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GIFT OF
SEELET W. MUDD

and

GEORGE I. COCHRAN MEYER ELSASSER
DR. JOHN R. BAYNES WILLIAM L. HONNOLD
JAMES R. MARTIN ' MRS. JOSEPH F. SARTORI

to tin

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
SOUTHERN BRANCH




JOHN FISKE



This book is DUE on the last date stamped below



/ERSltY 0* C







Southern Branch
of the

University of California



Los Angeles



Form L 1



THE WRITINGS



THOMAS JEFFERSON



VOLUME IV



1784-1787



2883



OF THIS LETTER-PRESS EDITION
COPIES HA VE BEEN PRINTED FOR SALE



No -



<^Z V, /^!^z^0^t^-erH^



September, 1894.



THE WRITINGS



OF



THOMAS JEFFERSON



COLLECTED AND EDITED



PAUL LEICESTER FORD



VOLUME IV



1784-1787



G. P. PUTNAM'S .SfeNS

NEW YORK LONDON

27 WEST TWENTY-THIRD STREET 24 BEDFORD STREET, STRAND

&{)t fituelurboeket |)rt8S
1894



S1505



Cbc iJtucfccrboclier press

c. p. PUTNAM'S SONS

NEW YORK



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fc.




CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV.



Itinerary' and Chronology



1784.



To the Governor of Virginia, August 20 .

Affairs of Le Maire.

To James Madison, November n

Navigation of Mississippi Jefferson's interest in western
lands Books Col. Le Maire.

To James Monroe, November 1 1

Jefferson's voyage Cipher European affairs English sen-
timent on America Relations with Spain W. T. Franklin
Dumas Barclay Packets French settlement on Ohio Bar-
bary states Outfit and allowance.

To Charles Thomson, November 1 1 .

Cylinder lamp Phosphoric matches French morals.

To James Madison, December 8 ....

Taxes Constitution for Virginia Thomas Paine Monti-
cello Visit to France.

To James Monroe, December 10

Virginian port " Favored nation " clause Tobacco monop-
oly Visit to France European war British treaty Ministers'
allowance Mails.

To Horatio Gates, December 13

Contest between Emperor and Dutch Barbary outrages
Need of navy.

1785.
To Nathanael Greene, January 12 .

Whale oil Barbary outrages.



PAGE

XV



13
15

19

23

25



vi CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV.

PAGE

To the Governor of Virginia, January 12 . . . 26

Statue of Washington Houdon.

To James Monroe, February 29

Cipher Spanish negotiation British condition Commercial
treaties France Barbary pirates and their treatment Letters.

To James Madison, March 18 34

Letters Patrick Henry Committee of States European
events British politics Commercial retaliation Books.

To James Monroe, March 18 39

>' European movements British treatment of America Bar-

bary powers Personal health.

To James Monroe, April 15 42

Congressional action towards Spain and England Quota-
tion from Price European news Voltaire's legacy Gold and
silver Health.

x To James Madison, May 11 46

Notes on Virginia.

To the Governor of Virginia, June 16 . . . 48

Arms Statue of Washington Tobacco.

s To James Monroe, June 17 . . . . . 49

Packets Otto Value of French friendship European pol-
itics American capital Congressional power over trade
Notes on Virginia Arthur Lee Minister's allowance Treaty
power over commerce Trade with West Indies Contrast of
France and America Balloons.

To Mrs. John Adams, June 21 60

Correspondence London or Paris Suppression of Journal
de Paris Social life.

To James Monroe, July 5 64

European news Character of W. F. Franklin Reception
of B. Franklin.

To Mrs. Sprowle, July 5 66

Loyalist property.

To Mrs. John Adams, July 7 67

Wine Journal de Paris Boston and England.

To Richard Henry Lee, July 12 . . . . 69

Reading of Letters Packets American finances New
states Western territory European events Houdon.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV. vii



To the Virginia Delegates in Congress, July 12 . . 72

Houdon.

To the Governor of Virginia, July 15 . . . 75
Houdon.

To N. and J. Van Staphorst, July 30 ... 77

Domestic debt of America Daniel Parker.

To John Adams, July 31 79

Instructions for commercial treaties Cipher.

To Richard Price, August 7 82

Slavery in America William and Mary College American
feeling against Great Britain.

