ing, with many privates, lost their lives on the altar of devotion
to their cause. Among those captured by the enemy were: First
Lieutenant James Campbell and Second Lieutenant H. W. Hen-
dricks. The close of the war found the Fusiliers with General
Tribute to German Fusiliers 275
Johnston's army in North Carolina, where they joined the gen-
eral surrender in April. 1865.
"And that, gentlemen, is a slight outline of the war history of
the German Fusiliers, a story of prompt response to their
country's need, of dutj'' conscientiously and efficiently performed,
of courage and bravery and valor on the field of battle which can
be equalled by but few companies of the United States today and
surpassed by none. Born and raised in the City of Charleston,
my breast fills with pride in contemplation of the history you
have made. I am proud that you have been tried again and again
on the field of battle and have been found equal to every occasion.
I am i3roud in the knowledge that where the fighting is hottest
and fiercest, and where most is demanded of men, there will be
found Captain Schroder and the German Fusiliers. And I am
proud in the knowledge that right alongside of you, shoulder to
shoulder with j'ou and vieing with you for honors, will be found
Captain Withington and his "Washington Light Infantry, Cap-
tain Clotworthy, with his Sumter Guards; Captain Burke, with
his Irish Volunteers; Captain Adger, with his Charleston Light
Dragoons, and Captain Wagener, with his German Artillery."
276 Stories or the Confederacy
SKETCH OF BACHMAN'S BATTERY
By that Gallant Soldier and Chivalrous Gentleman, Hon. James
Simons, of Charleston, S. C.
When the Ordinance of Secession was adopted by the people of
the State of South Carolina on the 20th December, 1860, it was
evident to some, although apparently not realized by the vast
majority of the people or their leaders, that the country would be
involved in a civil war of vast proportions.
At. this time the State of South Carolina possessed, of course,
nothing bearing the least resemblance to a navy. The only
military force at its disposal consisted of the militia of the State.
The development of this establishment had culminated in the Act
of 17th December, 1841, reorganizing this force, and at the time
of the adoption of the Ordinance of Secession it existed as organ-
ized under this Act, with the amendments thereto up to that
Under this Act the State was territorially divided into
Divisions, Brigades and Regiments of Infantry, the Artillery and
Cavalry were organized within these divisions.
The writer remembers, as a youth, hearing men, in naming their
respective places of residence, instead of saying they lived at such
and such a place, say they lived in such and such a regiment.
With certain exceptions, all able-bodied males between the ages
of eighteen and forty-five years were compelled to serve in the
militia. Those who had served as officers for seven years were
entitled to exemption from further service. This military service
was enforced by severe penalties. Provision was made for volun-
teer companies under certain regulations, the number of officers
and men in such organizations being limited. Such companies,
as a general rule, were organized in the cities and towns, and
their organizations were inspired by various motives.
In the City of Charleston, at the time above referred to, the
militia consisted of the First Eegiment of Artillery, the Seven-
teenth Regiment of Infantry, the First Regiment of Rifles,
composed of volunteer companies, and the Sixteenth Regiment of
LIKUT. JAMKS SIMONS.
Baciimax's Battery 277
Infantry, together ^Yitll two companies of cavalry, both of vohin-
Two of the companies of the artillery regiment, the German
Artillery, Companies A and B; one of the Seventeenth Regi-
ment, the German Fusiliers; two of the First Regiment of Rifles,
the German Riflemen and the Palmetto Riflemen, and one of the
cavalry companies, the German Hussars, were composed of the
German citizens and residents of the City of Charleston, and it
may be said that in proportion to numbers, this element of the
population was very largely represented in this branch of the
service of the State.
The State authorities having determined to occupy Fort Moul-
trie, on Sullivan's Island; Castle Pinckney, in the harbor near the
city, and the then United States arsenal in the City of Charleston,
on the afternoon of 2Tth December, 1860, a detachment of four
companies of the artillerj^ regiment, including one company of
the German Artillery, of which detachment the writer Avas the
adjutant, was sent to Fort Moultrie; a detachment of three com-
panies of the regiment of rifles was sent to occupy Castle
Pinckney, and a detachment of three companies of the Seven-
teenth Regiment was sent to occupy the arsenal.
Soon after the investment of Fort Sumter followed, in which
the Charleston militia, together with troops which soon came
from other parts of the State, were engaged.
