of the people, that although they have been strip-
ped of their substance by their own friends â€” by
our troops â€” there is no abatement of their love for
the old Government. Many rations have been
issued daily from the Government stores; but for
this, more than a few would be without bread.
Even those who have supplies have only enough
to last for a short time, and then, unless assist-
ance comes from abroad, man) 7 , I fear, will suffer
terribly for bread." * * * * " From the de-
struction of fences, impressment of horses, and
absence of forage as well as laborers, I fear that
only a small part of our farms will be cultivated
during the present year. Numbers of the people
are driven to seek homes north of the Ohio; many
others must follow, not willingly, but because
there is no help for it."
An address to the people of the State of New
York, drafted by William Cullen Bryant, Esq., was
published by a large and influential committee; but
the aggregate of contributions to the New York
city relief fund was less than $20,000, of which
one-fourth was from Buffalo.
Mr. Taylor's wife and children had of necessity
left home, and with them he dwelt at Haddonfield,
N. J. As strangers, with narrow means of sup-
MR. TAYLOR AND FAMILY IN TROUBLE. 3*9
port, their faith and patience were tried, and at
one time severely. They were delivered when in
great need, by an interposition that appeared to
come from a Divine Providence.
The family of exiles, numbering thirteen, al-
though not free from painful recollections of recent
life in Tennessee, were no longer disturbed by
alarms of war or shocked by atrocities of a hos-
tile soldiery, and were contented and happy in
their new home. In the afternoon of the day
when Mr. Taylor returned from an absence of six
weeks in New England, his wife said to him:
"We are nearly out of provisions. You must
go to market in the morning. Besides, the rent is
due next Monday and it must be met promptly."
"Well, of course I'll go to market, and I'll settle
the house-rent; but I suppose (drawing an almost
empty purse from his pocket) you will furnish the
money, as I believe I am about broke."
"Why, dear me," she exclaimed, with length-
ened face and fading color, "is it possible you have
come back home without money? You are surely
"Indeed, my dear wife, I am in dead earnest.
All I have in the world is this five dollar bill,"
For the first time in all their troubles, she lost
faith and hope, and was helpless. Overcome by
emotion and unable to speak, she dropped into a
chair, sobbing. When the power of speech re-
turned, she bewailed their condition:
"Oh! oh! just think to what we have come.
Here we are a thousand miles from home. If we
320 THE LOYAL MOUNTAINEERS.
were there, enemies are ready to kill us. Here
we are among strangers, in a rented house â€” rent
due â€” provisions all gone â€” thirteen in family â€” and
only that five dollar bill between us and starvation."
Confessedly, the case had a dark out-look, and
to any person of desponding mind it would appear
desperate. Her paroxysms of grief brought all
the household together; they stood around in deep,
silent sympathy; but the head of the family soon
rallied courage to speak in a tone of cheerfulness,
not very well sustained:
"My dear wife, I am astonished at your want of
faith and extravagant apprehensions. We are in-
deed among strangers, but they are our friends.
Would the Lord lead us through all the dangers
we have survived, only to let us starve here in a
peaceful, prosperous land? And that, when we
are in His service â€” working for the poor and des-
titute in unhappy East Tennessee? Away with
your fears, and be assured that the same God who
has led us safely so far, will lead us safely to the
Her mind was calmed by these words, but they
failed to remove all its doubts and forebodings.
Next morning, the husband went to Philadelphia,
armed with a bushel market basket, and after pay-
ment for a round ticket by railroad, with his five-
dollar bill distressingly reduced in size. Prices of
provisions were high. He had to buy inferior
qualities to supply the needful quantity, and to use
thought and skill lest his little means prove unequal
to the occasion. At length he started homeward,
PRAYER FOR HELP ANSWERED. 32 1
with the basket cheaply but plentifully filled, and
in passing through Haddonfield was hailed by the
postmaster and given a letter for his wife. It was
postmarked at Boston. Who could have sent it?
"Perhaps some of our rebel kin," he thought,
"have been captured and taken to that city, and
have written to her."
All day he had been praying inaudibly to the
Lord for help, and he believed it would come, but
all his forecastings as to the whence, how and
when of its coming, had only been perplexing.
He did not dream it would be from strangers and
a distance; yet his curiosity was so keen to know
who had written the letter that, contrary to his
habit, he broke the seal and read.
