Thomas Nugent.

A new pocket dictionary of the French and English languages : in two parts, 1. French and English, 2, English and French ; containing all the words in general use and authorized by the best writers ... online

. (page 1 of 86)
Online LibraryThomas NugentA new pocket dictionary of the French and English languages : in two parts, 1. French and English, 2, English and French ; containing all the words in general use and authorized by the best writers ... → online text (page 1 of 86)
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The several Pans of Speecli — Th(» senders of ilie French Nouns— The accenfs of the English Words

for the use of Forei^'uers— An Al[ihabt^iical l,ist of the most usu.'il Cliristian and Proper

iNanies ; and of Uie most remarkable places in the known World.



With the Addition of the vew fVurds, inserted in Mnitanlirs and J,e Clere's last Edition of the
National French Dictionary; llie Irreiiulnntirs nf the English Verbs and Noune;
and a comprehensive View of the Provuncialion and Syntax of tlie «
French Language.


Stereotyped by J. Harding.

-^.0[^ -


The rapid and increasing sale of this Dictionary leaving no doubt of its
utility, neither trouble nor expense have been spared in this edition to de-
serve a continuance of the public esteem. Sensible of such decided pre-
ference, two different editors in Paris determined to profit by it. One of
them, in an edition sold by Mr. Santin, copied literally this work, boldly
assuming the name of the present editor. This was an injury, but not a
direct insult. The other, in an edition for Mr. Theophilus Barrois, threat-
ens with a prosecution any person who shall presume to pirate his manuscript.
Manuscripty indeed ! whoever will be at the trouble to compare the two edi-
tions, will find that editor to have been a minute copier of this present Dic-

As to his asseveration of being the first who inserted the several irregu-
larities in the Enghsh verbs and nouns — nothing, to use the softest expres-
sion, was ever more groundless. He took them, word for word, from this
work, in which they were inserted by the present editor more than twenty
years ago, with the following paragraph in the preface: — *' This edition con-
tains all the irregularities in the English language — a convenience which is
not to be found in any other French and English Dictionary .'^ - v

Another paragraph was this: — *' Ladies at the head of sclfeols, and pri-
vate governesses, will find their laudable wish fully satisfied, as the most scru-
pulous care has been taken to expunge all improper expressions." It must,
however, be granted, that the copier followed here his own plan, and re-
placed with the strictest attention, all the rude and offensive words which
the present editor had left, and continues to leave out.

As to some articles which that editor added, they chiefly consist of obso-
lete and uncouth expressions, which will for ever remain undisturbed, or
of words minutely technical, which the present editor always avoided to
insert, because a literary Dictionary can never be made an Encyclopsedia:
otherwise, why not have added the whole series of words belonging to che-
mistry, botany, painting, &c. &c.? All the chief words, either naval or mi-
litary', with those of the several arts and sciences, used in general reading
and conversation, are, and always were, in our Dictionary, according to the
excellent plan of the French Academy and of Dr. Samuel Johnson.

We hope that this moderate defence against an injurious encroachment
will not be deemed improper here; and we finish with observing, that this
edition continues to have the convenience of a clear and comprehensive
view of the pronunciation, accidence, and syntax of the French language, with
a pailicular Section on grammar in general.



I. "When polysyllables are spelt alike
in both lang\iag-es, or are only altered
at the last, or two last syllables, they
will be found in tlie following manner:
Abbrevia/Zon, f. — tion. AbominaZ//£-
nicnl, ad. — bly.

II. When several words of the same
part of speech follow one another,
the mark of the part of speech is only
put after the first word, and answers
to all the others. The same method
has bvien foUjpfd with regard to the
gender of tde Jt rench words.

III. When a letter, or a syllable,
such as e, re, ease, Sec. follows a French
adjective, it is to show its feminine.
As the adjectives ending in e, with-
out accent, are always of both genders
in French, they have no special mark
in this Dictionary. Those that are
quite irregular, are printed without

IV. When you meet with a line
thus: — , tliat begins a new article, it
means the repetition of the preceding
word, which generally has another sig-

V. AVhen there is but one meaning
to an adverb, if there be near it an
adjective of the same root, and with
different significations, the adverb
generally has them all. — Thus tendre-
menf, ad. has all the meaning of ten-
dre, a. This observation, which serves
for several hundred adverbs and often
for substantives, will he. of great ser-
vice to young translators.

