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City of New-Haven.
vâ :uI.I^:;KD by thl
Connecticut acaOcm^ of HjctjO? anU ^cienceu*
:i>-TI,n AMD SOLD BY >yALTER AND STJ^.RI.l'
TOWNS AND PARISHES
STATE OF CONNECTICUT.
PUBLISHED BY THE
Connecticut acaDemg of ^xx% anti ^ciencc^,
VOL. I.-â NO. I.
PRINTED AND SOLD BY WALTER AND STEELE^
CITY OF NEW-HAVEN,
BY TIMOTHY DWIGHT,
President of Yale College,
1. HE design of forming a Society, which might combine the
elTorts of literary men in Connecticut, for the promotion of useful
knowledge, was suggested early in the year 1799. A few gentlemen
in New-Haven attended a meeting at an invitation given ; and a
sketch of the principal objects of such an Association was commu-
nicated, together with the outline of the proposed Society, which
was named " The Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences."
At a meeting on the fourth of March, the gentlemen, who had
associated, adopted a number of regulations, as bye-laws for their
government ; and elected a number of gentlemen in various parts
of the state to be members. At a subsequent meeting, certain fun-
damental articles were adopted as the Constitution of the Academy,
by which were prescribed the terms of admission to membership.
In October following, the Academy, on petition, obtained from the
legislature an act of incorporation.
One considerable object proposed by this Association, was to col-
lect for publication a Statistical Account of the State of Connecticut ;
and to the accomplishment of this object they have directed their at-
tention and exertions. On the first of January, 1 800, they addressed
a circular letter to every town in the state, containing the subjects of
inquiry arranged under thirty-two distinct heads, and requesting an-
swers to their inquiries. This letter was printed and distributed. In
a subsequent address, the Academy urged an attention to the subject
of those inquiries, and suggested a plan, by which they supposed the
labor of furnishing correct answers might be greatly facilitated. This
business is still in progress ; and nearly thirty papers containing an-
swers to the above-mentioned letter, have been received.
Some of the accounts received have been collected with great ap-
parent industry, are well arranged, and very complete. Others are
very brief and less perfect. NotwithstancRng this latter circum-
Stance^ 'and the tardiness with which these accounts are furnished,
the Academy have determined to prosecute their design ; and to
publish statistical accounts of the several tovns, in numbers, as the
materials shall be supplied. The following Account of New-Haven
is published first ; as a pledge of the determination of the Academy
to exert their best endeavors to accomplish the object ; and as a spe-
cimen of the manner of execution ; and the Academy cannot but
hope that this example will have its effect, in stimulating the exer-
tions of gentlemen in other towns, to furnish the means of a com-
plete statistical account of the state. The Academy are not willing
to believe, that there are not gentlemen in every town who are com-
petent to give at least a tolerable history of the township â and they
â would regret tiiat the history of a single town or society should fail
to be inserted, for want of materials.
The following is the circular letter above-mentioned, containing
Ihe inquiries, to which answers are solicited.
Kew-IIavev, Jan. 1, 1800.
THE Ck)NNECTicuT AcAr)r:MY ot Arts and Sciences, desir-
ous of contributing to the collection and propagation of useful know-
ledge, and of procuring the materials for a Statistical History of Con-
necticut, request you to furnish them with every species of informa-
tion which it may be in your power to obtain ; relative to the Geog-
raphy, Natural, Civil and Political History, Agriculture, Manufac-
tures and Commerce of the Stale of Connecticut. Among the arti-
cles to which the Academy request your attention are the following :
li/. The history of the settlement of the town or society in which
you reside â the situation and extent of each â the number of socie-
ties, school districts and school houses in the town â by what means
the lands were obtained from the Indians, whether by purchase or
conquest â the number of l^oreigners, and of what country.
2cf. The Indian names of places, mountains, rivers, lakes and
ponds within the town ; also any remarkable occurrences in the his-
tory of the Indians â their customs, mythology, battles, burying
places, monuments, forts, and any other traces of their settlement â
the tribe to which tliey belong â their present number and situation,
as to subsistence, vices, Sec.