It informed Mrs. Taylor that its writers highly
valued the important services her husband was
rendering to the cause of humanity and of our
country; that they were aware of his inability, be-
cause cut off from all home resources, to maintain
his family while he successfully prosecuted his
good work; and therefore they begged her to ac-
cept the within check as a testimonial of their ap-
preciation of his labors and their kindly regard for
his wife and children. The names of six persons
were subscribed to the letter, and it enclosed a
check on Philadelphia for one thousand dollars.
A mountainous weight rolled from the heart of
its surprised reader. Midnight had changed to
day. His whole soul bowed itself in thankfulness
to the God of Elijah, for he looked on the thousand
dollars as sent directly from the Lord. Quicken-
322 THE LOYAL MOUNTAINEERS.
ing his steps, home was soon reached. At its en-
trance stood the tearful wife, as he drew near
whistling a joyful hymn-tune. Alarmed at his
lightness of spirits, she cried out:
"What in the world is the matter, Mr. Taylor?
You are surely deranged. How else could you
come home whistling, with only the contents of
that basket between your poor family and starva-
tion? I know you must be crazy!"
"Never was of sounder mind in all my life. It
is you that are deranged, my dear! Did not I tell
you, 'The Lord will provide?' There, read that
(handing her the letter). See how thankless it is
to doubt His promises; ar-d learn to trust the
She wiped away her tears and began to read.
Gradually the signs of distress and depression dis-
appeared from her face and it beamed with hope,
gratitude and joy. Meanwhile his thoughts were
busy concerning the Hebrew prophet and God's
commissary-ravens â€” the replenished oil-cruse and
meal-tub â€” the weary disciples tugging at the net,
over-full offish â€” and concerning Him who still and
ever reiterates in men's dull ears, " Ask and ye
shall receive." When she had finished reading,
she wept tears of joy, and with uplifted hands ex-
claimed, "Never again will I distrust my Lord as
long as I live."
In July, '64, Mr. Taylor, by request, undertook
a tour through the State of New York, accompa-
nied as he had been before to New England, by J.
E. Peyton. The heat of August and the political
KNOXVILLE E. T. RELIEF SOCIETY. 3 2 3
excitement in the canvass for the Presidency soon
brought these labors to an end.
Because of the scarcity of food in East Tennes-
see, the Sanitary Commission sent some supplies
from Cincinnati to relieve it, but the evil was too
great to be overcome without extraordinary means.
Not long after Mr. Taylor's visit to Philadelphia,
it was advised by his Eastern friends that an asso-
ciation should be organized in the destitute region,
to receive gifts and administer help to the needy;
and also that a competent committee, representing
the distant contributors should visit the afflicted
people, to observe their condition, confer with the
society located among them and to report. Ac-
cordingly on February 8, 1864, at a public meeting
in Knoxville, a relief association was formed and
officers elected: Rev. Thomas W. Humes, Presi-
ident; Executive Committee, William Heiskell,
Samuel R. Rodgers, John Baxter, O. P. Temple,
William G. Brownlow, R. D. Jourolmon, George
M. White and David Richardson; John M. Flem-
ing, Secretary; M. M. Miller, Treasurer. Mr.
Fleming was soon succeeded by George M. White
as Secretary; and after one year David A. Dead-
erick became Treasurer of the Society. Needful
agents were appointed for purchase and trans-
portation of supplies.
About the same time, two Commissioners of the
Pennsylvania Relief Society, Lloyd P. Smith and
Frederick Collins, expended at Cincinnati, on their
way to East Tennessee, over $8,000, in buying and
shipping to that region, articles of food, chiefly
3 2 4 THE LOYAL MOUNTAINEERS.
flour, bacon, salt, sugar and coffee. These were
transported to Nashville, free of charge, by means
of a credential letter from Chas. H. Dana, Assist-
ant Secretary of War, to Gen. Grant. Soon after-
wards, $28,000 were used for like purchases at
the former city by Mr. Hazen, agent of the Knox-
ville Society, which were forwarded by means of
$2,000, kindly loaned by Hon. Joseph E. Fowler,
The Pennsylvania Commissioners were well
qualified for the duties assigned to them, and which
required they should make a tedious and uncom-
fortable journey of 2,500 miles and of nearly three
weeks' time. They were heartily welcomed at
Knoxville, and gave to its Association a memoran-
dum of their own Society's judgment concerning
the distribution of supplies. They advised first,
that the provisions should be given away to those
who were unable to buy, and secondly, that to all
other applicants they should be sold; the prefer-
ence to be given, among both classes, first to Un-
ion families who had suffered on account of their
loyalty; second, to families, who, without having
specially suffered, had adhered throughout to the
Federal Government; thirdly, to people who,
whatever their past conduct, had given their adhe-
sion to the United States. Lastly, they recom-
mended that the old men, women and children of
families which then had representatives in the
Confederate army should be permitted to share in
the bounty, no part of which, they thought, was
intended for secessionists of the fighting age. The
EXTENT OF DESTITUTION. 3 2 5
plan thus proposed was adopted by the Knoxville
Association, and practically observed.
