United States. Bureau of Entomology.

A manual of dangerous insects likely to be introduced in the United States through importations online

. (page 10 of 27)
Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of EntomologyA manual of dangerous insects likely to be introduced in the United States through importations → online text (page 10 of 27)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


A. BETTER KNOWN CUCURBIT INSECTS LIKELY TO BE IMPORTED.

Epilachna spp.
(Cucurbit Ladybird Beetles. Coccinellidse; Coleoptera.)

Species: Epilachna chrysomelina Fabricius; Mediterranean region, Sudan, German
East Africa; cucurbits, Sesamia. E. 28-punctata Fabricius; Asia, Malaysia, Australia;
Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae. E. dodecastigma Mulsant; Asia, Malaysia, Australia;
Solanacese, Cucurbitaceae. E. argxis Fourcroy; Southern Europe; Bryonia dioica and
other cucurbits.

Injury: Defoliate.

Description: Beetle of E. chrysomelina round, very convex, yellowish red with six
round black spots on each elytron; length 7-9 mm. The larvae as well as the adults
feed on the foliage.
SoRAUER, P. Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten, 3d ed., 1913, vol. 3, p. 477.

Aulacophora ollvierei Guerin.
(Banded Pumpkin Beetle. Chrysomelidae; Coleoptera.)

Hosts: Cucurbitaceae, pumpkin, marrow, cucumber, gourd, peach, nectarine.

Injury: Very serious. The adults skeletonize the leaves, and eat the flowers; the
larvae feed in the roots and lower parts of the stem.

Description: Beetle about 8 mm. long; orange yellow with large black spots at
humeri and beyond middle on each elytron. The adults are rather gregarious in
habits.

Distribution: Australia.

French, C. Handbook of Destructive Insects of Victoria, pt. 4, 1909, pp. 123-127,

pi. 81.

Baris trsegardhi Aurivillius.

(Melon Weevil. Curculionidae; Coleoptera.)

Hosts: Sweet melons.

Injury: Breeds in the fruit among the seed.

Description and biology: Adult weevil 4 to 6 mm. long, black, with a long slender,
curved beak, antennae elbowed and clubbed. Pupa white, with appendages folded
beneath. Larva white, legless, with light brownish head.

Distribution: Sudan.
King, H. H. Fourth Rept. Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories, 1911, vol. B,

Genl. Science, p. 137, pi. 8, figs. 1, 3, 4, 6.



INSECTS OF CUCURBITS, CURRANT, CUSTARD APPLE. 93

Carpomyia pardalina Bigot.

(Melon Fruit Fly. Trypetidse; Diptera.)

Hosts: Melons.

Injury: Serious.

Description and biology: Adult fly, wing expanse 11 mm., wings with three yellowish

bands, color light 'rown, thorax with black and white spots-'. Larva feeds in fleshy

fruits, pupates in the soil. Egg laid in skin of fruit.

^ ^distribution: India.

jfexwELL-LEFROY, H. M. Mem. Dept. Agric, India, 1907, vol. 1, No. 2, p. 229,

-^g. 72.

■^ - Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett.

(Cucurbit Fly. Trypetidae; Diptera.)

Hosts: Cucurbitacese (melons, gherkin?, etc.), tomatoes, beans.

Injury: Breeds in fruits and stems.

Description and biology: Fly marked with red, brown, yellow, black, and white;
wing with brown band and apical spot. Eggs laid on skin of fruit.

Distribution: India, Ceylon, Hawaii.
SoRAUER, P. Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten, 3d ed., 1913, vol. 3, pp. 415, 416.

B. OTHER IMPORTANT CUCURBIT INSECTS.

DIPTERA.
Trypetidae.

Ceratitis capUata Wiedemann, attacks squash. (See Fruit.)
i)oc!«/<Tr;;(/inc»i« Fabricius; India, etc. (See Fruit.)
Bactrocera trrjoni Froggatt; Orient. (See Fruit.)
Rhagolctis pardalina Bigot; India; attacks fruit.

LEPIDOPTERA.
Pyralidae.

iif^ Pionca ferrugalis Huhner; Europe, Asia, North America. (See Cabbage.)

CURRANT.

See Gooseberry.

CUSTARD APPLE; SOUR SOP.

(Annona spp. Family Anonacese.)

Tropical trees cultivated for their large fruits. Some of the species have been
introduced into Florida.

A. A BETTER KNOWN SPECIES LIKELY TO BE IMPORTED.

Anona'pestis bengalella Kagonot.

(Custard-apple Caterpillar. Phycitidse; Lepidoptera.)

Host: Custard apple {Annona squamosa).
Injury: Injures fruit by tunneling.