To James Monroe, August 28 ..... 84

European politics American commerce Barbary powers
Portugal Private secretary Land ordinance Coinage Re-
ception of Franklin.

To John Jay, August 23 87

Carrying trade Virtue of agricultural classes Relative
values of artificers and seamen Necessity of naval force.

To David Hartley, September 5 .... 91

Apology Upton's lands Hamilton Import Western
lands New states Friction with Spanish Congressional
power over commerce.

To Mary Jefferson, September 20 .... 97

To come to France. Presents.

To Mrs. John Adams, September 25 . . . . 98

Purchases. Character of English Commissions Minister's
allowance.

To Count Hogendorp, October 13 . . . 102

Notes on Virginia Buffon's opinion on mammoth Virginia
Revisal English falsehoods Disadvantage of commerce
Western lands Tobacco.

To N. and J. Van Staphorst, October 25 . . . 106

American public debt.

To Phillip Mazzei, November 108

Courts of Chancery Common law.

Conference with Vergennes, December . . . 117

American trade Productions French West Indies Un-
certainty of American measures Case of de Mezieres against
Georgia.



viii CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV.

1786.

PAGE

To James Currie, January 18 . . . . . 131

Littlepage and Jay Freedom of press Designs for capitol
of Virginia Scientific news.

To the Governor of Virginia, January 24 . . . 134

Houdon's return Statue of Washington Littlepage Arms
Improvement in musket Tobacco.

\ Answers to Meusnier, January 24 . . . .138

American codes American constitutions Debts Emigra-
tion Vermont Maine Land cessions Loyalists Articles of
Confederation Paper money American bankruptcy National
forces ^Slaves Constitution of Virginia Office-holding
QuarrelsDetween States Coercive power under confederation
British property.

Additional Answers to Meusnier .... 148

Voting in Congress Federal debts Paper money British
debts of Virginia Pay of Congressmen Secession of States
New States Violation of Virginia Constitution by Assembly.

Observations on Meusnier's Article, January 22 . 158

Convicts in America Indented servants Settlement of the
colonies Impost Commerce Annapolis convention Ken-
tucky Mutiny of troops Paper money Public lands Vir-
ginia's contribution Bankruptcy Debts t'o soldiers Alien
land-holding Revisal Slavery amendment Pardon Man-
slaughter Bill for crimes and punisfimenfs^Society of Cincin-
nati Population of America Extent of territory Vote on
slavery clause of government for western territory Rate of
interest Treaty with Portugal Cruelty of British Slave law
ofVjiginia. \ c ^\
To John Jay, January 25 186

Littlepage.

To Archibald Stuart, January 25 . . . .187

Desire for local news European news American credit
Kentucky Spanish colonies Specimens of animals.

To C. W. F. Dumas, February 2 . . . .190

U. S. funds Notes on Virginia.

\To James Madison, February 8 . . . . . 192

Assessment in Virginia Commerce Notes on Virginia
Books and watch Houdon Inscription for statue of Wash-
ington Gifts to French officers Copying invention.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV.



To Lafayette, Februay 10 197

Tobacco.

To Secretary for Foreign Affairs, March 12 . . 198

Trip to London Negotiations with Tripoli and Algiers
Treaty with Portugal Questions under treaty with France.

To A. McCaul, April 19 201

British treaty Virginian debts Jefferson's debts.

To Richard Henry Lee, April 22 .... 205

New lamps British hostility.

To Miss A. S. R. Jefferson, April 22 . . . . 208

Gifts.
To Secretary for Foreign Affairs, April 23 . . 209

Commercial relations with Great Britain Infractions of
treaty British debts.

To John Page, May 4 212 /

Notes on Virginia Trip to England Hostility to America
Steam-engine.

To James Ross, May 8 215

Morris's tobacco contract Trip to England British hatred
of America British debts.

To James Monroe, May 10 219

Courtship of Monroe Books Treaties British debts
Commercial negotiations Humphreys Dumas.

To Secretary for -Foreign Affairs, May 23 . . . 227

Barbary powers Friction with England.

To Secretary for Foreign Affairs, May 27 . . . 230

Fish oils Fur trade Tobacco Rice.

To La Morliene, June 3 237

Paper money.

To the Swedish Embassador, June 12 . . . 238

St. Bartholomew West Indian islands Free ports
Smuggling.