Zd. The face of the country, in regard to mountains, hills, vallies
and plains, rocks, stones, clay, sand, nature of the soil â curiosities
Saiural and ariificlal, antiquities, monumental inscriptions elucidat-
ing points of history.
4th. Rivers, streams, springs, (if remarkable,) especially mineral
and medicinal springs ; lakes and ponds, their sources and uses as to
mills, navigation, and the production of fish, or the watering of
lands. â Cataracts or falls. â Wells, their depth on different grounds.
â¢ â Aqueducts or pipes for conveying water to families â the expense
by the rod â plenty or scarcity of water for domestic uses â change
of quality within the present age â failure of streams in consequence
of clearing the land â increase or decrease of water in springs and
wells. â Accidents by damps or mephitic air in wells or other places,
the time and other circumstances attending them.
5th. Mines and minerals, especially those most useful, as iron,
copper, lead, silver, sulphur ; also, quarries of stone, with the kind
and quality of the stone, and its distance from navigable water.
6th, What was the natural or original growth of timber and wood,
and what the variations in the species on successive cuttings â wheth-
er the limber is plenty or scarce, increasing or decreasing, and the
causes; â the best method of increasing the quantity â the best time
in the year for falling timber for durability, and wood for fuel. â The
Bugar maple tree, and the quantity and quality of sugar made â im-
provements in making and refining it â the best mode of procuring
the sap without injuring the tree. â Quantity, quality and price of
lumber of all kinds â distance from navigable water.
7th. Fuel of all kinds, as wood, coal, peat, or turf â the quantity
and quality â distance from navigable water â increase or decrease of
fuel, and price of the several kinds.
8/A. Furnaces, forges and mills ; â their situation, conveniences
and quantity of work performed. In particular a description of any
curious machinery, by which the labor of man is abridged, and the
operation of the mechanical powers simplified and applied to useful
9th. Agriculture ; increase or decrease of the price of land, with-
in the memory of the present generation â price of provisions and
labor in the several occupations â the kinds of grain cultivated, quan-
tity of each produced on an acre, and total quantity in a year â quan-
tity of flour and kiln dried meal exported annually â quantity of
hemp and flax raised, and the best mode of raising, rotting and dress-
ing them â the quantity of flax and flax-seed exported â quantity of
land planted with potatoes, and sown with turnips, rotation of cropas
best suited to various soils â improvements by means of artificial
grasses, improvements by draining and diking marshes, meadows
10//^ Manures; the best for particular soils, and the best time
and mode of applying them â as stable manure, lime, lime-stone,
shells, ashes, salt, compost, marl, swamp, creek and sea mud, plais-
ter of paris, and sea weed â the preparation best suited for particular
crops â the best means of increasing manures â the effects of irriga-
tion or watering lands.
1 \th. The best seed time and harvest time â best time and modes
of preparing lands for seeding â best modes of extirpating weeds and
of preserving grains from insects â the effects of a change of seed.
\2th. INIode of cultivation, whether by oxen or horses â the ex-
pence, advantages and disadvantages of each. â Number of teams â -
the number and kinds of waggons, carls, ploughs, harrows, drills,
winnowing and threshing machines now in use â improvements in
them, both as to utility and cheapness. â Fences; the materials and.
mode of erecting them â kinds most used â increase or decrease of
timber for fencing â the best kinds of trees or shrubs for hedges, and
the means of propagating them.
13^/;. Uncommon fruits and garden vegetables, native or import-
ed the soils on which particular fruits and vegetables best flourish,
and the best modes of cultivating them â quantity of cider made an-
nually â fiuantity exported â best mode of making, improving and
preserving it â best mode oji preserving apples and other fruits dur-
ing the winter â improvements by ingrafting and inoculation â best
time and mode of pruning â state of gardening.
\Ath. Number of tenants on leased lands â quantity of lands leased
and the rent â the state of cultivation of leased lands compared with
that in the hands of proprietors. Emigrations from the town or so-
ciety. The number of persons convicted of capital crimes, and in-
stances of suicide, within twenty years, or since the town was settled,
and whether committed by natives or foreigners. The time when
pleasure carriages were first used.