The Pennsylvania Commissioners informed
themselves as far as possible concerning the des-
titution said to prevail throughout the region.
Before they reached Knoxville, refugees had been
arriving there daily in growing numbers and some
of them slept of necessity in the open air. Gen.
Carter, U. S. Provost Marshal, and Wm. G. Brown-
low, U. S. Treasury Agent, provided shelter for
the needy. Rations were also issued to them for
a time and until the necessities of the army pre-
vented.* The destitution was found to be all
that it had been represented to persons at a
Thrifty and well-to-do people were not exempt
from it. One instance came directly to the knowl-
edge of the Commissioners. A member of the
Society of Friends from Blount County, sought for
help from the the U. S. Quartermaster at Knox-
ville, saying that he and all his people had nothing
to eat. Before the peace of the country had been
broken, they lived in plenty. At various places
the visitors met with refugees on their way to the
North in search of bread, not only from East Ten-
nessee, but from Western North Carolina, North-
ern Georgia and Northern Alabama. Their losses
* After the siege of Knoxville, soldiers of Burnside's army had only half ra-
tions of bread. Sergeant White, in his Diary, Walcott's History 21 st Massachu-
setts Regiment, says: "I have to-day seen soldiers scrambling after corn in
the ear, as though it was the greatest of luxuries. We parch it. Officers eat it, as
well as privates. Well, its all for the Union and wa are driving the rebels to the
wall, thank God !" A committee of citizens requested Gen. Foster to send the
people out of the country, rather than the U. S. army should evacuate it.
326 THE LOYAL MOUNTAINEERS.
had been entire, and having no means to buy food
and shelter by the way, they kept on fleeing, for
behind was threatening starvation. In their
poorly clad and dispirited condition, sickness
among them, especially of women and children,
was inevitable. Pitiful cases of afflicted families
came to the knowledge of the Commissioners,
such as that of a mother and four children, all
prostrated at the same time by disease. These
unhappy emigrants were to be counted by thou-
sands, not always impelled only by hunger and
losses of property. Fear of being coerced to do
military service for the Confederacy was in some
instances an additional motive. At one town, a
Western North Carolinian, nearly three-score
years old, lay dangerously ill. His distressed
wife, standing at his bed-side, said: "We came
away because the ' Rebs' took away every thing
from us and were about to force my husband and
my son, 17 years old, into their army."
At a point between Bridgeport and Chattanooga,
the Commissioners, detained by a railroad acci-
dent, approached a group of passengers, decently
but poorly dressed, huddling around a fire. They
were three families, thirteen persons in all, on their
way to Vincennes, Indiana, where they had friends.
One old man, dressed in home-spun and wearing
a straw hat, said simply, "All gone!".* He lived
eleven miles east of Knoxville, and when Burnside
arrived, he volunteered and was in camp five
*Note. â€” "To which," say the Commissioners, "he might have added, and
with more truth than Francis the First at the battle of Pavia, ' save honor.' "
PENNSYLVANIA COMMITTEE. 3 2 7
weeks, but he was then refused on account of his
age â€” being over sixty-six years old.
The evidences of a superior loyalty to the United
States among East Tennesseeans (and Western
North Carolinians) were as conclusive to the vis-
itors from Philadelphia, as were those of great
destitution. A farmer who had emigrated and
was returning home, told them that if secession
had succeeded, he would have left all and remained
at the North. He said, "I would rather protect
the Government than protect my property. If I
had one bushel of corn, I would be glad to give
one-half of it to the Union men. We could do a
heap of good, if we could only stay there and
raise truck for the army." The mind he expressed
was that of the people generally, and justified the
opinion that "with the men of East Tennessee,
devotion to the Union was not a mere sentiment,
but a passion."