\T. The frequent asterisks in the
first part, show the following words
to be Irregular; and such iiTCgularities
are explained in the second part, iii
looking for those words in their alpha-
betical order.





We divide this Introduction into four Sections. The first exemplifies the principles of the
French Pronunciation ; tiie second treats of Grammar in general ; the tliird presents a compre-
liensive view of tiie several Parts of Speech in tiie FrencJi and Englisli languages ; the fourth
contains the fundamental Rules of tli^ Frencli t-ynta.x.


Of the French Provviiciaiion.

The French aiphaliet consists of 25 letters, in
the order of this Dictionary: a, 6, c, </, e, /, g,
A, i, j, k, I, ?rt, 7?, o, p, q, r, s, t. «, v, x, y, z.
They are divided, as in English, into vowds
and consonants.

;Some particular marks, called Accents, are
essential to the orthography of the French
words, and aflect their sounds.

The acute accent (') is put upon e, and gives
to it a slender and acute sound, nearly as a in
ale, pale. Ex. He, bonte, gcncrosite.

The grave accent ( ") is put chiefly upon e, a nd

gives to it an open and grave sound, nearly as a
in play, day. Ex. frcre, crime, chevre.

'J he circumflex accer.t ( ) is put upon any
vowel, and gives to it a brMAsound, just as the
sound which distinguishes Wpfctoin hat, shaicl
from shall. Ex. du pldtrc, vo'UMftes, les v'ttres,
jc bru le.

The apostrophe indicates the elision of a vow-
el : as rdme for la dine ; I'arbre for le arbyf.

The cedilla gives to the c the sound of #, be-
fore a, o, u. Ex. il lanca, via l^on, novs re-


Observe first. That the French letters s and z,
when added to the substantives and adjectives
to mark the plural number, serve likewise, m
general, to Icngtlien the sj liable which precedes
them. Ex. uu solddt, dcs soldats ; un effet, des

Secondly, a vowel with a circumflex, is al
ways broad; as, vous ctes drole; but vowels
Open A ; sounded like o in shall
Broad A ; sounded like a in shawl
Slender E ; sounded like a in ale

and so sound er, ez, and i
in the final syllables >
of verbs. )

Open E ; nearly like ay in may

er ; ( :

ez ; ^ I

ai ; ( (

are often pronounced broad, although without
a circumflex, as will appear in the following ta-

The vowels a, e, i, o, u, produce, by their
combination witli other letters, many other sint-
ple sounds, which we treat as vowels in the
following order.

Bague, cave, mascarade
Platre, blame, rare
Th6, caf6, felicit6
Parler, danser, Jouer
Vous parlez, dansez, joucz
J'ai, je sais, il salt
Regie, zele, caractere



Broad E ;

ai, aie ;
ais, aix ;

— ois ;

oient ;
elB, aits :

Guttural E ;

and so sound ai and ei in
first and middle syllables ; et
in final syllables; c, not ac-
cented, but followed by two
consonants, or a final c, /, I,
r; oi in the impeifect and
conditional tenses of verbs.

I sounded nearly like e in there ;

\ and so sound ai, aic, ais, aix ;
•^ also ois and oient in the im-
perfect and conditional tenses
of verbs, likewise ets, aits, is.

at the end of racnosyllables. >
and in the composition of '
words, is sounded like c in ^
sister. ;

eu, OBU, r

eu. So sound nearly eu and au —
eux,<| likewise eu, eux, eus, ceux,
eus, and euse, but much graver.
OBUX, euse, 1.

