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MONTANA

Its Story and Biography



A HISTORY OF ABORIGINAL AND TERRITORIAL MONTANA
AND THREE DECADES OF STATEHOOD



\\



\^



UNDER THE EDITORIAL SUPERVISION

or
TOM STOUT



VOLUME I



THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY

CHICAGO AND NEW YORK
I92I



THE NEW YORK
PUBLIC LIBRARY

7C6461A

ASTOR, LENOX AND

TILDEN FOUNDATIONS

R 1934 L



Copyright, 1921 ,

BY

AMERICAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY



PREFACE



As the lives of the States go, Montana has had a short record, but,
like intense personalities, Montana and her people have condensed much
achievement into a brief span of activities. The "Land of the Shining
Mountains" and of Magnificent Distances commenced to be sprinkled
with a few adventuresome gold seekers during the early years of the
Civil War, albeit her diverse and wonderful territory lying along the
great range of northern travel between the Mississippi Valley and the
Pacific Coast had been traversed by such government agents as Lewis
and Clark and by faithful enthusiasts of the Catholic Church. The Jesuit
fathers and the pioneer trapjiers and fur traders had even planted the
seeds of industry in the valleys of the Missouri and Yellowstone before
the California of a previous generation was reproduced with all its excite-
ment and riot within the confines of what is now the State of Montana.

The old fur traders and giiides of the older days led the seeker of gold
to Bannack and Virginia cities, to Helena and the Hell Gate regions of
western Montana. Mining camps and towns, with their crude business
houses sprung into life, with small cattle ranches and farms ; but the
basis of the first period of progress was laid in the gold mines. Agricul-
ture and the raising of live stock were side issues.

Then came the time of the great ranges for cattle, horses and sheep,
with the mining of gold, silver and copper as still the powerful agents
(if advancement. At first such interests were removed from adequate
transportation, and the protecting forces of civil law and order were only
weakly organized. Uncle Sam attempted to tide over this critical period
with his military arm. then still weakened by the stress of the Civil war.
He did what he could, but until the railroads "got into their stride" the
potential riches of Montana were yet conjectural. To be fair to the great
commonwealth, the truth is that it is only within forty years that she
has been given a fair chance with her sisters of the West. At that.
Nature, in the forms of drought and "bad lands," has been most unkind,
.so that, althoujjh the territory of Montana is within a few thousand square
miles of that of California, the home areas which are naturally productive
are comparatively restricted. But the State and the Nation are working
together so strongly and persistently that both arid and swamp lands are
everywhere being reclaimed. The virile spirit of .Montana, coupled with
the engineering and scientific solutions of irrigation, draining and farming
which are being continuously put into practice, are bound to give the
state a high and permanent standing. The schools, the newspapers, the



iv PREFACE

commercial organizations, the libraries and the churches are all co-operat-
ing in the work of both advancing and uplifting those interests which,
as a whole, make the state what it is.

The History of Montana which is here presented has endeavored to
etch this record of struggles and real achievements in such a way that its
strong lines shall be preserved, and the story not be weighted and ob-
scured with details. With this end in view, countless authorities, private
and public, officials of the State and National governments, actors in
the events treated, historians and scientists, have all been consulted and,
ofttimes, their very words have been reproduced. In fact, such treat-
ment of the context has been in line with the well considered policy of
the editor and his associates. The story of Montana has been told, as
nearly as possible, through the contributions of those best qualified to
speak and write. In this connection, the supervising editor cannot but
express his profound regret that two of his most valuable associates
should have been cut off by death from rendering to him the full extent
of their suggestions, advice and co-operation. The venerable, able and
historic characters. General Charles S. Warren, late of Butte, and ex-
United States Senator Paris Gibson, the founder of Great Falls, fought
a good fight for Montana, although they could not live to see this record
in print which now goes forth with the usual feeling of misgivings as
to the perfection of anything human. These misgivings are natural,
despite the fact that no effort has been neglected to make the history
correct and complete in the essent-als. To the many who have co-operated
in this task, hearty thanks are offered ; and they are so numerous that
the mention of names would be superfluous and, it might be (by uninten-
tional omissions) unfair.

TOM STOUT.