To William Carmichael, June 20 .... 244

Impost Kentucky Franklin's letter.

To James Monroe, July 9 245 jif-

King of Prussia Cherbourg New states French arrets
Marriage of Monroe.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV.



To John Adams, July 9 251

Treaty with Portugal Impost Tobacco monopoly.

To Hector St. John Crevecoeur, July II . . . 253

American debts Paper money.

To Lafayette, July 17 255

Imports and exports of United States.

To St. Lambert, August 8 259

Translation of Virginian Act for Religious Freedom.

To Mrs. John Adams, August 9 .... 260
Commissions George III. Love of Louis XVI.

To James Monroe, August 1 1 262

Navigation of Mississippi Western state European politics
Lambe Naval force Correspondence.

*To George Wythe, August 13 266

Notes on Virginia Tagliaferros Virginia Revisal Com-
parison of Europe and America Necessity of education
Cherbourg.

^To Francis Hopkinson, August 14 . . . 270

"Essence of Orient" Notes on Virginia Rittenhouse
Trumbull.

To the French Minister of Foreign Relations,

August 15 272

American commerce with France.

To Brissot de Warville, August 16 . . . 280

Book on American commerce Corrections Manufactures of
America I ntemperance.

To Mirabeau, August 20 ...... 283

Virginian Act of Religious Freedom.

To Count Hogendorp, August 25 .... 284

Information on America Impost Bank of North America.

To Mrs. Paradise, August 27 288

Tobacco mortgages.

To T. M. Randolph, August 27 289

Studies Exercise.

To John Adams, August 27 295

Mediterranean affairs Article from Encyclopaedic.



x



To Ezra Stiles, September I 297

Indian monuments Ledyard Scientific News.

Answers to Soules, September 13 . . . 300

Bunker's Hill Quebec Powers of Parliament Cedars
affair Independence Battle of Long Island British inhu-
manity Conciliatory propositions Franklin's Articles of Con-
federation.

To Maria Cosway, October 12 311

Parting Dialogue of Head and Heart.

To Maria Cosway, October 13 323

Letter-writing.

To W. S. Smith, October 22 325

Errands Pictures.

To George Washington, November 14 ... 326

Fur company Article from Encyclopaedic Society of Cin-
cinnati.

To Mrs. Trist, December 15 329

Travels French character Wrist.

To James Madison, December 16 . . 331

Wrist Proposed journey American commerce Annapolis
convention Revision of Articles of Confederation Revisal
Physical science Borrowing of money.

To Charles Thomson, December 17 . . . . 337

Steam Creation of the earth.

To Nicholas Lewis, December 19 . . . . 340

Accounts Debts Management of estates.
To W. Carmichael, December 26 .... 344

Notes on Virginia Natural bridge Riots in America.
1787.

To A. McCaul, January 4 348

Debts.

To William Jones, January 5 351

Debts.

To Edward Carrington, January 16 . . . . 357

Letters and errands Lafayette Vergennes American riots
Popular government.



xii CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV.

PAGE

To James Madison, January 30 361

American riots Political organization of society Navigation
of Mississippi Luzerne Carmichael Franks Bingham
Lafayette Vergennes Travels Reyneval Hennin W. S.
Smith Copying press.

To Mrs. John Adams, February 22 . . . . 369

Shay's rebellion Assembly of Notables.

To Martha Jefferson, March 28 3/1

Travels Idleness Sewing Card-playing.

To Martha Jefferson, April 7 375

Mary Jefferson.

To the Secretary for Foreign Affairs, May 4 . . 376

Cabinet changes Travels Rice South American affairs.

To Martha Jefferson, May 5 386

Travels Idleness.

To Martha Jefferson, May 21 388

Travels Nightingale.

To James Madison, June 20 390

Divisions of government Veto power National Judiciary
Western lands Negotiations with Spain Cabinet changes
Dislike of business affairs Dumas Barclay Jefferson's ap-
pointment.

To John Adams, July i 396

Travels Rice Tobacco Oils Debt to France.

Observations on Letter of Calonnes, July 5 . . 399

Harbor dues and duties Oils Rice Potash Turpentine.

To Claviere, July 6 402

Absence of robbers in America.

To T. M. Randolph, July 6 ..... 403

Politics as a profession Studies Law Languages.