After the fall of Fort Sumter and the formation of the
Southern Confederacy, it soon became apparent that the first
military operations of magnitude would be in the State of Vir-
ginia, and that an arm}' had to be provided for the newly-formed
Confederate States. Steps were at once taken to this end, and
several of the Charleston militia companies raised duplicate
companies for this service to represent them and their traditions.
The German citizens of Charleston, inspired by patriotic devo-
tion to the country of their adoption, determined to raise and
equii^ a company of young men to represent them in the Con-
federate Army. The leading spirit in this undertaking was
General John A. AVagener, then colonel of the First Artillery
Regiment, afterwards brigadier-general of the Fourth Brigade of
South Carolina Militia, and subsequently the first Democratic
Mavor of the Citv of Charleston during "reconstruction." He
Stories of tpie Confederacy
was enthusiastically supported by his brother, Captain F. W.
Wagener, Captain Jacob Small, Captain Alexander Melchers
and all the German citizens in general.
Officers for the proposed company were selected and commis-
sioned and authority obtained to recruit a company of infantry,
the members of which were enlisted for a term of five years. The
company was named by its promoters "The German Volunteers,"
and the German citizens of Charleston most generously and
patriotically uniformed and, with the exception of the arms,
which were furnished by the government, most adequately and
handsomely equipped the company. The personnel of the com-
pany was composed partly of the members of the German militia
companies above mentioned, especially the German Artillery
companies, and partly of men who had never been previously
connected with any military organization.
This company, during its formation, was encamped on what
was then known as the "Half Moon Battery," the site of a work
used in the Revolutionary War and located near the site of the
present Union Station.
On the 22nd day of August, 1861, the company was mustered
into the service of the Confederate States by Lieutenant Mills,
C. S. A., at the Military (now German Artillery) Hall.
The following is the roll of the company for this muster:
Wm. K. Bacbman, Captain.
James Simons, Jr., First Lieutenant.
R. Siegliug, Second Lieutenant.
H. Wasener, Second Lieutenant.
C. H. Bersnian. First Sergeant.
J. Hahn, Second Sergeant.
D. Sclilimnienmeyer. Third Sergeant.
W. Scliwers. Fourtli Sergeant.
H. Campson, First Corporal.
A. vonHarten. Second Corporal.
M. Bartel, Third Corporal.
T. H. Hollen, Fourth Corporal.
vonArtsdalen, G. W.
Buggeln, J. F.
Borueman, E. H.
Engelman, G. F.
Hoffmeyer, G. M.
Hopke, E. J.
Heintz, E. H.
Hink, T. F.
Jager, A. W.
Konig, J. H.
BAcmrAx's Battery 279
Meyer, Geo. Reble, W. Schuinacher, F.
Meyer, J. Slator. J. Seheller, .7.
Meyer. 11. voiiSprockoIsen. H. Striins. J. H.
Me'itzler, W. Sclmmaclior, J. Scliultz, W.
Xonlt'll, G. Struck. H. Stelliug. G.
Nurdiiicyer, D. Struck. (". Twachiiian, H.
v.)ii.\('\vt(ni. T. H. St(>flViis. C. Witjon, II.
Nifiiu'vcr, F. W. Stotl'ons, J. Witjcii. .7.
Olluiir, II. F. Steffeiis, M. Weifraiul. T.
oilers, B. Schroder, N. H. Wre<le. II.
riiillips, I. Steltz. A. Wille, Ilonry
I'liillips, M. Srcinhach, Cli. Willo. Ileriu.
I'ortwii:. I*"". Sclil()l)amn. W. Wertheini, J.
KcMueke. F. G. Scliiuidt, II. Wcj^iiian, J.
UuIkmi, .7. Scliumacher. A. H. Zerbst, C. G.
Kdluk'. G. Scliuiiiachor, T. II. Zioslcr, E.
lialulers, J. Schumacher. E. Zeijiler, (J. II.
The Hamilton Legion had previously been organized and wais
then in Virginia. It consisted of a squadron of cavalry, a battery
of liglit artillery and a battalion of infantry, organized under the
provisions of law for twelve-months men, and was conunanded
by Colonel (afterwards general) Wade Hampton. It seems that
an additional c()mi)any of infantry was needed for the infantry
battalion, and by order of the War Department this newly
recruited compau}' was assigned to it and designated as H Com-
pany of the Battalion.