CONTENTS



CHAPTER I
Approaches to the "Land of the Shining Mountains" i

CHAPTER II
Expedition Through Trans-Mississippi Land 19

CHAPTER in
Minor Explorations of 1805-07 68

CHAPTER IV
Montana's Natural Features 88

CHAPTER V
Pathfinders of the Mining Camps 103

CHAPTER VI
The Fur Trade Era 135

CHAPTER VII
Steps Leading to Settled Conditions 142

CHAPTER VIII
Expeditions of a Decade 163

CHAPTER IX
First Gold Discoveries and Workings 184

V



vi CONTENTS

CHAPTER X
Pioneer Cixits and Towns 2is

CHAPTER XI
Mineral Geology and Earlv iNDUSTRrics 226

CHAPTER Xn
Days of Outlaws. Vigilantes and Miners' Courts 242

CHAPTER Xni
Dawn of Law and Order 278

CHAPTER XIV
Pioneers and Tiieik Society ^16

CHAPTER XV
Decade of Indian Warfare 340

CHAPTER XVI
Mining of Silver, Copper and Coal 371

CHAPTER XVII
The Great Live Stock Interests 391

CHAPTER XVIII
Last Epoch of Territorial Government 404

CHAPTER XIX
Bench and Bar of Montana , . . 414

CHAPTER XX
First Decade of Statehood ; 439



CONTENTS vii

CHAPTER XXI
Twenty Years More of Statehood 457

CHAPTER XXn

Montana's Educational System 493

CHAPTER XXHI

Modern Means of Com mi-nication 555

CHAPTER XXI\
Conservation of Lands 577

CHAPTER XXV
Military History of Montana 642

CHAPTER XXVI

Beaverhead, Big Horn, Blaine, Broadwater, Carbon and Car-
ter Counties 667

CHAPTER XXVII
Cascade County (Great Falls) 681

CHAPTER XXVIII

Chouteau, Custer, Daniels, Dawson, Deer Lx)dge, Fallon
Counties 700

CHAPTER XXIX
Fergus, Flathead and Gallatin Counties 715

CHAPTER XXX

Garfield, Glacier, Golden Valley, Granite, Hill, Jefferson,
Judith Basin 734



dii CONTENTS

CHAPTER XXXI
Lewis and Clark County (Helena) 747

CHAPTER XXXII

Liberty, Lincoln, Madison, McConk, Mkac.hkk, Mineral
Counties 767

CHAPTER XXXIII

Missoula County ( Missoula) 780

CHAPTER XXXIV

Musselshell, Park, Phillips, Pondera and Powder River
Counties 794

CHAPTER XXXV
Powell, Prairie, Ravalli and Richland Counties 806

CHAPTER XXXVI
Roosevelt, Rosebud, Sanders and Sheridan Counties 815

CHAPTER XXXVII
Silver Bow County ( Butte) 827

CHAPTER XXXVIII
Stillwater, Sweet Grass, Teton and Toole Counties 839

CHAPTER XXXIX
Yellowstone County (Billings) 850

CHAPTER XL
Bird's Eye View of the State 861



INDEX



Abbott, A. H., I, 752.
Abbott, P. M., II, 362.
Abel, William M., II, 179.
Abcr, William M., I, 544.
Abrahamson, Jobn C, II, 228.
Absaraka (Home of the Crows), I, 340.
Ab-sa-ra-ka (Mrs. Carrington), I, 341,

343-
Absarokee, I, 840.

Absarokee National Forest, I, 623, 778.
Acher, John W., Ill, 965.
Acquisition claim, I, .173.
Adami, Arthur E., II, 560.
Adams, Burton S., Ill, T2T.
Adams, Charles W., Ill, 1288.
Adams, E. M., II, 231.
Adams, John O., I, 65:1.
Adams, Sallie M., Ill, 1062.
Adams, Stephen J., Ill, 1201.
Adams, Thon as, I, 188.
Adams, Walter K., Ill, 1157.
Adams, William P., II, 36.
Adden. Herbert J., Ill, 1018.
"Affairs at Fort Benton" (Bradley), I,

124, 183, 215.

Afflerbaugh, I. R., Ill, 872.

Agawam, I, 843.

Agricultural College Hall, Bozeman
(illustration), I, S4S-

Agricultural Experiment Station at
Bozeman established, I, 478.

Agricultural Experiment Station
(Northern), I, 476.

Agricultural Experiment Stations, I,
529; (branch), 529.

Agricultural Extension service, I, 529.

•Agriculture: Indians wonder at sprout-
ing grain (1840), I, 149.