To Edward Rutledge, July 4 407

Rice.

To Mrs. John Boiling, July 23 411

Mary Jefferson Convent.

To A. Donald, July 28 413

Tobacco Character of Americans Misuse of credit.



CONTENTS OF VOL UME IV. xiii

PAGE

To Nicholas Lewis, July 29 415

Debts Slaves Loans.

To James Madison, August 2 419

Books Payment of French debts French gossip.

To Edward Carrington, August 4 .... 423

Federal convention Division of governmental functions.

To Benjamin Hawkins, August 4 . . . . 425

Federal convention Suggestions of monarchy Wrongs in
Europe.

^To Peter Carr, August 10 . . . . . . 427

Studies Religion Travelling.

To George Gilmer, August 12 . . . . 434

Opinion on wills Possible return to America Wrist.

To Joseph Jones, August 14 ..... 437

Reformation of Articles of Confederation Europe compared
with America European occurrences.

To the Journal de Paris, August 29 . . . . 439

Declaration of Independence.

To George Wythe, September 16 . . . . 442

Travels Books European news Greek kingdom.

To Charles Thomson, September 20 . . . . 446

Indian antiquities Origin of red man Ledyard Stratifica-
tion Steam mills.

To William Carmichael, September 23 . . . . 449

Draft Barbary states American and European news.

To John Adams, September 28 . . . . . 454

Defense of American Constitutions Divisions of government
Holland Cabinet changes.

To Count de Buffon, October i . . . * . 457

Specimens of natural history.

To Governor of South Carolina, October 4 . 459

Frigate South Carolina.

To James Madison, October 8 . ....' ... . 460

Moustier Madame de Brehan.

To John Jay, November 3 462

French affairs.



XIV



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV.



To W. S. Smith, November 13 465

English lies Value of rebellions Federal convention.

To W. Carmichael, December 15 . . . . 468

Cipher Conversation with Eden New constitution De-
fects Probable course of states Sale of western lands
French translation of Notes on Virginia Panama canal.

To James Madison, December 20 .... 473

New constitution Instability of laws.

To Edward Carrington, December 21 . . . 480

American debts New constitution European condition
Prize money.

To Colonel Forrest, December 31 . . . 484

New constitution.




ITINERARY AND CHRONOLOGY



OF



THOMAS JEFFERSON.
1784-1787-



1784. July 26. At Cowes.

29. At Portsmouth.
31. At Havre.

Aug. 5 . At Rouen.
6. At Paris.

Lodges at hotel d'Orleans, rue Richelieu.

10. At Passy, conferring with Franklin.

11. At Paris.

Lodges at hotel d'Orleans, rue Petits Augustins.

30. Commissioners hold first conference at Passy.
Sept. 13. Sends Notes on Virginia to press.

15. At Versailles, with commissioners, to meet Vergennes.

16. Commissioners meet British Minister.

Oct. 16. Hires hotel Tete-bout, cul-de-sac Tete-bout.

Dec. q. Purchases copying letter press.

1785. Mar. 10. Elected by Congress French Minister.

May II. Notes on Virginia completed.

17. Audience at French court.
June 20. At Saunois.

At Paris.

July 28. Signs Prussian Treaty.

Aug. Negotiations with Vergennes, concerning tobacco mon-

opoly.

Oct. 17. Rents hotel du Count de Langeac, Grille de Chaillot.

Nov. Youngest daughter, Lucy Elizabeth, dies in Virginia.

Secures privileges for American whale oil.
Dec. 9. Holds conference with Vergennes on commerce.



xvi ITINERARY AND CHRONOLOGY OF

1786. Jan. 18. Obtains designs for Virginia capitol.

24. Prepares notes for Meusnier.

Feb. Aids John Ledyard.

Mch. 5. Leaves Paris.

At Calais.

II. At London.

22. Presented to King, Windsor.

Has interview with Tripolitan Ambassador.
Negotiates treaty with Portugal.

26. Prepares with Adams projet of treaty with Great Britain.

Apl. 1-9. At Chiswick, Richmond, Twickenham, Woburn, Hamp-
ton Court, Paynes Hill, Cobham, Weybridge, Wo-
burn, Cavorsham, Reading, Wotton, Buckingham,
Banbury, Stowe, Buckingham, Stratford, Hockley,
Birmingham, Stourbridge, Bromsgrove, Worcester,
Winchcomb, Moreton, Eynston, Woodstock, Oxford,
High Wycombe.
10. At London.