\Sth. Number of sheep and swine ; quantity of pork, beef, butter,
and cheese annually sent to market ; the best mode of multiplying,
improving, feeding and fattening sheep, swine, neat cattle and hors-
es ; their diseases, description of them, and the best mode of pre-
venting and curing them.
16;/;. Manufactures ; distinguishing the kinds and quantity made
in families and in manufactories ;^ the market for them. The his-
tory of any useful manufacture, including its increase and declincj
and the causes.
nth. Breweries; time of their introduction^ â the kinds and quan-
tity of beer made.
laih. Fisheries; the kinds, quantity and value of fish taken ; best
mode of curing them j the market. The years when shell and other
fish have been unusually lean or sickly, and when they have declin-
ed, disappeared, or perished, from causes known or unknown. The
best modes of multiplying and preserving shell fish.
\^th. Ship building; its increase or decline â harbors, depth of
water, direction of the channels, obstructions, land-marks and direc-
tions for entrance ; the year when the first vessel was built, and the
progress of trade. The means of facilitating transportation by land
20th. Roads and bridges ; the present state of them, annual exÂ»
pense and mode of defraying it ; description of bridges remarkable
for elegance or utility ; the best mode of securing bridges from the
effects of frost, floods and sea worms ; the kinds of timber not sub-
ject to be eaten by sea worms.
2 \st. Ferries ; their situation, and whether public or private prop-
crty; the places near them, where bridges may be erected, and
probably made permanent.
22rf. Wild animals, now or heretofore known ; their increase or
decrease, and from what causes ; new species, migration, and natu-
ral history of birds.
23t/. Natural history of plants ; their kinds, whether noxious or
useful ; new species, time of their introduction, their progress ; ef-
fects of the barberry and other noxious plants, and the best modes of
2ith. Places of public worship ; their number, and the denomina-
tion to which they belong ; the rise of congregations and various
sects, the names of the successive clergymen, the time of their set-
tlement and exit; notices of any eminent clergymen ; the salaries
of clergymen, and the funds by which religious worship is main-
25th. Academies and schools ; in what manner supported ; num-
ber of winter and summer schools ; the time they are kept in each
year, whether by male or female instructors ; number of scholars ;
salaries or wages of teachers ; kinds of knowledge taught ; improve-
ments in the mode of instruction ; prices of board, and expenses of
26th. Poor; their number, whether natives or foreigners ; their
former occupations, the expense of maintaining them, the mode
best calculated to unite humanity with economy in their support ;
the means by which they were reduced to want, or inability to labor.
27th. Free blacks ; their number, vices and modes of life ; their
industry and success in acquiring property ; whether those born free
are more ingenious, industrious, and virtuous, than those who were
emancipated after arriving to adult years,
28th. Inns or taverns â their number,
29th. Climate and diseases ; variations in seasons and in disea-
ses from clearing lands, draining swamps, and the like causes ; the
diseases most prevalent in high and low situations, near streams of
running water, or marsh and stagnant water, on the north and south
sides of hills and mountains, and on different soils ; remarkable in-
stances of diseases and mortality among animals of various kinds.
Meteorological observations. Register of marriages, births and
deaths, noting the sex, occupations, ages, and diseases of those who
die. Remarkable instances of longevity j the local situation, the
occupation, and the habits of life of those who ariive to a great age,
as also their temper, whether cheerful or melancholic, quiet or dis-
30//;. Remarkable seasons or occurrences in the natural world ;
as tempest, rain, hail, snow, and inundations, by which injury has
been sustained, the time when they happened ; unusual insects, or
usual insects in unusual numbers ; time of their appearance and dis-
appearance, their generation and transformations ; injury sustained
by them; unusual death of insects ; best modes of destroying nox-
ious insects, or preventing their ravages.
3ls(. Unusual failure of crops from causes known or unknown ;
the years when it occurred, and the temperature of the seasons. An
explication of the causes and phenomena of blast, mildew, rust, ho-
ney dew, bursting of vegetables, diseases and death of plants, trees
or shrubs ; the times when they occurred.