Aiken, Will, I, 869.

.Aitken, VN'alter, II. 407.

Akins, Jefferson H., II, 142.

-Alder (^reek, I, 23 1.

Alder Gulch, I, 192; discovery of, 200;
Edgar's account of discovery, 201-5;
named, 203 ; Peter Ronan's account of
discovery, 205; 2to; total output of,
216 ; 219, 220, 222 ; commemorate
monument at, 320; 329, 771.

Alderson, J. J., I, 851.

Alderson, William W., II, 359.

Alexander, James G., IT. 589.

Alexander, j. Newton, II, 509.

Alexander (Kalispeh'ms chief), 1, 157.

Alexander, Mary, III, 1247.

Alexander. Thomas, III, 12^6.

Alfalf.i, Second Crop of in Valley
County (illustration), I, 401.



Alfield, Ed., I, 223.

Alger, I, 824.

Algerian (Shriner) Temple, Helena, I,

755-

Alice Mine, I, m, 834.

Allen, Charles D., II, 300.

Allen, Clark W., II, 45-

.Mien, C, I, 252.

Allen, Elbert F., II, 31.

Allen, J. F., I, 237.

Allen, Paul, I, 20.

Allen, Robert T., Sr., II, 306.

Allen, William R., Ill, U58.

Allen, W. R., I, 471-

Allen & Millard, I, 285.

Alley, Roy S., Ill, 1205.

Allin, Charles W., II, 391.

Allin, William G., II, 605.

Allison, P., I, 213.

Allison, William, I, 222, 223.

Allison, William, Jr., I, 833.

Alma, I, 768.

.Alta Mine, I, 765.

Alton, Robert D., II, 423.

.Amalgamated Copper Company, I, 377.

American Fork, I, 190; (Hangtown),
191.

American Fur Company, I, 113, 121, 123,
126, 127, 129, 131, 140, 164.

"American Fur Trade of the Far West"
(Chittenden), I, 69.

American Horse (Indian Chief), I, 358.

American Horse (Sioux Chief). I. 345.

American Smelting and Refining Com-
pany, Helena, I, 381, 763.

Ames, James J., Ill, 858.

Amundson, Edon A., Ill, 1077.

Anaconda : state capital contestant, I,
441, 712.

Anaconda Copper Mining Company, I,
377, 370, 381. 713; saw mill at Bonner,
781 ; 790, 836.

Anaconda and Butte Copper and Zinc
Mines, I, 383.

Anaconda Hill, I, 836.

Anaconda Hill and vicinity, Butte (il-
lustration, I, 830.

Anaconda lead mines, I. '84.

Anaconda-Neversweat Mine, I, 375.

Anaconda Reduction Works, I, 713; (il-
lustration), 712.

Anarchism denounced (1019), I, 483.

Anderson, Andrew T., II, 591.

Anderson, Anton I., HI, 1223.

Anderson, Elmer J., II, (504.

Anderson, Emory A., Ill, 736.

Anderson, Glenn, II, 604.



IX



INDEX



Anderson, James W., Ill, 803.

Anderson, John A., Ill, 708.

Anderson, John C, III, 1084.

Anderson, Marius, III, 850.

Anderson, Orville L., I, 653.

Anderson, Peter. Ill, 732.

Anderson, Ray, II, 220.

Anderson, Recce, I, i£6, 192, 221.

Anderson, Robert B., Ill, 709.

Anderson, William W., I, 316.

Andretta, Fred C, III, 834.

Andrews, C. K., I, 868.

Andrews, J. W., Jr., I. 426.

Andrieux. Edgar M.. II, 476.

Andrus, Harry E., II, 375.

Angell, Earle P., II, 616.

.'Xngevine, Frank H.. I, 33s, 338.

Angevine, Fred R., II, 445.

Angslman. Jess L., II, 1438.

Annin, James T., II, 299.

Annin, Joseph B., II, 298.

Antelope, I, 826.

Apgar, H. D., Ill, 795.

."Xpgar. Jessie, III, 796.

Appleton, Fletcher W., II, 32.

Arbor Day, I, 465, 498.