In March, 1864, Mr. Thomas G. Odiorne of Cin-
cinnati, was appointed purchasing and forwarding
agent of the Society. He consented to serve, re-
luctantly and only upon condition that no remu-
neration be paid him. Too much can scarcely be
said of the wisdom and fidelity with which he ful-
filled his office.
As the summer advanced the beneficence ad-
ministered by the Society told perceptibly upon
the destitution. Clothing as well as food was dis-
tributed. Two thousand dollars were invested in
goods which were made into garments by the La-
dies'" Sewing Circle of Boston, and numerous boxes
328 THE LOYAL MOUNTAINEERS.
of clothing were contributed from various sources,
all of which â€” timely and useful â€” were issued with
discretion to the needy by Mrs. Maynard and Mrs.
Humes at Knoxville, and by chosen agents at
other places. Shoes amounting in value to $7,000
were bought by Mr. Everett at Boston, and
$4,000 worth of woolen goods by Mr. Lloyd P.
Smith at Philadelphia, and shipped on a U. S. Gov-
ernment steamer; but they were burned at John-
sonville, on the Tennessee River, by order of the
Commandant of the Post, along with a quantity of
Government stores on board, to prevent their cap-
ture by the army of Gen. Hood. No compensa-
tion was made.
The friends of the work of relief were not un-
mindful of the needs of refugees at Nashville,
through which city more than 9,000 of them passed
in the first two months of 1864, from different
parts of the South, being chiefly old men, women
and children. The Pennsylvania Association, by
its Commissioners contributed $1,500 of its funds
to the Nashville Aid Refugee Society, in March,
to which the Knoxville Association added a dona-
tion of $1,000 the following October.
In August, 1864, Mr. A. G. Jackson resigned the
office of resident General Agent, and was suc-
ceeded by Rev. E. E. Gillenwaters, who continued
to serve to the end of the work. Both were com-
petent and faithful in the conduct of affairs.
The Hon. Edward Everett, to whom the people
of East Tennessee are so largely indebted for the
means of deliverance in their time of trouble, de-
MR. EVERETT HONORED. 3 2 9
parted this life, January 15, 1865, and a meeting of
the citizens of Knoxville â€” Hon. Seth J. W. Lucky,
President and D. A. Deaderick, Secretary â€” was
soon after convened to honor his memory. Sin-
cere sorrow for his death and strong esteem for his
character and life were expressed in resolutions
by the assembly and appropriate addresses were
made. The speakers' hearts were in profound
sympathy with their subject and their minds found
ready utterance in apt and glowing words. Grat-
itude to the deceased statesman and patriot, was
conspicuous in all that was said. The common
sentiment was well expressed by one of those who
"It is not saying too much to affirm that the his-
tory of our people during the last four years, is
one of the most remarkable chapters in the his-
tory of the race. Enough is already known of it
to excite the admiration of all friends of the coun-
try. In Mr. Everett's case, it took a practical
form â€” resulting in a fund of upwards of one hun-
dred thousand dollars in cash, expended with a
sagacity and fidelity that, aided by the benevolent
of both sexes among our own citizens, will make
thousands of humble sufferers bless the memory
of their distant and unknown friend."
The orator concluded with the words:
"As we follow his retreating form and begin to
take the account of our loss, I cannot help feeling
that from the aggregate of learning, the sum total
of human knowledge, all that makes up the com-
plex idea of civilization and lends grace to the af-
33Â° THE LOYAL MOUNTAINEERS.
fairs of men, he, in departing, has taken away a
larger measure, than will in like manner be with-
drawn by any one he has left behind." *
Twelve months after the work of relief began,
the destitution was largely diminished but still
serious, especially in the most eastern counties
of the State, which military conditions had pre-
vented from being reached with supplies. When
hostilities ceased, the people of those counties be-
ing the most needy, received chief attention and
help from the Association, which distributed
among them in 1865, fifty thousand dollars in
goods and provisions. Its ability to do this, and at
the same time assist the needy in other counties
was due to the faithful observance of the plan re-
commended by the Pennsylvania Commissioners
â€” by which, the supplies, excepting issues without
charge to the penniless, and sales at cost to sol-
diers' wives and widows who had means, were sold
to citizens, able to pay, at an advance. The results
obtained, were as follows:
First, the aggregate receipts of the Association
by gifts from a distance, of one hundred and sixty-
seven thousand dollars, were increased to two
hundred and fifty-two thousand dollars.