32(1. Distinguished characters, who have been natives or residents
in the town ; improvements in arts and sciences, and the authors of
them ; inventors of curious machines ; vices, amusements, attention
to civil and religious institutions ; remarkable instances of liberality,
heroism, or other virtue. Libraries; when established, and the num-
ber of volumes. Charitable institutions and endowments. Associ-
ations for the purpose of improvement or humanity. Benefactions
to pious and charitable uses.
It is not expected, that in all the above mentioned articles infor-
mation can be given by each or perhaps any gentleman to whom this
letter is addressed; but it is hoped and believed that the magnitude
of the objedt in view, will induce every one, to spare no pains in ob-
taining and communicating such information as shall be in his power.
Should the exertion for this purpose be general and active, all the
necessary information will probably be collected.
In Scotland, the first, and it is supposed, the only successful at-
tempt of this nature, has been carried into complete execution, by a
similar application to the clergymen, and a few other enlightened
persons in that country.
It is rationally believed, that efforts equally spirited and efficacious
vÂ»'ill be made in Connecticut: should this be the case, our state will
have the honor of leading in this important field of knowledge.
Every piece of information on the subject specified, will contrib-
ute to the great object in view, and will be gratefully received by
By order of the Academy^
CITY OF NEW-HAVEN.
New-Haven, July 6, 1811.
PERMIT me to return the following answer to the
request of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and
Sciences, concerning a statistical Jiistory of the city of
New-Haven. The public will naturally ask why the an-
swer has been so long delayed. The true reason is, that
every man, here, is closely engaged in his ovv^n business;
and that no man of business is, ordinarily, willing to
write on subjects, unconnected with his personal con-
cerns. My own situation, to those who know it, would
fairly excuse me from the undertaking, I have made
the attempt, because I was convinced, that it would be
made by no other person. As this account is drawn up
in circumstances of extreme inconvenience, the Acade-
my will, I doubt not, readily excuse its imperfections.
New-Haven, together with Woodbridge, Hamden,
East-Haven, North- Haven, the principal part of the
townships of Wallingford and Cheshire, and of the parish
of Northford, forming a tract about 18 miles in length
and 13 in breadth, was purchased, partly of Momauguin,
sachem of Quinnipiack, November 24, 1638, and partly
of Montowese, sachem of JMattabcseck, now Middle-
town, December 1 1th, the same year, by the Rev, John
2 Statistical Account
Davenport and Theophilus Eaton, Esq. in behalf of the
first phuitcrs of New- Haven, llie Indians reserved
lands, on the eastern sideof the Quinnipiack, for planting
and the right of hunting, fowling, and fishing, through-
out the traet. The price paid to Momauguin was twelve
coats of English cloth, twelve alehymy spoons, twelve
hatchets, twelve hoes, two dosen knives, twelve porrin-
gers, and four cases of French knives and scissors.
The first principal settlers were Theophilus Eaton,
Esq. Mr. Davenport, Mr. Samuel Eaton, Mr. Thomas
Gregson, Mr. Robert Newman, Mr. Matthew Gilbert,
Mr. Nathaniel Turner, Mr. Thomas Fugill, Mr. Francis
Newman, iNIr. Stephen Goodyear, and Mr. Joshua At-
water. These adventurers and their associates formed
one of the most opulent settlements in New-England.