Are these young .Americans being fairly

treated? (ilhistration), I, 520.
Arena, Peter, III, 954.
'Argenta, I, 237.
Argo, Neil D., II, 73.
Arick, R. E.. I, 41^.
Arkwright, Hartford D., Ill, 1257.
Arlee, I, 792.
Armington, I, 699.
.Armitage, Thomas C, II, 230.
Armstead, I, 783.
Armstrong, Francis K.. II. 6.
Armstrong, George, I, 703.
Armstrong, John, I, 15.
.Armstrong, Ory J., Ill, 999.
.Armstrong. Thomas G., II, 65.
.Arnet. Nick. Ill, loc;.
Arnette, Frank G.. Ill, 921.
Arnett. F. B.. Ill, 85J.
Arnold, George P. I., Jr., II, 285.
Arnold, Harry E., 11, 33.
Arnold, R.nlnh L., II, 453.
Arnold, William, I, 237.
.Arnntt. George, Jr., II, ''71.
Asbridge, Joseph L., I. 868; II, .S22.
.Ashlev. James M., I, 288; his residence

in He'ena (ilhistratinn"). 313; becomes

governor, 314; (portrait), 410; 868.
.Ashley. William. I. in8. in. 120.
.Ashley-Henry Discoveries of 1823, I,

109.
.As'a'-snn. riccir R \\ ^29.
Aslakson, Thomas E., Ill, 1308.
Aspling. Charles E., II, 336.
.Assaroka range, I, ot.
Asselsfine. George H.. II, 564.
Assiniboinps. I, ''i, i'6.
Asteroid claim, I. 371.
Astor, John Tacob, I, 113.
,Atr''i>:nn. Jn'-n S.. I. 28;.
Atkinson, Alfred. I. ='8, 731.
Atkinson. Tarnps T.., Ill, 925.
.Atfiv. Frederick F.. II, 45.
Andnbon, John J., I, 124.
Augusta, I, 241, 749.



.Auld, James C, II, 6)7.

Aune, George D., II, 87.

Austin. Claud, II, 474.

Austin, Harry H., II, 117.

Austin, James W., Sr., Ill, 877.

.Austin, William Charles, II, 474.

Australian ballot system introduced, I,

485. .
Autobiographical Notes (1791-1816) by

McDonald, I, 81.
A.xtell, John S., I, 725; III, 1195.
Ayers, Leonard P., I, 503.
Ayers, Roy E,, II, 422.
Ayres, D. E., II, 601.

Baatz, Nick, II, 575.

Babcock, Albert L., II. 241.

Babcock, Lewis C, II, 241.

Babcock, Paul, III, 801.

Babington, W. J., II, 446.

Baboon Gulch, I, 222. 1

Bach, Thomas C. (portrait), I, 428; 431.

Bachelors taxed, I, 489.

Bad Lands : General Sully describes, I,
2()i\ (illustrations), 295.

Badger Creek, I, 112.

Bagg, Charles S., I, 256, 257, 282, 283,
289.

Bailey, H. V., I, 869.

Bailey, James, I, 209.

Bainville, I, 817.

Bair, Frank B., II, 367.

Pair. John G., III. 746.

Baird, David E., II, 512.

Baird. Frank P., II, 583.

Baker, I. 714.

Baker, Arthur G., Ill, 1431.

Baker, David A . Ill, 1280.

Baker, Eugene M., I, 309, 345.

Baker, E. D., Ill, 1198.

Baker, George A.. III. 1319.

Baker, Paul, HI, 1373.

Baker Battle Fields memorial, I, 323.

"P-.l.-er's Bnttlc" of 1872, I, 309.

Baldwin, Gement J., II, 15.

Baldy Mountain, I. 771.

Ball, Allen M., Ill, 1269.

Ball. Tennie C, III, 838.

Ball, May. HI, 727.

Pa'1, Robert I.. Ill, 8,'7.

Ballantine, I, 8^6.

Ballard, William E., Ill, 843.

Ballon, F. H., IT. 1^0.

Bally, W. H., Ill, 086.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe. I, 159.

Bannack City: early diggings, I, 190;
191, 220, 230, 250, m, 783; of today,
67T.

Bannack Legislature. I. 281-288.

Bannack Mining and Milling Company,
I. 67?.

Bannack Statutes, I, 415.

Bannack Street of Today (illustration),
I, 191.

Banks, L. B.. II. 2nv

Banks and Banking: Helena Brand of
F^dern' Re«frve Bnnk opened, I,
489; Miles City Banks, 707: Lewis-
town Banks, 720; stntues of Montana's
state, private and national banks
(1920), 870; state banking laws, 871.