Description: Adidt female length 22 mm. ; fore wings dark green, hind wings brownish-
gray with purplish tint, head and thorax l:)rownish-ochreous, abdomen ochreous.
Distribution: India.

Moore, F. Indian Museum Notes. 1896. vol. 3, No. 3, p. 106.

B. OTHER IMPORTANT ANNONA INSECTS.

IIEMIPTERA.
Coccidae:

Armored —
Aspidiotus ( Chri/somphalus) personatus Comstock; Porto Rico; Annona reticulata, A. muricata.
A ulacas pis miranda Coc^ereW; Mexico; Annona chert mola.



94 A MANUAL OF DANGEROUS INSECTS.

Cofcidae— Continued.
Unarmored —

Ceroplastes denudatus Cockerell; Grenada, Antigua, Demerara; Annona muricata.

Ceroplastes quadrilinealus Newstead; British East Africa, Uganda; Annona muricata.
^ Ceroputo yuccse Coquilleit; Mexico, California; Annona cherimola.

Coccus marsupialis Green; Ceylon.

Jcerya albolutea Cockerell; West Africa; Annona squamosa.

Lagosinia strachani Cockerell; W. Africa; Annona squamosa.
^ Pseudococcus bromelise Bouche; Hawaii; Annona muricata.
■^^.Saissetia nigra TSiietneT; West Indies; Ceylon.

LEPIDOPTERA.
Pyralidse.

Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guen(5e; Queensland. (See Corn.)

DIPTERA.
Trypetidae.

Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemaim, attacks Annona humboldtiana. (See Fruit.)
Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann; attacks Annona muricata. (See Fruit.)
Ceratitis anonx Graham; xVfrica; attacks Annona muricata. (See Fruit.)

CYPRESS.

{(hi.prcssns spp. Family Juniperacete.)

Trees or shrubs with aromatic evergreen foliage in Central America., California,
Arizona, Southern Europe to Southeast Asia, valuable for timber and ornament.

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO CYPRESS (CUPRESSUS).

HEMIPTERA.
Coccidae:

.\rmored —

H< Chionaspis striata Newstead; Algeria, Egypt, California, Arizona.

Diaspis visci Schrank; Europe; Cupressus funebris, C. glauca, C. macrocarpa, C. pyramidalis, C.
sempervirens.
Unarmored —

Gueriniella serratulx Fabricius; Algeria, Southern France.

COLEOPTERA.
Buprestidae.

Diadoxus scalaris L. & G., and D. erythrurus White; Australia; bore in Cupressus lambertiana.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.
LiNDiNGER, L., Die Schildliluse (Coccidse), 1912.
Froggatt, W. W., Australian Insects, 1907.

CYPRESS; CEDAR.

{Chama'cyparis spp. Family Juniperaceae.)

Evergreen trees of North America and Japan, highly valued for timber and useful
ornamental trees.

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO CHAM^CYPARIS.

HEMIPTERA.
Coccidae:

Armored—
JD ias pis visci Schrarik; Europe; Chamxcy parts nutkaensis, C.obtusa, C. pisifera.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.
LiNDiNGER, L. Die Schildliiuse (Coccidse), 1912.

DATE PALM.

{Phoenix dactylifera. Family Palmacese.)
A palm cultivated for its fruit, the date of commerce. (See Palms.)



INSECTS OF DOliWOOn, ni'HRA. K(;iil'I..\NT, RLM. 95

(Corrnifi j^pp. l'"iiniily CoMiaroiT'.')

Hardy ornaineutal shrubs or trers of tlic nortluTu luMnisjilu'rc aii<l rcni. Tlic hark

of some species is used in ohtainiim a substitute i'or (piiniue, for tooth })o\vder. black

ink, etc.; the bark of the roots yields a scarlet tlye. the wood is hard and good for tool

handles.

important dogwood insects.

hkmii>t:-u.\.

Coccldae:

Armored —

Chionaspis salicis Liniiipus; Kiiropo; Corntts r^nngiiinca.
L^narmored—

Lecanium coryli Liiiiuvus; F.uropo: Cornns Kanffuinca, C. sericea.

DURRA.

See Sorghum.

EGGPLANT.

(Solarium melongena. Family Solanacea\)

A tropical vegetable now extensively cultivated in this country for its fruit.

A, EGGPLANT INSECT LIKELY TO BE IMPORTED.

Leuclnodes orbonalls Gu^n^e.

(Eggplant Fruit Borer. Pyralida^; Lepidopt(»ra.)

Host: Eggplant.

Injury: Bores in the fruit.

Description and biology: Adult wing expanse 24 mm., white, forewing with fulvous,
black and ferruginous markings; hind wing white, with black lines and si)eck8.
Larva about 15 mm. long, flesh color, with brown head an<l siii(dd; a few short hairs
on round dark spots.

