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Virginia 8 per cent of her native population of this
same age is uneducated. In Pennsylvania there were
2,194,300 between the ages of 6 and 20 years, of whom
1,366,541 or 62.3 per cent attended school. Besides
these 22,822 under the age of 6 years and 21,875 over



EDUCATION AND THE PROFESSIONS 225

the age of 20 were attending school. The native white
population sent 88.1 per cent of their children to
school, while the foreign bom white sent but 79.6 per
cent, a lower percentage than that of the negroes, of
whose children of school age 82.9 per cent were in
schools. The report of the Commission of Education
of the United States for 1914, showed 19,352,952
pupils in various public schools, colleges, professional
and otherwise, and 2,279,554 in like institutions of a
private character. Of this number Pennsylvania con-
tributed 1,263,418 to the elementary public schools,
80,242 secondary, 10,155 higher instruction, and 1,791
to public universities and colleges. Those receiving
private instruction in Pennsylvania in the various
grades and institutions amounted to 219,016.



Higher Education

The report of the Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion for 1915 states that there are 35 colleges, 7 uni-
versities, 8 theological seminaries, 5 medical schools,
1 veterinary school, 3 schools of pharmacy, 3 dental
schools and 4 law schools in Pennsylvania. Besides
these institutions there is a theological seminary at
Overbrook, connected with the Archdiocese of Phila-
delphia. Of the colleges and universities there is a very
equable territorial distribution, the number of students
being 32,590, of whom 23,233 are male and 9,357 fe-
male, under the instruction of 2,513 teachers. The
University of Pennsylvania traces its origin to a
charity school founded by Benjamin Franklin in 1740,
which was chartered as a college in 1775, of which the
Reverend William Smith, author, orator and states-
man, was the first provost.



226 THE COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA

Dickinson College at Carlisle was founded shortly
after the Revolution; Franklin College was chartered
in 1787 and was united with Marshall College in 1853.
In 1865 the Academies at Canonsburg and Washing-
ton were united, under the title of the Washington and
Jefferson College. It has been the custom to grant
charters to institutions to confer academic degrees with
great liberality. In the history of the State upwards
of 100 of these have been chartered from time to time,
of which only a quarter survive. Some of them re-
ceived appropriations from the State and grants of
land, but none received any regular appropriations
until about 1870. Pennsylvania State College, estab-
lished under an Act of Congress in 1862, and an Act
of Legislature in 1863, may be looked upon as a State
institution. It began as a Farmers' High School in
1855, situate on the Irving Farm in Centre County.
The leading object of this institution, including scien-
tific and classical studies and military tactics, is to teach
such branches of learning as are related to agriculture
and the mechanical arts. It receives $50,000 annually
from Congress, together with a further sum of $30,000
for the maintenance of an agricultural experiment sta-
tion. The State, while never failing to appropriate for
the institution, has never fixed a regular sum. The
appropriation for 1914 amounted to about $500,000.

The institutions for higher education in the State
are, for the most part, supported by private donations,
although from time to time certain State appropria-
tions have been made for their benefit with more or
less regularity. Their support is frequently provided
for by the various denominations. The Catholic
Church supports Duquesne University, Villanova, St.
Joseph's, La Salle and five other institutions of higher
education. The Presbyterian Church is the patron o^



EDUCATION AND THE PROFESSIONS 227

Lafayette, Washington and Jefferson, Westminster,
Geneva, Waynesboro and Allegheny Colleges; the
Methodists carry on Dickinson College at Carlisle ; the
Lutheran colleges are at Gettysburg, Allentown,
Greenville and Selinsgrove; the Reformed Church
maintains Franklin and Marshall at Lancaster and
Ursinus at CoUegeville ; the United Brethren main-
tain a college at Myerstown; Haver ford and Swarth-
more Colleges belong to the Orthodox and Hicksite
Quakers respectively; Juniata College is an institu-
tion of the Baptists, whose influence also controls
Bucknell University and Temple University, Philadel-
phia; Bryn Mawr is a college for women, as also is
Wilson College, at Chambersburg, Irving College at
Mechanicsburg, Allentown College and Pennsylvania
College for women at Pittsburgh. In connection with
some of these institutions there are altogether thirteen
theological seminaries in the State.