INDEX



Barclay, J. Arthur, III, 1400.

Barclay, R. Proctor, II, 300.

Barker, Bud, I, 213.

Barker, Samuel, II, 516.

Barnard, William E., Ill, 1 110.

Barnes, Antrim E., II, 98.

Barnes, Oscar O., Ill, 962.

Barren, Joseph, I, 14.

Barrett, Alexander H.. I, 493.

Barrett, William, I, 328.

Bartles, Frederick K., II, 4S2.

Bartley, Paris B., Ill, 682.

Bartz, George, II, 311.

Basin mining district, $6,635,000, I, 766.

Bateman, Howard W'., Ill, 747.

Batens, Francis X., Ill, 1226.

Battey, R. C, II, 258.

Battle of Kildeer Mountain (Sioux

Campaign), I, 292, 293.
Battle of the Big Hole, I, 643.
Baume, Tom, I, 255.
Baxter, Ernest C, II, 592.
Beall, William J., II. 76.
Beall, Mrs. W. J., II, 77-
Bean, Leo, II, 1302.
Bear Gulch, I, 213.
Bearmouth, I, 790.

Bear 1 aw Mountains, I, 91, 94, 229.
Bear Tooth Mountain in the Coal Region

(illustration), I, 101.
Beartooth National Forest, I, 624.
Beatty, James H., I, 378.
Beauharnois, Charles de, I, 5.
Beauty Spots for tourists, I, 634.
Beaver Hill, I, 848.
Beaverhead county : placer mines in

1862-68, I, 213; early silver mining in,

238 ; created, 281 ; number and value

of cattle (1884), 395; irrigation, 595;

natural features and industries of,

667.
Beaverhead National Forest, I, 624.
Beaverhead River, I, 230.
Beaverhead Rock, I, 50; (illustration),

•49-
Beckers, Hubert, III, 858.
Beckwith, James, I, 344.
Bedford, David J., Ill, 911.
Beebe, I, 703.
Beechey, Hill, I, 253.
Been, I, 848.
Bees, I, 403.
Behrendt, Paul, II, 130.
Beidler, J. X.. I, 2}^, 259, 273.
Beier, F. W., Jr., I, 869.
Beiseker, Chester J., Ill, 1065.
Belanski, Edgar E., Ill, 1133.
Belgrade, I, 729.
Belgum, Henry S., Ill, 803.
Belknap, I, 82J.
Bell, Francis, I, 282.
Bell, Frederick A., II, 130.
Bell. George H.. Ill, 1127.
Bell, Henry A., I, 192, 196.
Bell, John K., Ill, 971.
Bellefleur, Irene V., II, 631.
Bellefleur, W. M., II, 631.
Belt, I, 699.
Belt range, I, 91.
Relzer, William, I, 655.



Bench and Bar: Miners Courts estab-
lished, I, 218; Sidney Edgerton at
Miners Court, 279; sketch of Chief
Justice H. L. Hosmer, 288 ; opening
of first District Court, 289; Idaho
code of practice adopted, 290; com-
pletion of hrst term of court, 291 ;
Judiciary opposes Assembly as to con-
stitutional capital, 298; Territorial
practice act, 315, 414-438; bar at close
of territorial period, 431 ; Justices of
First Supreme Court retire, 416; be-
ginning of systematic judicature, 418;
crude legal and judicial surroundings,
420; placer mining and water rights,
421 ; Henry N. Blake ascends Supreme
Bench, 423; quartz mining litigation.
424 ; quartz lode litigation supreme,
427; railroad cases, 429; Montana Bar
Association formed, 433; under state-
hood, 434-438; U. S. District Judges.
437; State District Judiciary, 438;
Heinze overwhelms the courts. 439;
Fair Trial Law passed. 460; legisla-
tive elevation of bar. 477; justices of
the State Supreme Court increased
from three to five, 485 ; pending codi-
fication of laws, 489.

Bender, Frank, II, 42.

Benetsee Creek, I, 184.

Bennet. Howard G., Ill, 688.

Bennett, George C, III, 1439-

Bennett. Jack. Ill, 809.

Bennett, Sidney, II, 6.6.

Bennett, Walter E., II, 169.

Benoit, John A., Ill, 1144.

Benson, Theodore J., II. 237.

Benton, C. H.. I. 438.