The conii)any left Charleston on the 10th day of September,
18G1. by rail for Virginia, and was escorted to the railroad depot
by the German companies of the South Carolina militia, having
first had presented to it a flag the handiwork of the German
ladies of Charleston. On our arrival in Virginia we had to leave
this flag in Richmond, as, of cour.se, it was not permissible for a
single infantr}' company to have a flag.
The company joined the infantry battalion of the Legion,
wdiich was then in camp near Freestone Point on the Potomac.
After serving for some time as a company of the infantry
liiittnlion of the Legion, it seems, as we were informed, Colonel
Hampton, at his own expense, had imported from England a
stand of Enfield rifles, and two rifled field pieces. He offered the
rifles as a prize to the infantry company of his Legion which
should be adjudged the best drilled in a competitive drill, which
was appointed. The contest soon narrowed down to Company A
(Wa.shington Light Infantry) and Company H (German Volun-
teers). It was adjudged that the former excelled in the skirmish
280 Stories of the Confederacy
drill and the latter in the other parts of the exercises. It was
settled by the rifles being given to Company A and the two rifled
field i)ieces to Company H, which, under authority from the War
Department, was transformed into a light battery, and designated
B Company, Hampton Legion Artillery, and with the original
light battery of the Legion commanded by Captain S. D. Lee,
now designated A Company, Hampton Legion Artillery, consti-
tuted a battalion under S. D, Lee, who Avas promoted major.
On the expiration of the twelve-months term of enlistment of
the Legion, it was reorganized, and an election held for its
officers. At this election neither the officers or men of the German
Volunteers were permitted to vote, as they were under a different
provision of law and enlisted for five years.
After this reorganization the companv was separated from the
Legion. The artillery battalion commanded by Major Lee was
enlarged and he promoted. The company continued in this com-
mand until 22d June, 18G2, when it was assigned to Pender's Bri-
gade in the division then commanded by General A. P. Hill. On
28th July, 18G2, the company was assigned to General Hood's
Texas Brigade, in the infantry of which we found the infantry
battalion of the Hampton Legion. When General Hood was pro-
moted to the command of a division, of which his brigade formed
a part, this company, together with the South Carolina battery
commanded by Captain Hugh R. Garden; the North Carolina
batter}^ commanded by Captain Reilly, and later another North
Carolina battery commanded by Captain Latham, constituted the
artillery battalion of the division.
The company continued thus to serve until some time after the
battle of Gettysburg, Avhen troops from the Army of Northern
Virginia were sent to other parts of the Confederacy.
This company was then sent to South Carolina and was
stationed near Pocotaligo, S. C, on the Charleston and Savannah
The officers of the company, in view of the peculiar circum-
stances connected with the raising of this company, had per-
sistently declined promotion, but the exigency of the service at
least required it. Captain Bachman was finally promoted to the
command of a battalion of artillery in some other command, and
BArmrAx's Battery 281
the writer became the commander of the company and so con-
tinued until the end of the war.
The company })articipated with tlie trooj)s with which it was
associated in all the service, and in coiiiinon with them endured
all the hardshii)s rcfiuired of the Confederate soldier. These can
only be realized and appreciated by the actors themselves.
The company |)articipated in the campaigns of the Army of
Northern Virginia up until, as above stated, it was sent back to
South Carolina, includin*);. besides skirmishes and minor affairs,
the battles of Seven Pines, the seven days battles around Rich-
mond. Second Manassas. Boonesboro Gap. Sharpsburg, Freder-
icksburg, operations around Suffolk, Va., and after returning to
South Carolina participated in the operations between Savannah
and Charleston, including the affairs near Coosawhatchie, Tali-
'\Mien the troops were withdrawn from South Carolina the
company went with the troops of this department and were con-
centrated with them in North Carolina. At Fayetteville, N. C,
the company was temporarily attached to General Wade Hamp-
ton's Cavalry command and with it participated in the affair at
Fayetteville. It was also present with the army at Averysboro
and Bentonville, S. C.