The largest institution for higher education is the
University of Pennsylvania, situate near the banks of
the Schuylkill River in West Philadelphia. It covers
a tract of 117 acres of most valuable real estate on
which are erected 37 buildings. For the year 1916 it
employed 606 teachers and educated upwards of 8,000
students, 6,048 of whom were in the undergraduate
schools and the balance in the graduate departments of
education, law, medicine, dentistry and veterinary med-
icine. For the same year, the assets of this institution,
including buildings, grounds and equipment, amounted
to $20,440,000, of which about seven and a half mil-
lions are invested in income securities. In 1917 there
were 9,042 students registered. The endowment fund
amounts to about $3,000,000. For the administration
of the University proper, including the graduate
courses, evening school, teachers' courses, etc., the ex-



228 THE COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA

penditures for 1916 amounted to upwards of a million
and a half, while the voluntary gifts in cash and se-
curities amounted to $1,596,000, and the gifts to the
hospital to $182,000. The appropriations by the State
for this year and for the year 1916 were $375,000 each
and for the hospital $75,000 each. Large sums have
been expended by this institution in archaeological re-
search for the museum, one of the most notable in the
country and still under construction. A very important
department is the extensive hospital of the medical
school. Phipps Institute for the treatment of tubercu-
losis, the Evans Institute of Dentistry and the Dental
museum, the Wistar Institute of anatomy and biology-
form parts of this great university.

One of the most interesting educational institutions
is the Carlisle Indian School, founded in 1879 by Gen-
eral R. H. Pratt and supported by the United States
Government. It consists of 50 buildings, occupying
311 acres of land. It aims to train the Indian youth
of both sexes, giving thorough academic and vocational
training, preparing them to earn a living either among
their own people or elsewhere. It affords courses in
agriculture, mechanical arts, home economics, and hos-
pital nursing. Applicants must be between the ages of
14 and 21 and must have at least one-fourth Indian
blood, preference always being given to the full-
blooded Indian. There is a certain amount of military
drill for the boys, but only sufficient for discipline. Up
to 1915 this school had graduated 694 students.

In 1916-17 the State of Pennsylvania appropriated
for educational purposes, both State, semi-State, and
private institutions, $9,752,000, $8,000,000 of which
was for common and normal schools, $450,000 for the
State College, $375,000 for the University of Pennsyl-
vania, $300,000 for the University of Pittsburgh, and



EDUCATION AND THE PROFESSIONS 229

$162,000 for vocational education schools. The total
annual expenditures for public instruction for the year
1915, $58,114,225, was nearly equal to the entire ex-
penditures of the Federal Government prior to the
Civil War.

Private donations for education have been many.
The endowment made by Stephen Girard, who died
December 26, 1831, was for the education of orphan
boys in Philadelphia, and was the first large gift of
its character, his example being followed in many no-
table instances. Among men who have contributed
their time or wealth for the promotion of education,
may be named Francis Daniel Pastorius, Christopher
Sauer, Rev. William Smith and the Muhlenbergs of
the colonial period. Governor Wolf used his influence
for the promotion of the public school system in 1820.
Samuel Breck, member of Congress, devoted great
energy to this same end. It was he who framed the
Act of 1834, assisted by Thaddeus Stevens — whose
eloquence went far towards insuring the passage of
this important measure.

The first State Superintendent of Public Instruction
was Henry Tyler Hickock, whose office has since been
filled by a number of worthy successors, among the
most notable being James P. Wickersham, who was
superintendent for fourteen years, from 1866 to 1881.
The present Superintendent, Nathan C. Schaeffer, has
been in office since 1893, performing his duties with
eminent ability. In connection with higher education
in modern times, Charles J. Stille and William Pepper
were provosts of the University of Pennsylvania, and
Joseph Wharton, Andrew Carnegie,' Anthony J.
Drexel, Griffith T. Jones and William Bucknell were
liberal contributors to or founders of schools or
colleges.



230 the commonwealth of pennsylvania
The Medical Profession

The requirements for the practice of medicine are
are under the supervision of the State Bureau of
Medical Education and Licensure and are as follows:

Satisfactory proof that he or she is twenty-one years
of age, is of good moral character, is not addicted to the
intemperate use of alcohol or narcotic drugs, and has
had a general education of not less than a standard four
years' high school course, or its equivalent — all of which
have been received before admission to the second year
of medical study — and have attended four graded courses
of not less than thirty-two weeks of not less than thirty-
five hours each, in different calendar years, in some
reputable and legally incorporated medical school or col-
lege, or colleges, recognized as such by the Board issu-
ing license to practise in the State in which the college
is situated — the dean or proper officer of which shall
certify that the applicant has successfully passed such of
said respective courses.