J'aime, vaine, gramraaire
Haleine, peine, enseigne
Bonnet, bos<iuet, bracelet
Toilette, sagesse, denteile
Bee, chef, sel, enfer
II parloit, il parleroit

N. B. Wherever oi has the sound of e or t,
many authors change oi into ai; Frangaii, .^it-
glais, il parlait, &iC.

Tempfete, tfete, conquete
Maitre, aise, craie, futaie
Jamais, desonnais, la paix
Les Francois, les Anglois
J'aimois, lis airaoient
Sujets, regrets, presdu prt
Succes, proces, ici pres

Je, me. que, devenir, parvenir

Peu a peu, jeune, le peuple, vocu —
Jeune, honteux, je meurs, tu peui
Oiufs, voeux, crease, heureuse

Silent E ; givesafuU sound to a final consonant,

which otherwise would be silent
Slender I ; sounds like ee in sleep
OpcnO; sounded like o in come; so

au ; sounds au at the begiiming and end of

Broad 6, O ; sounded like o in cold ;

OS, ots, so sound the final syllables

aux; OS, ots, aux ; likewise au in mono-
Slender U ; these vowels have no similar

u ; sound in English ; ix sounds like u,
but is a little longer
Slender OU ; sounded like oo in cool
Open na^al UN, UM ; no similar sound In

Open njisal OX, > „ , , .

OM • ( "^^"F '•'^c "^ in tcont
Broad nasal IX, something of the sound of

ini, ein, in as pronounced in saint,

ain, aim; pint

Broad nasal .\X, something like an in
am, en, em, tcant, warrant, but still

ent, aon, aen, more nasal

Sain, saine ; point, pointe ; charmant, chai

mante ; m^decin, medecine
Dislributif, par ici, visible, veritt
Parole, mode, microscope
Bateau, tableau, automate

Aumone, apotre, anemone
A propos, repos, mots, abricots
Travaux, m6taux, un seau d'eau

Perdu, vaincu, tumulte
Je brule, tu bruies, il brule

Bf aucoup, dessous, joujoux, amour
Chacun, comniun, tribun, importun, parfuw

Cordon, manchon, ballon, charbon

Pompe, tronipe, surnom, interrompMjns

Clavecin, chagiin, quinze, dindon

Importun, timbre, le sein, les reins

Romain, demain, la faim, un daira

Sultan, tyran, chantre, rang

Ambre, chambre, vengeance, printems, sou vent,

paon, faon, la ville de Caen
Sa<^ne (a river.) taon (agad-fly,) pron. S6ne, ton


N. B. 1. When after morn follows an e mute in tlie same syllable, or another »i or » with a
Towel in the following syllable, the sound ceases to be nasal. Ex. chacun, chachune; miduin, nU-
iecine; fripon, friponne; baron, baronne; point, pointe.

2. Ent is silent in the third person plural of verbs, but the preceding consonant has a very full
lound. Ex. tin sautent ; Us dansent ; Us parlent ; Us mangent.


C'est un grand joueur
Des routes boueuses
Louise est 6blouissante
Vous fetes tres-enrou6
Jouet, souhait, il louoit
II croit que c'est de la moelle de poisson
lis louoient, je louois, des jouets
Que les rois soient justes
Tu jouas afin qu'il jou4t
Ce rouage va tres mal
Nousjouons; nouslouons
II fait son joujou d'un babouin
Je vis dans mon coin sans soin ni besom
II vit en jouant ; la ville de Rouen

A la lueur des 6toiIes
Son front respectueut
Donnez lui un biscuit
Cette nu6e a remu6 vers le sud
II remuoit ; un langage muet
Je le saluois ; ils cherchoient des blueU
II continua d'observer le nuage
Tu continuas ; tu substituas
Nous nous saluons ; nous continuonF
Les liqueurs suintent en Juin
II a I'air d'un chat-huant

La chiourme forca de rames
Les Confucius et les Fabius
Adieu monsieur le rieur
I'aime ces vieux messieurs
Je me conflai a son amiti6
Ma niece est vieille ; il ^tudioit
Ils se fioient a ce niais, & je m'en d^fiois
Un diademe orn6 de diamans
Ratafia, galimatias
Ce n6gociant est trop confiant
Ses passions le font rugir comme un Hop

Ce lien ne tient4 rien

ic, e« ««««>,, » »...,..«» . -", Lemaintien d'un client; ^

Y, by itself, or at the beginning of a word, or Assis a I'ombre d'une yeuse, il y jouoit de la
after a consonant, sounds sim ply like the vow- lyre

y, not beginning a syllable, and followed by a Essayez vos crayons. Ce royaume ee loyal Les
vowel, sounds u, and forms two distinct syl- passans sont joyeux

