly that at the south of Caucasus, or where now extends
the paradisal vale of Cashmeer ; that gradually he became a
keeper of flocks and herds, and a cultivator of corn; that
families spread and combined ; and that from their union
arose monarchies, the most ancient form of extended civil
government.

It is in this last state that we propose to consider mankmd,
and to trace the great and important events that have taken
place among the various stems and branches of the human
race; to show how, beneath the guiding energy of the
Creator and Ruler, the great machine of human society has
proceeded on its way, at times advancing, at times apparently
retrograding, in the patli of perfection and happiness. And the
final result of our view of the deeds and destinies of man
will, we trust, be a firm conviction in the mind of every
reader that private and public felicity is the result alone of
good education, wise laws, and just government, and that all
power which is not based on equity is unstable and transient.

It is to the Caucasian race that the history of the v/orld
must mainly confine itself, for with that race has originated
almost all that ennobles and dignifies mankind: it is the
chief depository of literature, and the great instructor of
philosophical, political, and religious systems. We shall re-
strict ourselves, therefore, chiefly to the history of that race,
briefly premising views of the state and character of the
^Ethiopians, the Mongols, and the Indians.

jEthiopians.

We have already observed, that under this name are in-
} uded all the mhabitants of Africa whose bodily conforma-
2*



18 HISTORY Of THE WORLD. PART L

tion does not prove them to be of the Caucasian race. The
indefiniteness of the term JEthiopian employed by the Greeks,
and applied by them to all people of a dark complexion, and
the similar indefiniteness of the Hebrew Cush^ prevent our
being able positively to say whether the obscure traditions of
the JEthiopian power extending along the Mediterranean to
the straits of Gades, and of that people having, under their
king Tearcho, made themselves so formidable to the inhabit-
ants of the coasts of the iEgean, are to be understood of a
purely Negro empire, or of, what is much more probable, a
state like that of Egypt, where the lower orders of society
were of Negro, the higher and dominant classes of Caucasian
race. Within the historic period of both ancient and modern
times, the Ethiopian race only appears as furnishing slaves
for the service of the Caucasian, to whom it has been always
as inferior in mental power as in bodily configuration. Though
modern travel has discovered within the torrid wastes of
Africa large communities ruled over by Negro princes, and
a knowledge of many of the useful arts, yet civilization and
policy have- never reared their heads in the ungenial clime.
As literature has never been theirs, whatever revolutions
may have taken place among them are buried in oblivion, and
they claim no station of eminence in the history of the world.

The Chinese.

The Mongols stand far higher in the scale of intellect and
in importance than the ^Ethiopians. As we proceed, we shall
find them striking terror into Europe by their arms and their
numbers. One nation of this race, the Chinese, has long
been an object of curiosity to the western world, from its ex-
tent of empire and the singularity of its social institutions.

The Chinese empire occupies an extent of surface equal to
that of all Europe, containing within it every variety of soil
and climate, and natural production ; thus rendering it in
itself perfectly independent of all foreign aid. In its social
institutions it has presented through all periods a model of
the primitive form of government, the patriarchal, and an
exemplification of the evil of continuing it beyond its just
and necessary period. In China all is at a stand-still ; suc-
ceeding ages add not to the knowledge of those that have gone
before ; no one must presume to be wiser than his fathers :
around the Son of Heaven, as they designate their emperor,
assemble the learned of tlie land as his council; so in the
provinces the learned in their several degrees around the
governor; and laws and rules are passed from the highest
down to the lowest, to be by them given to the people. Every



CHAP. 1. iNTRODUCTiON. 21

even the \nost minute, circumstance of common life is reou
lated by law. It matters not, for example, what may be the
wc^a.ltJi of an individual, he must wear the dress and build his
house after the mode prescribed by ancient regulations. In
China every thing bears the stamp of antiquity; immovable-
ness seems to be characteristic of the nation ; every imple-
ment retains its primitive rude form ; every invention has
stopped at the first step. The gradual progress towards per-
fection of the Caucasian race is unknown in China ; the plow
is still dra\vn by men ; the written characters of their mono-
syllabic language stand for ideas, not for simple sounds ; and
the laborious task of learning to read occupies the time that
might be employed in the acquisition of valuable knowledge.
Literature has been at all periods cultivated by a nation
where learning (such as it is) is the only road to honor and
dignity, and books beginning with the five Kings of Con-fu-
tsee, which equal the four Vedas of India in the honor in
which they are held, have at all times been common in this
empire. A marked feature in the Chinese character is the
absence of imagination : all is the product of cold reason.
The Kings speak not of a God, and present no system of re-
ligion: every thing of that nature in China came from India.
The uncertain history of China ascends to about 2500
years before the Christian era ; the certain history commences
about eight centuries before Christ. According to Chi-
nese tradition, the founders of the state, a hundred families
in number, descended from the mountains of Kulcum, on the
lake of Khukhunor, north-west of China; and hence the
middle provinces of Chensee, Leong, Honan, &:c. were the
first seats of their cultivation. These provinces are in the
same climate as Greece and Italy. Twenty-two dynasties of
princes are enumerated as having governed China to the
present day, the actual emperor being the fifth monarch of
the twenty-second or Tai Tsin dynasty. Of these dynasties,
one of the most remarkable is the Song, which ruled over
the southern empire at the time China was divided into two,
and fell beneath the arms of the Yver or mingled nomadic
tribes, led to conquest by the descendants of Chingis Khan.
This line, which reigned from A. D. 960 to 1280, distinguish-
ed itself by the encouragement of the arts and sciences ; it
cultivated relations with Japan, fostered trade and commerce,
and in all things went contrary to the established maxims of
Chinese policy, and while it lasted the empire bloomed be-
neath its sway ; but the hordes of the desert levelled its glo-
ries, and its fate has been ever since held up as an awful
warning to those who venture to depart even a haii-'s breadth



22 HISTORY OF THE WORLD. PART J

from the ancient manners. At an earlier period, under the
dynasty of Tsin (248 — 206 B. C), China first received reli-
gion from India ; but the missionaries were not artful or pru-
dent enough to adapt it to Chinese maxuns of state, and they
were unsuccessful in the contest between them and the,
learned. At a later period, when the Buddhism of India had
become the Lamaism of Tibet, it entered China as the reli-
gion of Foe, and by the worldly prudence of its bonzes or
priests, succeeded in gaining a favorable reception and be-
coming the religion of the state. Every thing that hopes for
success in this country must fall in with the national charac-
ter. China has often been overcome, and its reigning dynasty
changed ; but the manners and institutions of China remain
unaltered, as different from those of the Caucasian race aa
the features of the Chinese face are from those of the Euro-
pean.

India.

From the Chinese, a nation of cold reason, almost no reli-



Online LibraryThomas] [KeightleyThe history of the world → online text (page 1 of 44)