Benton, Thomas A., I, 128.

Benton City, I, 215.

Benton group (geological), I, 95.

Berkin, John, II. 380.

Berkin. Thomas A., 11, 11.

Berkin, William, I, 2F6; II, 10.

Bernard Pratte & Company, I. III.

Berry, Albert C, III, 9I4-

Berthelote, Joseph T.. Ill, 1132.

Bertrand, Joseph, II, 286.

Bessette, Hypolite, III, 764.

Best, Herbert F., II, 344.

Best, Judson P., II, 345-

Best, Oly M.. II, 360.

Betz, John. III. 1098.

Bibee, S. C, III, 867.

Bickford, Walter M., II, 12.

Bickle, J. Hiram, III, 1370.

Biddle, Joseph W., I. 363-

Bielenberg, Howard Z., II, 182.

Big Bellies (Gros Ventres), I, 74.

Rig Belt Mountains, I, 91.

Big Blackfoot country, I, 754.

Big Blackfoot River I, 227.

Big Dry Creek, 1, 32.

Big Dry River, I, 91.

Big Fork, I, 724.

Big Hole River, I, 230.

Big Horn, I, 845.

Big Horn Canyon, I, 672.

Big Horn country. Government evacu-
ates, I, 345-



INDEX



Big Horn County, created, I, 281 ; 406,
474 ; irrigation, 59s ; description of,
672, 673, 674.

Big Horn Mountains, I, 91.

Big Horn River, I, 63, 81.

Big Horn town located, I, 195.

Big Knife kivcr, I, 2g.

Big Prickly Pear Creek, I, 190.

Big Sandy, I, 702.

Big Snowy Mountain, I, 91.

Big Timber, I, 841.

Big Timber irrigation project, I, 583.

Bigelow, Edward, II, 58.

Bigelow, Wilbur F., II, 200.

Billings, Frederick, I, 851.

Billings, incorporated, I, 409; irrigation
project, I, 581, 582; history of city, 851 ;
bubiueas iiouiua, industries and banks,
854; general evidences of its prosper-
ity, 859.

Billings airport, I, 853.

Billings Chamber of Commerce, I, 857,
859.

Billings-Cody Way, I, 851.

Billings Coliseum, I, 853.

Billings Commercial Club: home of
(illustration), I, 855; sketch of, 856.

Billings Polytechnic Institute, I, 552.

Billings Street Railway Company, I, 851.

Billings Iwenty-five vears ago (illustra-
tion), I, 852.

Billings and Central Montana Railroad.
I, 568.

Billmeyer, Daniel H., II, 71.

Biography of James Stuart (Granville
Stuart), I, 221.

Biological Station, Flathead Lake, I,
,529, 335. 536.

Bird Tail divide, I, 91.

Birkland. Andrew C., Ill, 1404.

Birum, Albert A., Ill, 1069.

Bishop, John F., I, 316.

Bissel, G. G., I, 217, 218.

Bitter Root Mountain, I, 227.

Bitter Root National Forest, I, 624, 811.

Bitter Root River, I, 90.

Bitter Root Valley (illustration), I,
93; (illustration), 143: 144, 223, 225,
227, 791; historic associations of, 811.

Biven's Gulch, I, 231.

Bjornchy, K. G., III. 861.

Bjorncbv, George, III, 861.

Black, Robert R., III. 951.

Black Bear (Indian chief), I, 173, 174.

Black Chief. I. 371.

P'ark Ch'pf lode. I. 222.

Black Eagle Power Plant, Great Falls,
I, 6Pn.

Black Hills (Cote Noire), I, 34.

Black Mountain Trail. I, 752.

Black Rork Zinc Mine, I, 382.

Black Tailed Deer Creek, I, 230, 231.

Blackfeet Indians (Piegans), I, 104;
fur traders attempt to win over. III;
again reconciled by Culbertson, 126;
tronh'e with the, I, 140; attempts to
convert the, I, 150; still warlike, I,
154; attack Hamilton-McKay party,
I, 172, 173, 174, 175. 176; reclamation
project. I, 587, 589.



Blackfeet country abandoned by fur
traders, I, 105.

BlacKteet Indian Reservation, I, 737.

Blackfeet National Forest, I, 624, 769.

Blackfeet Sun Dance (illustrations of),
I. 736.

Blackfoot Valley, I, 790.

Blackwell, George R., Ill, 958.