Formed from the Vowels.


ou andeu ;


ou eu;


ou i;


ou 6;

Ouet, ouait, ouoit,

ou 6;

Oi, oit, oe.

o 5 ;

Ouets, ouois, oaoient,

ou 6;

Ois, oient.

ou 6:

Ouas, ouat,

ou 4;


ou a open;


ou on;


ou in ;


o in;

Ouan, ouen,

ou an:

Formed from the Vowels.


u andeu;


u eu ;


u i;


u 6;

Ue, net, uoit,

u e:

Uets, uois, uoient,

u— 6;


u a open ;

Ua, uas.

u a broad;


u on;


u ^in;


u an;

Formed from

the Vowels.


\ and ou ;


i u;


i eu ;


i eu;

lai, 16,

i 6;

16, ioit.

i 6;

lois, ioient, W.s,

i 6;


1 a open,-

I h broad;


i an;


i on;

len, always in verbs,

and in some nouns,

i ain ;

Jen, in nouns, i ain;

and i an;

le soutien d'un patient


Two dots over a vowel, called trema^ or diisre- Ce poiite a de la naivet6. Les vers lambes sooi
*is, iodieate that those two vowels are not to sonores, Saul haissoil David,
be pronounced in the same syllable.



B has two Bounds ; b,

Somewhat between p and 6,

C has three sounds ; before a, o, u, A,

Before e, i, or with q s,

In some words, nearly ff,

L'h has two sounds ; sfi,

Ch in many words, k,

D has two s»iunds ; d,

Before a vowel or /i mute, t,

F has two sounds ; /,

Generally before a vowel or A mute, v,

G has three sounds ; before a, o, u, harsh g,

Before e, i, j,

[n some words, A-,

Gu is generally iiiiuid, i'tja, ifnio^

ffJlJ, g^w,

Sometimes noi liquid,

H has two sounds ; aspirated,
Not aspirated,

K has one sound ; always as a harsh c,

L has two sounds ; liquid, ^'^'fl? 5'-''-'i

N«t liquid, /a, /«, /;,

M has three sounds ; ?«,

With the nasality of n.

As in Englisl), gem, sUm, helm,

N has three sounds ; naaal,

As n m ten, fen,

P tag one sound ; ^,

(i has iliree sounds ; in dropping u, a,

With u in its natural sound, cu,

With u sounded ou, cou,

R has one sound, r,

Generally mum in nouns in tre before a

S has two sounds ; s,

Generally between two vowels, :,

T has two sounds ; t,

In substantives in tion ; proper names, in )
Uen ; adjectives ic tial, tiel, tieuz, tien, > s,
and their derivatives S

V has one sound ; p,

K. has four sounds : ks.

As gs in the English word eg^s, gz,

A hissing sound, as in hiss, as,

Af in zea/, zephyr, 2

Bon jour, mon bon ami
II obiinl un pouvoir absolu
Du ojnible des grandeurs on le culbuta dans un

Cedilie, citron, lanca, lecon, recu,
La seconde fois ; une bccjisse &. une becassine
Du chocoiat bieii cliaud; un cheval Aug ois
La voix des bacchantes ; un echo
Doiinez-nioi des diagees de Verdun
Repondil a ce grand hoimne
Jesuis frappo de ctlte faiale nouveile
Neuf lioiiunes ; pei.dant ncuf ans
Gusman de GoHzaie : dii gazon
J'aiuiG 1«; giroile &. !e girigenibrc
Suer sang it eau ; un long enirctien
Les vigRobk's de la Bouigogne &. de la Cham