There are similar rules for the practice of osteopathy
and careful regulations controlling the practice of vet-
erinary surgery and medicine. There is a State Board
of Examiners, known as the State Board of Veteri-
nary Medical Examiners, consisting of five members,
graduates of a recognized veterinary college, whose
duty it is to see that the requirements of the law in
connection with that profession are carried out.

Noted Physicians and Surgeons

The first practicing physician in Pennsylvania was
John Goddson, who came with Penn from England in
1682. Griffith Owen, a Welshman, was the first phy-
sician of note. He came to Pennsylvania with Penn
on the "Welcome". Dr. John Kearsley came from



EDUCATION AND THE PROFESSIONS 231

London in 1711 and was the first man in the colony to
conduct a medical school. He was also a skilful
architect and designed Independence Hall and Christ
Church in Philadelphia. He was contemporary with
John Bartram, the first American botanist, who
founded the T.innaean Society and the Philadelphia
Medical and Physical Journal, and was the first teacher
of natural science in America. They were followed
by Dr. Thomas Bond, founder of the Pennsylvania
Hospital (1751), Dr. Thomas Cadwalader, noted dis-
sector and teacher of anatomy, and publisher of the
first medical work in the provinces (1746). He was
also the first American physician to employ electricity
in the treatment of diseases. Contemporary with him
was William Shippen who advanced medical education
by schools rather than by the apprenticeship system
prevailing up to that time. Dr. John Morgan was the
first professor in a regular medical school established
on this continent. Cadwalader, Bond, Shippen and
Morgan all studied extensively in Europe. During the
Revolution, Dr. Shippen became director-general of
the entire medical service of the American forces, and
Dr. Benjamin Rush of the Middle Army, and both
rendered distinguished service to their country during
this war. The first Medical Society of America was
established by these men in 1751.

In 1699, 1741, 1747 and 1762, the city of Phila-
delphia was visited by severe epidemics of yellow fever.
Dr. Benjamin Rush, in his account of the epidemic
Says there were 6,000 cases in the city and only three
physicians who were well enough to attend to them.
About ten per cent of the population of the city died of
this malady. Dr. Rush was the most distinguished
physician of this time. He was eminent both in
America and Europe as an orator, scholar, scientist



232 THE COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA

and statesman, and was one of the signers of the
Declaration of Independence.

In the succeeding generation, Dr. Phihp Syng Phy-
sick, known as the "Father of American Surgery," and
Dr. Thomas Woodhouse, teacher of chemistry, were
leading physicians. Dr. Nathaniel Chapman founded
the first permanent medical journal in America, in
1820. Other eminent physicians in the next generation
were William P. Dewees, William E. Horner, anato-
mist and dissector, Robert Hare, inventor in electric-
ity and chemistry, and Dr. Samuel Jackson, sanitarian
and exponent of the French School, succeeded in turn
by George McClellan, founder of Jefferson Medical
College, and Robley Dunglison, teacher and medical
writer.

Dr. Ann Preston, (1813-1872) was the first woman
to occupy a chair in a woman's college in this country.
She was chosen Dean of the Woman's Medical College
in 1866. Dr. Joseph Leidy, world-famous naturalist,
succeeded Drs. Shippen, Wistar, Syng Physick and
Horner as professor of anatomy in the University of
Pennsylvania in 1853, and held the position for thirty-
eight years. He was the discoverer of trichina in the
hog. Dr. D. Hayes Agnew, an eminent teacher of anat-
omy and a great surgeon, attended President Garfield
at the time of his assassination in 1881. Alfred Stille,
1813-1900, writer and medical teacher, for many years
head of the University of Pennsylvania Medical School
(1854-55 and 1864-84) and Samuel D. Gross (1805-
1884), surgeon, were the leading physicians of their
day and went far to make Philadelphia one of the prin-
cipal medical centres of the world. Since the Civil War
this reputation has been maintained by Dr. George B.
Wood, voluminous writer on surgical and medical sci-
ence. Dr. William Pepper, provost of the University of



EDUCATION AND THE PROFESSIONS 233

Pennsylvania, Dr. J. M. Da Costa, one of the pioneers
in clinical medicine, famous diagnostician and heart
specialist, Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, nerve specialist, medi-
cal author and poet, and Drs. Horatio C. Wood and
W. W. Keene, neurologists.