When it became apparent that the army under General John-
ston would be surrendered, the writer, then being in command of
the company, happened to meet General James Conner, Avho
informed him he had been ordered to South Carolina. There
was some talk at this time of continuing the struggle in the trans-
Mississippi Department, and it was supposed that if the company
should be able to leave the army before the surrender there
might be a possibility of its reaching this department. With the
assistance of General Conner an order was procured for the
company to report to General Conner at Camden. S. C. The
country at that time was in a very disturbed condition, several
officers on their way. to South Carolina availed themselves of its
escort on its march to Camden, among them was General Conner
Soon after arriving at Camden it was ascertained that the
armies of the Confederacy had surrendered. In view of this, on
â€¢consultation with General Conner, it was concluded to disband.
282 Stories or the Confederacy
The guns, carriages, etc., were taken to pieces and with the
ammunition were thrown into a mill pond near Camden. A
paper was given to each man, signed by the commanding officer,
authorizing him to leave the colors, stating that if he was further
needed before the expiration of his term of enlistment due notice
would be given. The colors were taken by the guidon, A. W.
Jager, and safely guarded by him. They are now in his pos-
session. He is still living, one of the few survivors of the com-
As above mentioned, the original officers were William K.
Bachman, Captain; James Simons, First Lieutenant; Rudolph
Siegling, Second Lieutenant, and Henry Wagener, Jr., Second
Lieutenant. "Wlien the company was transferred to the light
artillery service Mr. Siegling was promoted to a first lieutenancy.
Mr. Siegling was desperately wounded at the Second Manassas
and was compelled to be absent for nearly a year on account of
his wound. Lieutenant F. H. Wigfall, a son of Senator Wigfall,
was assigned by the War Department to take his place. Lieu-
tenant Wagener, after the battle of Sharpsburg, resigned on
account of ill health, and Sergeant William Schwers was pro-
moted to a lieutenancy and took his place.
The losses in the company were filled up at first by recruits,
enlisted for the purpose, and afterwards by the assignment of
conscripts drawn from different parts of the State. With but few
exceptions these proved to be excellent men.
The company records have been almost all preserved and are in
the hands of the writer.
It can be said that this company M'as well known in the army
and enjoyed a fine reputation. It is due to the men who com-
posed it to say that, like their comrades of the Confederate Army,
they bore their hardships and did their duty without flinching.
It would be impossible to give a detailed history of this com-
pany and the particulars of its service without unduly extending
this brief sketch beyond the purpose for which it has been
It may not, however, be uninteresting to mention a few inci-
Wlien Lieutenant Siegling was wounded his wound was pro-
nounced mortal. As he was expected to die within a few hours,
Baciiman's Battery 283
some boards were stripped from a fence which happened to be
near by and a box was made in which it was intended to bury
him. He did not die as expected, and we were informed that
Colonel J. M. Gadberry, Avho was killed in the same battle, was
buried in it. Lieutenant Sickling rejoined the companj^ shortly
before the Battle of Gettysburg.
Among the most trying experiences of the company was their
service in the Seven Days battles around Richmond; at Sharps-
burg, when half of the battery was advanced within close range
to the lines of the Federal infantry in an effort to break them
with cannister, and at Gettysburg, when with Garden's South
Carolina batter}- it accompanied the infantry of Hood's Division
in the charge up Round Top, and when on the next day in the
same battle this company sustained and repulsed the charge of the
Federal cavalry led by General FarnsAvorth, who was killed.
Too much credit cannot be given to the patriotic Germans of
the City of Charleston who raised this company to represent
them, and too much credit cannot be given to the brave men who
honorably discharged this trust.
Of the compan}- there are but a very few living. In the City
of Charleston there are of the survivors, James Simons, A. W.
Jager, John Steffens, Fred K. Muller and John I. Horlbeck. The
last two joined the company later in the war. There may be a
few others, not living in the city.
284 Stories or the Confederacy
AMBROSIO JOSE GONZALES.
Distinguished Cuban Patriot and Confederate Soldier â€” Chief of
Artillery of Department of South Carolina, Georgia and
Florida â€” Acting Chief of Artillery of Johnston's Army at
Of him Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy, wrote :
"A soldier under two flags but one cause." The '"cause" to which
Mr. Davis referred was that of the weak and oppressed struggling
for liberty and independence; the flag besides the Stars and
Bars of the Confederacy was that of "Cuba Libre." For the Con-
federate officer had been a most conspicuous figure in Cuba's first
revolt against Spain, a revolution that lived in spirit through
fifty years of dungeons, confiscation, starvation and slaughter,
and finall}^ triumphed when the United States went to the sup-
port of the oppressed.