Second, the amount of cash paid for food and
clothing, alone, was more than that originally con-
tributed. From the proceeds of sales were also
paid the cost of freight and insurance, the salaries,
wages and expenses of all officers, agents and em-
ployes ; all other necessary expenses ; twelve
* Hon. Horace Maynard,
RELIEFâ€” SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 33 1
thousand dollars for shoes and woolen goods de-
stroyed at Johnsonville ; three thousand dollars for
aid to refugees at Nashville, and five hundred dol-
lars sent to Portland, Maine, which had given thou-
sands to East Tennessee, and later had suffered by
a great fire.
Third, as the benefit of the poor and needy was
the controlling purpose of the Association in all
its deliberations and transactions, that supreme
end was practically reached in the use of the fund
originally contributed. The articles of food pur-
chased and distributed were judiciously chosen,
and the wearing apparel, in buying which fifty
thousand dollars were expended, was suited to the
wants of the people.*
Altogether, there was much cause for congratu-
lation among the friends of the undertaking both
at home and abroad, that at a period of time when
because of civil war, vast sums of money were
lavishly expended and temptations to mis-use of
them were strong, more than one hundred and
sixty thousand dollars should have been man-
aged with such prudence and efficiency and
with such strict integrity, for the relief of the
suffering people of East Tennessee. The gen-
erous givers and the thankful beneficiaries were
far away from each other in space. A deep
gulf of deadly strife intervened between them;
but across that gulf, their hearts went forth
and were clasped together â€” the prosperous and
the comfortless, â€” in love for the American
* See Appendix: Note Z.
33 2 THE LOYAL MOUNTAINEERS.
Union, and in brotherly love as fellow-coun-
"Those friends thou hast and their adoption tried,
Grapple them to thy soul with hooks of steel."
Sincere human friendships by no means perish
with the loss of their mortal surroundings. To a
pure mind, inspired by the truth, they are spiritu-
ally related to the invisible and permanent. Else,
hopelessly we should often have to cry â€”
"For the touch of a vanished hand,
And the sound of a voice that's still."
Just so with human citizenship, wisely con-
ceived and cherished. It is more than a mere
symbol of one higher and nobler. As one has well
"There is a mystery in all affections which rises
above vulgar instincts; it is thus with the love of
country. The patriot sees in her more than can
be seen by those who are without; and yet he re-
members that there remains in her much that can-
not meet his eye; for it is part of the greatness of
a nation, that though her fields and cities are visi-
ble things, her highest greatness and most sacred
claims belong in part, like whatever includes a
spiritual element, to the sphere of 'things un-
The archetype of our country is the " better
country, that is, an heavenly," for which prophetic
souls â€” children of faith and promise â€” have yearned
* Aubrey de Vere.
HERE, AND THERE. 333
throughout all the centuries. A man dwelling
here, may have there his citizenship, and in its
fulfillment is required and insured the performance
of all other civic duty.
Love of Religious Excitement.
Contrary Statements ; Sevier and Tipton.
A Southerner's Letter, in 18G1.
Rev. Herman Bokum.
A New-Yorker's Letter, in 1861.
Col. David Cummings.
Delegates to Union Convention.
(< n a a
Employment of Bloodhounds.
Verse on the Execution of Haun and the Harmons.
Edward J. Sanford's Narrative.
Heroism of East Tennessee Women.
Gen. Samuel P. Carter's Raid.
Lieut. S. T. Harris, at Columbia, S. C, &c.
Report of Col. Wm. P. Sanders' raid.
Report of Col. R. C. Trigg, (C. S. A.)
Letter from Gen. Longstreet.
Concerning Knoxville refugees.
Capt. Poe's Topography of Knoxville.
Gen. Sherman's dinner with Gen. Burnside.
Col. E. P. Alexander, (C. S. A.) concerning the siege.
List of superior U. S. A. officers from East Tennessee.
Martyrdoms of non-combattant Unionists.
Concerning gifts at Boston to East Tennessee relief.
Receipts and expenditures for East Tennessee relief.
Appendix: Note A: Page 27.
The love of religious excitement, attributed by the ex-United
States Consul at Singapore, to the mountaineers of East Tennessee,
is apt to exist among a civilized, yet, uneducated people, who lead