Philadelphia leads all cities in the Union in its cru-
sade against tuberculosis, carried on by Dr. Lawrence

F. Flick, former head of the Phipps Institute and the
Department of Health of the State, under Dr. Samuel

G. Dixon. The efforts of the physicians and surgeons
throughout the history of the Commonwealth have
combined to keep Pennsylvania, and particularly Phila-
delphia, in the front rank, not only in America, but in
the world, as a centre of medical education, scientific
research and surgery practice.

Among the leading surgeons of the present day are
Drs. Ernest La Place, John B. Deaver, Robert G. Le
Conte, William E. Ashton, John H. Gibbon and Ed-
ward Martin. Drs. F. X. Dercum, neurologist, M.
Howard Fussell, James M. Anders, Alfred Stengel,
John G. Qark and George E. de Schweinitz are emi-
nent in the field of special and general practice in Phil-
adelphia. The first named was chosen president of the
Clinical Congress of America for the year 1917.

Dentistry

Pennsylvania has long been the leading State in
dental education and practice and the manufacturing
of dental supplies. The first dentist in Philadelphia
was a Frenchman, Michael Poree, mentioned in the
"Gazette" and in Watson's "Annals of Philadelphia"
as practising in 1781. James Gardette and Joseph La
Maire, both Frenchmen, were in Philadelphia in 1784;
John Baker is mentioned in the city directory in 1785



234 THE COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA

(Roch, "Dental Surgery," pp. 94, 99). The most
eminent dentist of his time and founder of modern
dentistry was Edward Hudson (1772-1833). He came
to Philadelphia from Ireland in 1805.

The first dental school in America was established
in Baltimore in 1839 under Dr. Harris. Twelve years
later, the Philadelphia College of Dental Surgery was
chartered by Drs. J. D. White, Ely Parry, Robert
Arthur, Elisha Townsend, T. L. Buckingham and D.
B. Whipple. After four years, this institution closed
and the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery was
organized with Hon. Henry C. Carey as president and
many of the same faculty as the Philadelphia College.
This institution lasted until the Philadelphia Dental
College and Hospital of Oral Surgery was chartered
in 1852 and opened in 1863 under Drs. John H. Mc-
Quillen, J. F. Flagg, C. A. Kingsbury, Thomas War-
dell and Henry Morton. In 1907, this institution
merged with Temple University. The School of
Dentistry of the University of Pennsylvania was
opened in 1878, being the third dental school started in
connection with a university, those organized at Har-
vard in 1867 and at the University of Michigan in
1875, preceding. The plan of instruction was arranged
so that subjects common to medicine and dentistry
were taught concurrently.

In 1896 the Pittsburgh Dental College was opened
as a department of the University of Western Pennsyl-
vania. The Medico-Chirurgical Hospital established
a dental department in 1897. Philadelphia has been
maxie famous in the dental world by such men as James
Gardette (1756-1831), J. De Haven White (1815-
1895), J. William White (1815-1891), John H. Mc-
Ouillen (1826-1879), J. E. Garritson (1828-1894), S.
S. White (1822-1879), W. G. A. Bonwell (1833-1899),



EDUCATION AND THE PROFESSIONS 235

Marshall H. Webb (1744-1883), J. Foster Flagg
(1828-1903) and Wilbur F. Litch (1840-1913).

Dr. S. S. White, besides his dental practice, was no-
table as an inventor and manufacturer of dental sup-
plies andi implements. James Truman, Edwin T.
Darby, Lewis Jack, William H. Trueman, E. C. Kirk,
S. H. Guilford and Matthew H. Cryer have been in
modern times the leaders in the profession either as
teachers or practitioners. Since 1840 there have been
twenty-one dental periodicals published in Pennsyl-
vania. At present there are six in circulation.

Dr. Thomas W. Evans (1823-1897), long the leader
of his calling in Paris, was a native of Philadelphia
and by his will left a liberal fund for the erection of
what is now known as the Thomas W. Evans Dental
Institute, conducted as part of the Uiniversity of
Pennsylvania, affording special facilities for the prose-
cution of individual scientific research work in dental
science and art. Its museum and laboratories are very
elaborate and complete. It is situated in West Phila-
delphia at 40th and Spruce Streets, occupying an ar-
tistic building of Henry VIII Gothic style.