Distribution: India, Java, Burma, ('(^ylon. South .\frica.
Maxwell-Lefroy, H. M. Mem. Dept. Agric. India, vol. 1, 1907, p. 214, fig. ()5.

B. IMPORTANT EGGPLANT INSECTS.

DIl'TKRA.
Trypetidac.

Lonchxa splcndida; New Zealand, .Vastralia, Oceanifa: attacks fruit. (Sec Tomato.)

LKPinOPTERA.
Noctuidae.

MicTomima olivia; Cuba; loaf roller on tomato, tobacco and eggplant.

ELM.

( Ulnnis spp. I'^aniily Urticaceae . )

Ornamental deciduous trees distributed throughout the colder and temperate
regions of the northern hemisphere, some of them much valued as avenue trees.
The wood is very hard and valuable in the manufacture of implements.

IMPORTANT ELM INSECTS.

HKMIPTKRA.
Aphldidse.

Colopha compressa Koch, Eriosoma lanuginosa Ilartig, Tctraneura pnllida llaliday, ErUixoma ulnii
Linnaeus, Tctraneura ulmi DeGeer; Europe; attack foliage of elms.

Coccldae.

Armored —

Chionaspis salicis Linnaeus; Europe; Ulmun cavipetslris.



96



A MANUAL OF DANGEROUS INSECTS.



Coccidae — Continued.
Unarmored—

y^Gossyparia spuria Modecr: Europe.
Gucriniella serratulx Fabricius; Italy.
Lecanium coryli Linnteus; Europe; Ulmus campestris, U. montana.

COLEOPTERA.
Bostrychidae.

Sinoxylon pirforans Schr.; Europe: bores in branches.
Xylonites rctusus Olivier; Europe; bores in branches and trunks.

Biiprestidae.

Lampra decipiens Mannerheim and L. rvtilans Fabricius; Europe; bore in the bark, bast and sap-
wood.

Scarabaeidae.

Mclnlontha hippoca-itani Fabricius and M. mdolontha Linnaeus; Europe; larvae injure roots of seedlings.

Cerambycidae.

Aeolcsthcs sarta Solsky: India; bores in trunks.
Oherea linearis Linnaeus; Europe; bores m pith of nursery
stock of cork elm.

Curculionidae.

MeigelaJis aterrima Linnaeus; Europe; makes galleries under
the bark and in injured branches.

Orchestes alni Linnaeus; Euiope; mines the leaves of Ulmus
campestris.

Orchestes ferrugineus Marsham and 0. rufus Olivier; Europe
mine the leaves.

Scolytidae.

Ptelcobiu^ kraatzi Eichhoflf: Russia; galleries in bark.
Pteleobius vittatus Fabricius; Germany, Russia: galleries in

bark.
ScolytocJtelus cnsi/er Eichhoff: Russia: galleries in bark of

branches.
Scolytochelus kirschi Skal.; Russia; galleries in bark of smooth

bark elms.
Scolytus Ixvis Chapuis and S. pygmxus Fabricius: Europe;
galleries in bark of tops and branches.
Scolytus mail Bechst.; Europe.

Scolytus multistriatus Marsham; Europe (see text fig. 53).
Scolytus scolytus Fabricius: Europe; attacks all parts of trunk and branches.
Xylcborus dryographus Ratzeburg and X. monographus Fabricius; Europe; galleries in wood.

LEPIDOPTERA.

Cossidae.

Cossus cossus Linnaeus; goat moth; Europe; bores in wood. (See Willow.)
*Zeuzera pyrina Linnaeus; Europe; bores in wood. (See Horse chestnut.)

Notodontidae.

Phalera bucephala Linnaeus; Europe. (See Forests.)
Noctuidae.

Xylina socia Rott.; Europe. (See Plum.)

Geometridae.

Boarmia crepuscularia Iliibner; Europe, Asia. (See Cinchona.)
Hibcrniadefoliaria'Lmnisus: Europe: defoliator.
Larentiadilutata BoTC\dx.; Europe; defoliator.

LITERATURE.

SORAUER, P. Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten, 3d ed., 1913, vol. 3.

NUSSLIN, O, Leitfaden der Forstinsektenkunde, 2d ed., 1913.

Hess, R. Der Forstsehutz, 1898, 1900.

Stebbing, E. P. Indian Forest Insects, Coleoptera, 1914.

Bargagli, p. Rassegna Biologica Rincofori Europei, 1883-87.

LiNDiNGER, L. Die Sehildlause (Coccid'r"), 1912.