La gnomoniqne ; des uaux stagnantes
Lb oherjjs sont h:\idis ; un esprii hargueui
'Jii liomme hcureux &;^lu)iuieie
Le Kail desTariarcs ; lasoudo est du kali buill
Ce snifcii bnli.ant me blesse rail
Aclihie altaquK la ville tie Troie
Mei:cz moi cliez ma mere
Jfe sais son iiom a-sd sou snrnom
Sem, Jerusalem, Seliin, Epliraun
Ce chien nc; j>reJid rien
L'ennemi est ansianii
L'amcur &. Thymen ; i! <iit amen a lout
Le pauvre est eans pouvi ir &. sans pain
Qualite vaut niieux que quantit6
Une statue iqiiesire ; le quniluple de vingte
Le veau marin est un quadrupede aquaiique
Voire argent reslera sans interet
Voire pere a un autre projet ,

Soyez sage & sarhez vons taire
Voici une rose : j'ai perdu mon fuseau
Souvent la traiiison a les dehors de ramiti*
La patience est la portion du pauvre
Les Empereurs Domitien &. Dioclelien
Partial, essentiel, asiiLdtieux, impatient
Veneznie voir Vendredi procliam
Les coiifcuses taxenl le beau sexe
Exigez qu'il vnus en df>ime I'exemple
Soixante, Bruxelies, Cadix, Auxerre
Deux oeufs &: s-ix amandej

Les douze sigiico du zodaique
Je suis de Metz, & lui de Khodez

Z haa two sounds ;

When a final,

N. B. The consonants c, /, ^, r, are commonly sounded at the end of words ; but the other con-
sonants are almost always silent, unless they are joined to a final e mute ; as saint, sainte; pru-
dent, prudcnte; JLouis, Liouise; Romain, Romaine; petit, petite.

The rule generally given, that a word ending nouncing the final consonants of the verbs; j'a-

witli a consonant should be joined to a word be-
ginning with a vowel, is absolutely erroneous,
and leads to a heavy aflected manner of pro-
nouncing. It is true that in reading verses, and
m public speeches, consonants are oftener and
more strongly sounded before a vowel ; either
to preserve the measure of the verse, or to give
a quicker impulsion to the air, and be heard at
a greater distance. But in conversation, and in
familiar reading,nothing is more carefully avoid-
ed by all unaflected people.

However, as there are many cases in whicli
the consonants must be joined to the vowels, we
sliall endeavour to give a clear rule, with its mo-
difications, for the direction of Foreigners.

1. Let us observe that the consonants c,/, I, r,
few words excepted, are always joined to the
next vowel of any word which follows them.

2. Tlie same remark stands good for any
ether consonant that, by custom, is pronounced
full at the end of some particular words ; which
for the most part are ancient and modern /o-
reign nd^mGS. Thus in the words Venus, Bac-
chus, Memphis, Jlbraham, &c. the final conso-
nants keep their /ttW and natural sound, eitlier
before a consonant or a vowel ; therefore pro-
nounce Venus aimable, Venus blessee, Bac-
chus endormi, Abraham obeiasant, &c. in sound-
ing fully the final consonants.

3. The verbs are never joined by unafiTected
speakers,to the word which follows them, unless
tiiat word be their pronoun conjunctive, the in-
determinate pronoun on., or the supplying pro-
nouns y and en; which three last always sound
before and after verbs. — Thus read without pro-

N. B. The letters to be joined to the next vow-
els, have approaches (^-')
Les arbres de mon all6e ;

The trees of my alley.

Lcs &, des annoncent le pluriel ; mon & ton
expriraent la possession.

vois eavie; il parut accable, nous parlames a
Antoine. — But, sound the final consonant, both
of the verbs and pronouns, (according as they
meet either before or after one another) in such
constructions as these; allonsy; m'attend-on?

Donnez-en? en-avez-vous? On-en-aura; vous ai

mez ma sceur ; & elle vous aime. Parut-il acca-

bl6 1 Je ne puis qu'y faire, dit-elle.

4. However, one may sometimes sound, but
always very gently,the final consonant of a verb
before the infinitive avoir and elrc. Jlfaut avoir;
on doit etre. ^~'

5. The t of est and sont from the verb etre,
sounds before any vowel. Jl est adroit; elles

sont aimablcs ^~'

6. Tlie t of the conjunction et (and) is always

7. The final n in nasal sounds is never to he
joined to the next vowel, except in these four
words; un, on, bicv, rien; and in masculine
adjectives ending in n, when Ihey precede their
substantives beginning with a vowel ; as, mon
bon ami ; j'ai son argent ; donne moi ton epee.