Signs treaty with Portugal.
Portrait painted by Mather Brown.
26. Leaves London.

At Dartford, Rochester, Canterbury, Dover.
29. At Calais, St. Omer, Royes, Bourgel.
May i. At Paris.

23. Suggests treaty against Barbary states.
June 22. Corrects article of Meusnier.

Sept. Rents hotel corner Champs Elysees and rue Neuve de

Berry.

4. Fractures wrist.

13. Answers queries of Soule's.

Oct. 22 Prepares map of Virginia.

Made an LL.D. (Yale).

Dec. 16 Act for Religious Freedom passed by Virginia Assembly.

Dec. 26 Notes on Virginia translated into French by Morellet.

1787. Jan. 4. Makes proposition to British creditors.
Feb. 27. Attends audience of Montmorin.
Mch. 3. At Sens and Vermanton.

4. At Lucy le bois, Cussy les forges, Rouvray, Maison-
neuve, Vitteaux, La Chalieure, Pont de Paris, and
Dijon.

7-8. At la Boraque and Chagny.
9. At Chalons, Sennecy, Tournus, St. Albin, and Macon.

At Maison blanche, St. George, Chateau de Laye-Epinaye,

and Lyons.
15-18. At St. Fond and Mornas.



THOMAS JEFFERSON xvii

1787. Mch. 19-23. At Pont St. Esprit, Bagnols, Connault, Valignieres,
Remoulins, St. Gervasy, and Nismes.

24. At Nismes, Aries, Terrasson and St. Remis.

25. At Orgon, Portroyal, and St. Cannat.
25-28. At Aix.

29. At Marseilles.

Apl. 6. At Marseilles, Aubagne, Cuges, Beausset, Toulon, Hieres,

Cuers, Pignans, and Luc.

9. At Vidauban, Muy, Frejus, Antibes, and Nice.

13. At Scarena and Sospello.

14. At Ciandola and Tende.

15. At Limone and Coni.

16. At Centale, Savigliano, Racconigi, Poerino, and Turin.

19. At Setimo, Chivasco, Ciliano, St. Germans and Vercelli.

20. At Novara, Buffalora, Sedriano, and Milan.

23. At Casino, Rozzano.Binasco, and Pavia.

24. At Voghera, Tortona, and Nevi.

25. At Voltaggio, Campo-Marone, and Genoa.

28. At Noli.

29. At Albenga.

30. At Oneglia.

May i. At Ventimiglia, Menton, Monaco, and Nice.

3. At Luc, Brignolles, Tourves, Poucieux, and La Galiniere.

8. At Orgon, Avignon, and Vaucluse.

10. At Nismes and Lunel.

11. At Montpelier.

12. At Frontignan and Cette.

13. At Agde.

14. At Bezieres.

15. At Argilies and Saumal.

16. At Marseillette and Carcassone.

1 8. At Castelnaudari.

19. At St. Feriol, Escauraze, and Lampy.

20. At Narouze, Villefranche, and Baziege.

21. At Toulouse.

23. At Agen.

24. At Castres and Bourdeaux.

29. At Blaye.

30. At Rochefort and Le Rochex.

31. At St. Hermines and Nantes.
June 2. At L'Orient.

35. At L'Orient, Rennes, and Nantes.
6-8. At Ancenis, Angers, and Tours.
911. At Blois and Orleans.
II. At Paris.



XV111



THOMAS JEFFERSON.



1787. June II. Sends Piedmont rice and olive tree to America.

Mary Jefferson arrives from America.

July Conducts commercial negotiations with new ministry.

Aug. 29. Writes letter to Journal de Paris.

Sept. Map of Virginia finished.

Oct. I. Sends natural-history specimens to Buffon.

Dec. Advises transfer of French debts.

English edition of Notes on Virginia printed.




THE WRITINGS OF

THOMAS JEFFERSON.



CORRESPONDENCE.
1784-1785.



TO THE GOVERNOR OF VIRGINIA/
(BENJAMIN HARRISON.)

PARIS, Aug. 20, 1784.