The Legal Profession

In the legal profession Pennsylvania has taken a
leading position, the lawyers of the State having at-
tained high rank as jurists and in political life. The
profession has contributed to the United States one
President, two Vice-Presidents, in the persons of
James Buchanan and George M. Dallas, three Secre-
taries of State, seven secretaries of the Treasury, six
Secretaries of War, of whom Edward M. Stanton is
the most prominent figure, eight Attorneys-General
and five Associate Justices of the Supreme Court.



236 THE COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA

For admission to the Bar the following rules have
been enacted :

Any person desiring to become a member of the Bar
must file his application at least twenty-one days before
taking the preliminary examination, setting forth the
fact that he is of good moral character, and his applica-
tion must be certified by three members of the Bar in
good standing in the judicial district where he resides.
He must pass preliminary examinations in English, his-
tory, Latin, mathematics and geography, and then enter
upon a three years' term of study either by attendance
at a law school offering a three years' course of eight
months in each year, or partly in an office of a practising
attorney, or by service of a regular clerkship in the office
of a practising attorney. He must advertise his inten-
tion to apply for admission once a week for four weeks
immediately preceding the filing of the application, which
must be twenty-one days before examination. Examina-
tions for admission are in writing. Attorneys in good
standing who have been admitted to the courts of last
resort of other states, or who have practised therein for
at least five years, and can furnish evidence of good
moral character, may be admitted without examination,
upon the recommendation of the State Board of Ex-
aminers. Those who have been in good standing in other
states and have practised for one year may be admitted
upon taking the final examinations prescribed for resi-
dents of this State, and if they have not practised for
one year, but shall have served in a regular clerkship in
the office of a practising attorney for the same period,
they may be admitted on taking final examinations. Both
preliminary and final examinations are held during July
and December in Philadelphia, Harrisburg, Pittsburgh,
Williamsport and Wilkes-Barre.

There is a Board of Legal Examiners consisting of
five members, four assistant members and a secretary
and treasurer.



EDUCATION AND THE PROFESSIONS 237

Eminent Lawyers

The first judges of the colony were not learned in
the law but were men foremost in common sense and
influence, frequently called to high administrative office
while acting in judicial capacity. Such were Dr. Nicho-
las Moore, the first appointed Chief Justice, and Arthur
Cooke, the first actually to preside over the court. The
first practising attorney in the colony of whom there
is any record, was Charles Pickering in 1683. David
Lloyd was appointed Attorney-General in 1686 and
John Moore was King's Counsel in 1700.

The greatest lawyer in the colony and considered by
some the leading lawyer of his time, was Andrew
Hamilton who was Attorney-General in 1717, and died
in 1741. Benjamin Chew was the last Chief Justice
under the Crown and Thomas McKean was the first
Chief Justice after the Revolution. Since his time the
leading jurists in the State have been John Bannister
Gibson, who was Chief Justice from 1837 to 1851,
George Sharswood, from 1877 to 1882, and James T.
Mitchell, 1903 to 1910. Sharswood, besides his career
as a judge, won high praise as a commentator and legal
writer.

Prior to and during the Revolution the leading men
of the Bar were James Wilson, active in the drafting
of the Constitution, William Tilghman, William Lewis,
Jared IngersoU, William Bradford, William Rawle,
Alexander James Dallas and John Sergeant. Lewis
and IngersoU obtained fame as orators; Bradford
modified the penal laws and for this work is entitled
to enduring gratitude; Rawle was the first writer on
constitutional law, while Dallas, besides being a great
advocate, was one of the prominent statesmen of his
day, as was John M. Read in this and the next epoch.



?38 THE COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA

Prominent in the next generation were Horace
Binney, William M. Meredith and Peter S. Duponceau.
The leading advocates were David Paul Brown, no-
table as a criminal lawyer and orator, Jeremiah S.
Black, Chief Justice of Pennsylvania and Attorney
General of the United States (one of the counsel for
Andrew Johnson in his impeachment trial), and Thad-
deus Stevens, statesman and abolitionist. Since the
Civil War among the leading lawyers have been Ben-
jamin Harris Brewster and Wayne McVeigh, At-
torneys-General of the United States, George W.
Biddle, George Tucker Bispham, advocate, teacher and
legal author, W. U. Hensel, advocate and State At-
torney-General, John C. Bullitt, draftsman of the re-
organized government of Philadelphia, Samuel Dick-
son, expert railroad reorganizer, and Philander C.
Knox, United States Senator. James M. Beck, publi-
cist and orator, was for many years active at the


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Online LibraryThomas Kilby SmithThe commonwealth of Pennsylvania → online text (page 17 of 23)