On the 4th of June, 1639, the planters formed their
constitution. On the 5th of October following they or-
ganized their government, when jNIr. Eaton was chosen
governor. By the general court, Avhich sat Sept. 5th,
1640, Quinnipiack was named Neiv-Haven. On the 19th
of May, 1643, the colony of New- Haven entered into a
confederation with Connecticut, Plymouth, and Massa-
chusetts. The confederates styled themselves the United
Colonies of New-England. In 1655, a system of laws
for New-Haven was finished by Gov. Eaton, and was
printed in England. In 1657 Gov. Eaton died; and
Francis Newman, Esq. at the folloAving election, was
chosen in his stead. He died in 1661 ; and was succeed-
ed by William Leet, Esq. March 27th. In 1661, Whal-
Icy and GofFe came to New- Haven, and, the following
October, removed to Hadley. May 11, 1665, the colo-
nies of Connecticut and New-Haven were united. From
that time the legislature has met, alternately, at Hailford
New-Haven is the name of a township, and a city in-
cluded in that township. The township is bounded on
the east by East- Haven, on the north by Hamden and
Woodbridge, on the west by Milford, and on the soutli
by Long- Island Sound. Its area I am unable to ascer-
tain. Nature has divided it into two great parts. The
eastern division is a plain, commencing on the western
bank of Wallingford river, at the foot of a ridge of hills
of the City of Nav-Haven. 3
in East-Haven, belonging to the range of MIddletowii
mountains, and partially bounded, on the northern side,
by the East Rock, the southern end of the range of
Mount Tom; by Mill Rock, a spur from it; by Pine
Rock, a spur from West Rock ; and by West Rock, the
southern end of the eastern ridge of the Green Moun-
tains ; and on the west by a chain of hills, a continuation
also of the Green Mountains, and here frequently called
the Milford Hills. The western division is formed by
the last mentioned heights. The plain extends about
three miles from east to west ; and on the eastern side
about two miles from north to south, and on the western,
measuring from W^est Rock to the southern shore of
West-Haven, about five. The western division is about
five miles from north to south ; and somewhat more than
two, from east to west. A handsome hill, named Mount
Pleasant, intrudes into the plain in a southern direction
from Mill Rock ; and occupies an area of about 400
acres. There is also a small eminence in the north-east-
ern quarter of the township, called the Beaver Hills.
I can find no Indian name on record, except Quinni-
piack. This was given to the river, which is the eastern
boundary of the township, and now commonly called
Wallingford river ; to the adjacent country ; and to the
tribe, by which it was inhabited.
There is nothing known of the Indian customs and mi/-
thology, peculiar to this tribe. They were a branch of
the Mohekaneews, or Muhheakunnuks ; a nation which
inhabited the whole country, from the Potowmac to the
St. Lawrence, and from the Atlantic to the Missisippi,
together with an extensive region, westward of that river.
All the tribes, within these limits, comprehending about
a million of square miles, except the Iroquois, spoke dif-
ferent dialects of one language. The Iroquois were in-
terlopers, who fought their way from a distant western
region into the country, which they ultimately inhabited,
and which they conquered from the tribes who occupied
it before them.
The Quinnipiacks have long since been extinct.
The Quinnipiacks dwelt, in the summer, on the shore,
for the convenience of fishing ; and, in the winter, in the
'forests, for the convenience of fuel.
4 Statistical Account
They had a place for powawing, about a quarter of a
mile north-east from the house of Stephen Woodward,
in East-Haven, about three fourths of a mile east of the
harbor bridge. The spot was formerly a swamp, and is
now a meadow.
CharleSy the last sachem of this tribe, died about 80
years shice. He was frozen to death near a spring, about
one mile north of the Presbyterian church in East- Haven.
They are said to have had neither marriages nor di-
They cauglrt round clams with their feet; and taught
the English to catch them in this manner.
The Indian arrovv-heads, frequently found here, are
exactly like some which have been brought from Cape
At Fort Hill there was formerly an Indian fort, and an
Indian burying-ground, on the eastern side of the hill.
The name of this spot was formerly Indian Hill.
The soil of the eastern division of this township is
loam, mixed with sand, except the hill mentioned above,
and the principal part of the New Township, which is
loam, mixed with gravel ; the most common soil of
New-England. The latter is moderately good ; the for-
mer is warm, but dry, and lean. Both are, however,
capable, as experience has extensively proved, of being
rendered very productive by judicious cultivation. The
soil of the western division is the same with that of Mount
Pleasant, and rarely rises above mediocrity : while, to a
considerable extent, it falls beneath it.
There are no curiosities, here, either natural or artifi-
cial, no antiquities^ no monumental inscriptions, of any
There are three rivers in this township, which empty
their waters into the harbor of New-Haven : West river,
which has its origin in Woodbridge ; Mill river, which
rises in Hamden ; and the Quinnipiack, whose head wa-