The career of Ambrosio Jose Gonzales was so interwoven with
historic events at the most momentous period in American
history, so involved in the American struggle between the "free"
and the "slave" States, and so romantic as to be. of more than
usual popular interest. He was born in the city of Matanzas,
Cuba, in 1818. His family was one of the most prominent on the
island; his father, bearing the same name, was an eminent
engineer, a planter, and the founder and owner of the first daily
newspaper published in that city. At the age of nine he was
sent to New York to be educated at a noted military school,
where he remained four or five years. One of his classmates was
G. T. Beauregard of Louisiana, and the friendship then formed
lasted unweakened during their lives. When Beauregard opened
the greatest war of modern times by firing upon Sumter, Gon-
zales, a volunteer on his staff, was by his side.
Upon his return to Cuba young Gonzales completed his educa-
tion at the University of Havana and took the degree of bachelor
of laws. He, however, chose education as his profession, and
was a professor in a Matanzas college when the service of his
countrv demanded of him exile and sacrifice.
General Ambrosio Jose Gox^ales 285
A brief history of the first Cuban revohition, with details of
the important j^art played therein by orallant youn<T Southerners,
was puljli-shed in the Menii)hi.s Commercial Appeal in May, 1002,
and is here drawn upon. "The conspiracy and ficrhting was not
begun by the poor or those in the lower classes, but by men who
were in high station, who had fortunes to lose, with nothing to
gain but the patriot's freedom. The ambition of those who raised
the cry, 'Cuba Libre', was not for a republic of their own, but to
become a State within this Union.''
The first conspiracy for annexation Avas formed in Cuba in
1848, with some of the most enlightened and wealthy men at its
head. General Xarciso Lopez, then in retirement after having
been commander-in-chief of the Cristina Cavalry in the Carlist
war in Spain. Governor of ]\[adrid, Captain-General of Valencia,
and Governor of the central province in Cuba and President of
the Supreme Military Tribunal, took sides with the oppressed.
To avoid arrest General Lopez escaped on an American brig and
was landed at Bristol, Rhode Island.
A. J. Gonzales was at that stage delegated by the revolutionary
Junta (Council) to proceed to the United States and offer Gen-
eral Worth, then returning from our victorious war in Mexico,
three million dollars with Avhich to raise an expedition of 5,000
men from the disbanded American soldiers, and land in Cuba to
support a movement by revolutionists. At the risk of his life
Gonzales, unable to secure a passport, walked on board a steamer
and entered a stateroom wdiere he remained until landed in New
Orleans. Death would have been the penalty for his discovery
by a Spanish official.
General Worth had passed New Orleans when the Cuban
ambassador reached that city. He "vvas overtaken at Bristol,
Rhode Island, and was won over by the Cuban envoy and took
Gonzales with him to his home at Hudson, New York. A few
days later General Worth met General Lopez and Caspar Betan-
court Cisneros. Editor of La Vci-dud^ the Cuban revolutionary
paper published in New York City.
General Worth and Gonzales ]:)roceeded to Washington,
where the Cuban patriot commissioner met President Polk, Sec-
retary of the Navy Mason and Secretary of the Treasury Walker.
At his request, General Worth sent to Habana Colonel Henry
286 Stories of the Confederacy
Bohlin of Philadelphia, who had been a volunteer aide on his
staff, to get proof of the ability of the Cubans to furnish the
immense sum of money promised. Colonel Bohlin returned with
satisfactory assurances. But the movement for annexation could
not be kept secret, and the "free" States violently opposing the
strengthening of the South by the introduction of another slave
State into the Union, powerful influences were exerted against
the movement in Washington, and to such influences the Cubans
attributed the appointment of General Worth to the command
of the Department of Texas, where he soon after died.
On General Worth's death the wealthiest Cubans withdrew the
tenders of their fortunes. But those of greater perseverance, if
smaller means, contributed, the patriot women sold their jewelry,
and a considerable sum was raised.
In 1849 the first Cuban Junta was established in New York,
Gonzales and Lopez being two of its five members. Sentence of
death was immediately passed on the members of the Junta by
the Spanish military commission at Habana. Meanwhile, A. J.
Gonzales had been commissioned as general, second in command