Blaere, Joseph, II, 269.

Blame County; created, I, 474; irriga-
tion in, 596 ; description of, 674.

Blaine County Fair, I, 675.

Blair, Harry B.. II, 196.

Blair, James F., II, 341.

Blair, John W., I, 316; III, 1296.

Blake, A. S., I, 189, 192.

Blake, Henry N., I, 216, 415, 422; sketch
of, 423; 434; defeated for chief jus-
tice, 449; 459.

Blake, S. R., I, 219.

Blakeslee, Glenn B., II, 172.

Blakeslee, Harry D., II, 172.

Blanchet, F. N.. I, 147.

Blankenhorn, Charles E., II, 141.

BlodgLtt, Francis E.. HI, 895.

Blodgett, Louis D., II, 3SI.

Blomrjuist, Walter C, IH, 826.

Blood, Indians, I, 140.

Bloom. Edward B.. II, 189.

Blose, J. T., Ill, 1034.

Blue Joint Hay (illustration), I, 846.

Board of Administration for Farmers'
Institutes. I, 530.

Board of Education, Billings, II, 236.

Board of Examination for Nurses, I,
476.

Board of Horticulture, I. 883.

Board of Railroad Commissioners estab-
lished, I, ^'64.

Boarton, L. W., I, 289.

Boatman. Robert T., II, 287.

Bodden. Jacob C, II, 199.

Boden, Henning R., II, 20.

Boden, James, HI, i-'43.

Bodley, Ralph E., II, 26.

Boggs, George S., Ill, 1183.

Bogue, lohn C, HI, 1249.

Bohart, William O., II, 420.

Bohm, Angevine & Merry, I, 338.

Bole, James P., II, 379.

Bole. William S.. II. 313.

Bollinger, John, II. 171.

Bond, John C, I, 643.

Bond, N. J., I, 282.

Bonin, I, 777.

Bonita, I, 790.

Ponner, I, 790.

Bonner, E. L., I, 500, .^32.

Bonneville. B. L. E. : his explorations,
I, 113-119; and the geysers, 116; last
years of, 119.

Boorman, Benjamin T., HI. 744.

Booth, Edwin S.. Ill, 1428.

Booth, John C, III. 1448.

Booth. Tohn H.. HI. 14J8.

Borough, John F., II, 3-?4.

Borreson, Henry E., HI, 1052.

Boschert. F-'rnest .^ ., II. 76.

Posshard, Flmer, II, 341.

Boston & Colorado Smelting Company,
I. 375-



INDEX



Boston & Montana Consolidated Com-
pany, I, 377, 378.
Boston & Montana mine, I, 375.
Boslwick, Epliriam, I, 192, 197.
Botkin, Alexander C, I, 405, 433.
Boulder, I, 745.

Bourquin, George M., I, 437, 438, 868.
Bouyer, Mitch, I, 349, 350.
Bowden, Malcolm, III, 1 176.
Bovvden, Marguerita, I, 760.
Bowdoin, I, 803.
Bower, G. C, II, 610.
Bower Brothers Ranch, II, 610.
Bowman, Alfred H., Ill, 1326.
Bowman, Carl, III, 1275.
Bowman, Charles H., I, 549.
Bowman, Dan H., Ill, T344.
Bowman, Thomas E., Ill, 1148.
Boyer, Mary L., Ill, 1300.
Boyes. Henry O., Ill, 1264.
Boyle, Neil, III, 1265.
Boynlon, C. H., I, 761.
Box Elder, I, 744.
Bozeman, J. M., I, 120, 189, 195, 221,

306; statue of (illustration), 307;

grave at Bozeman, 323, 555 ; sketch of,

730, 799, 840.
Bozeman: first house built in, I, 307;

state capitol contestant, 441 ; 529,

729. 732.
Bozeman Roundup, I, 732.
Brackenridge, Henry W., I, 69, 73.
Brackett, Ivory, III, 1394.
Brackett, Oscar, III, 1007.
Brackett, William S., I, 114, 118, 119,

120.
Bradbrook, L. G., II, 40.
Frndhnrv, John I, 69, 71, 73.
Bradford, Robert B., II, 233.
Bradford, VV. M., II, 233.
Bradley, Abram. L., II, 492.
Bradley, James H. (portrait), I, 214;

304, 343, 349; his account of the Custer

disaster, 350; death of, 360.



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