SIR, A few days after my arrival here Colo. Le
Maire, writer of the enclosed letter called & asked
me to forward it to you with such explanations as I
could give. As to his commission, having lost the
original as he therein mentions, he asks an authenti-
cated copy of it, which he thinks will enforce
some application he is making to this government.
As to lands, I remember the gift of 2000 acres, &
think the entry of it will be found in the minutes of
the council some time in the summer or autumn of
1779. A letter was written to Colo. Shelby or to
Maj Martin, (the Cherokee agent) to locate the war-

1 From the original in the possession of Mr. F. J. Dreer, of Philadelphia.



2 THE WRITINGS OF [1784

rant on the best lands possible ; and I believe it was
meant that every expence should be borne by the
state so that Le Maire should receive an actual grant
clear of all charges & trouble. But of these things
the minutes & letters of the Executive will give more
certain information ; or if these should have been
lost, Mr. Blair will probable recollect the circum-
stances.



TO JAMES MADISON. MAD. MSS.

PARIS, n November, 1784.

I am obliged to you for your information as to the
prospects of the present year in our farms. It is
a great satisfaction to know it & yet it is a circum-
stance which few correspondents think worthy of men-
tion. I am also much indebted for your very full
observations on the navigation of the Mississippi. I
had thought on the subject, & sketched the anatomy
of a memorial on it, which will be much aided by
your communications. You mention that my name
is used by some speculators in western land jobbing,
as if they were acting for me as well as for them-
selves. About the year 1776 or 1777 I consented to
join Mr. Harvey and some others in an application
for lands there ; which scheme, however, I believe
he dropped on the threshold, for I never after heard
one syllable on the subject. In 1782 I joined some
gentlemen in a project to obtain some lands in the
western part of North Carolina. But in the winter
of 1782 and 1783, while I was in expectation of going
to Europe, and that the title to western lands might



1784] THOMAS JEFFERSON. 3

possibly come under the discussion of the ministers,
I withdrew myself from this company. I am further
assured that the members never prosecuted their
views. These were the only occasions in which I
ever took a single step for the acquisition of west-
ern lands, & in these I retracted at the threshold. I
can with truth therefore declare to you, & wish you
to repeat it on every proper occasion, that no person
on earth is authorized to place my name in any ad-
venture for lands on the western waters, that I am
not engaged in any but the two before mentioned.
I am one of eight children to whom my father left
his share in the loyal company, whose interests, how-
ever, I never espoused, and they have long since re-
ceived their quietus. Excepting these, I never was
nor am I now interested in one foot of land on earth
off the waters of James river.

I shall subjoin the few books I have ventured to
buy for you. I have been induced to do it by the
combined circumstances of their utility and cheap-
ness. I wish I had a catalogue of the books you
would be willing to buy, because they are often to be
met on stalls very cheap, and I would get them as
occasion should arise. The subscription for the
Encyclopaedia is still open. Whenever an oppor-
tunity offers of sending you what is published of that
work (37 vols.) I shall subscribe for you and send it
with the other books purchased for you.

Whatever money I may lay out for you here in
books, or in anything else which you may desire, may
be replaced crown for crown (without bewildering



4 THE WRITINGS OF [1784

ourselves in the exchange) in Virginia by making
payments. * * *

Colonel Le Maire, whom you know, is the bearer
of this ; he comes to Virginia to obtain the two
thousand acres of land given him for his services in
procuring us arms, and what else he may be entitled
to as having been an officer in our service ; above all
things, he wishes to obtain the Cincinnatus eagle,
because it will procure him here the order of St.
Louis, and of course a pension for life of one thou-
sand livres ; he is so extremely poor that another
friend and myself furnish him money for his whole
expenses from here to Virginia. There I am in
hopes the hospitality of the country will be a resource
for him till he can convert a part of his lands advan-
tageously into money ; but as he will want some
small matter of money, if it should be convenient for
you to furnish him with as much as ten guineas from
time to time on my account, I will invest that sum
in books or anything else you may want here byway
of payment. He is honest and grateful, and you
may be assured that no aid that you can give him
in the forwarding his claims will be misplaced. * * *



TO JAMES MONROE. MON. MSS.

PARIS Nov. u, 1784.

DEAR SIR, Your journey to the Westward having
prevented my writing to you till now that a letter



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