8. S and x, joining a vowel, take the somid of
z; d of t; g of k; and / the sound of v.

These observations being premised, wc may
now offer tlie general rule.

The final consonant of a word, (especially v,
s, t, X, and 2) is sounded before a vowel, when-
ever ihe first word necessarily affects the second,
that is, either deierniines, qualifies, or modifies
its signification; such as, an article and its noun,
a preposition and its case, &.c. &c. witli the ex-
ceptions above mention«!d.
References to the foregoing observations and
to the general rule.

Les and vwn, as articles, modify the words
arbres and allee; therefore, by the general rule,
the s and it are sniindi d.

Tlies in its and (/f.*, and the win mon and ton,
are silent before the in;xt vowels, because lea

Tlie vDcrds Ics and des show the plural num-
ber; the '.cords mon and ton announce posses-
Les y &. les en soat d' un grand usage en Francois.

The pronouns y and en are of great use in
Vo'u imitez voa freres; & nous aussi, nous

les iraitons.

You imitate your brothers; and we also imi-
tate them.

Un avis important,

Un imponant avis ;

An important advice.

Whenever some words will appear to contra-
dict the general rule, let them be examined with
care, and the reader will easily perceive that
such licenses are taken to avoid either an am-


aes, mon, and ton, are taken abstractedly, and
do not ad'ect tlie next word witJi their right of

Hercs is pronounced before y and en, because
les, as article plural to y and ew, determines tho
extent of tlieir siguiticaiion — d is sounded before
usage, because grand qualifies usage.

Here the a- of vous sounds before imitez, because
it determines imitez, being its conjunctive pro-
noun. The s of nous is silent before aussi, be-
cause it does not adect it, but a farther word
imitons, the conjunctive pronoun of vvliich it is
Tlie 5 of les is sounded before imitons, by the
second paragraph of the third observation.

The n of un is sounded by the seventh obser-
vation. The s of avis is silent before important,
because avis does not qualify important, but is
qualified by it. The t of important, sounds be-
fore avis, "because important alfects avis by
qualifying it.

biguity or a harsli sound ; because, as says M.
I'abbe d'Olivet, the Frencli prefer an irreguJarity
to a discordant sound.

The French have tvvoe's not accented, as has
been already seen in the table of the vowels.
One of them is always silent, and only serves
(as far as relates to pionunciaiion) to lengthen
the syllable which precedes it; as, un grand
point; une grande pointe. Un medecin

Tlie other unaccented e has a sound of its own,
which coming from the throat, as in the English
words daughter, sister, gives to it the name of
guttural e.

That e is sometimes pronounced, and some-
times not ; and in this consists a great ditticuity
for foreigners, who alwa^'s pronouncing it full,
are long before they are able to follow a French
conversation, and thence are inclined to believe
that the French spyak much fastei than anyothcr
nation. The truth is, that the French, taking
them in general, do not speak faster than other
people, but in conversation, and in familiar read

tention to the following remarics will remove
every difficulty.

When a guttural e ends a second syllable, it
is not pronounced ; and this is effected in the
following manner ; the first syllable joins the
une consonant of the second, and the e thus unsup-
ported, remains silent: Ejc. (iuand vous se-
rez le luftnie, vous nie trouverez le meme. ""

This sentence contains thirteen syllables in
prose : Quand voiw se rez le meme vous me trou
ve rez le meme. In verse, mime would be divid-
ed into two syllables.

In familiar reading, and in conversation, it
only contains eight syllables : Quand vouss rei
memr, vousm trouv rel mem.

Observe, 1. If the guttural e of the second
syllable is either preceded or followed by a diph-
thong or a vowel compounded of ttvo lettersjsnch
asau, ei,ou,Se.c. thee must then be^en£/y heard;

iiig, they drop the guttural e, as often as they can such we mark m the following examples with
do it, and thus go quicker through a sentence an asterisk(*).

Online LibraryThomas NugentA new pocket dictionary of the French and English languages : in two parts, 1. French and English, 2, English and French ; containing all the words in general use and authorized by the best writers ... → online text (page 1 of 86)