^,


i »:;-"%<^


Sr




W^ I




; m


Sk''


jf si


1


n



Fig. 53.— Elm barkbeetle (Scolytus
multistriatus): Adult. (Niisslin.)



INSECTS OF EUCALYPTUS. 97

EUCALYPTUS; GUM.

(Eucalyptus spp.)
Valuable Australian trees recently introduced into Califoriiia.

A. BETTER KNOWN EUCALYPTUS INSECTS LIKELY TO BE IMPORTED.

Mlctls protana Fabricius.

(Gum-tree Bug. Coreidye: Hemiptera.^i

Hosts: Eucaly ptus viminalis, Acacia decurrens, A. mollis.vma. orange, other citrus
fruits.

Injury: Sucks the juices from tender twigs, causing death of the new parts.

Description: A large brown bug about an inch long, with long sucking proboscis,
with acute teeth at posterior corners of thorax. Greatly resembles Levtoglossits.
The immature stages are soft and marked with yellow.

Distribution: Australia.

French, C Handbook of Destructive Insects of Victoria, pt. 4, 1909, pp. 68-71,

pi. 70.

Sttgmodera heros Gehin.

(She-Oak Root Borer. Buprestidae: Coleoptera.)

Hosts: She-oak and Bull-oak (Casuarina); also Eucalyptus, .\dults fre juent
flowers of Melaleuca, etc.

Injury: Tunnels in the lower portions of the trunk of trees.

Desmption and biology: Beetles large yellowish brown with dark blackish legs.
Larvpe large yellowish white with powerful jaws. The eggs are laid in areas cleared
by the female in the butts of the trees. The larvae bore in and down through the
wood for several feet.

Distribution: Australia.
French. C. Handbook of Destructive Insects of Victoria, pt. 5, 1911. pp. 114-116,

pi. 12i.

Phoracantha tricuspis Newman; Phoracanttaa recurva Newman.

(Yellow-box Borers. Cerambycidse; Coleoptera.)

Hosts: Eucalyptus viminalis.

lajurii: Very destructive borers.

Description: Beetles light brown with darker markings on the elytra. The head
and thorax are very dark brown. Pupse yellowish white. Larvee bore iu the wood.
Eggs are deposited in crevices in the bark.

Distribution: Victoria.

French. C. Handbook of Destructive Insects of Victoria, pt. 5, 1911, pp. 70-73,

pi. 112.

Distichocera macleayi Newman.

(Feathery-horned Yellow-box Borer. Cerambycidse; Coleoptera.)

Hosts: Eucalyptus stuartiana. E. viminalis.

Injury: Bores in the wood.

Description: Female beetle reddish brown in color, larger than the male, which is
black ^vith l>eautiful featherlike antennpe. Pupa yellowish white. Larva dull,
yellowish white, unusually tapering at apex. The adults frequent the flowers of the
Leptosperrmim bushes.

Distribution: Australia.

French, C. Handbook of De-itructive Insects of Victoria, pt. 5, 1911, pp. 96*98,
pi. 107.

55266—17 7



98 A MANUAL OF DANGEROUS INSECTS.

Tryphocharia mastersl Pascoe.
(Masters' Gum Borer. Cerambycidae. Coleoptera.')

Hosts: Eucalyptus ami/gdaUna, E. globulun.

Injury: Bores in the wood, the larvse taking several years for development.

Di^scriftion: Adult over an inch long, with long antenme, brown, with ])road yellow
elytral band; thorax laterally dentate. Pupa elongate white. Larva cylindrical
yellowish, with small head and broader prothorax, chitinous.

Dutribution: Australia.

French, C. Handbook "bf Destructive Insect^ of Victoria, pt. 4, 1909, pp. 98-101,

pi. 76.

Blmla femoralis Saunders.

(Apple-gum Borer. Cerambycidae ; Coleoptera.)

Host: Eucalyptus stuartiana.

Injury: Bores in the trunk, causing much damage. A severe scar appears on the
surface of the bark where the burrow commences.

Description: The sexes are different in appearance, the male having antennse much
larger than the body; the female antennse considerably shorter than the body. Elytra
with yellow band at base, remainder of elytra brown. Head, thorax and tip of ab-
domen yellow in female; head and center of prothorax brown in male. Larva of
female much broader, less attenuate, and with larger prothorax than in adult female.

Distribution: Australia.
Fkench, C. Handbook of Destructive Insects of Victoria, pt. 4, 1909, pp. 110-113,

pi. 78.

Strongylorhlnus ochraceus Schaum.

(Red Gum-tree Weevil. CurcuUonidse ; Coleoptera.)

Host: Eucalyptus melliodora.

Injury: Larvae bore in twigs causing gall-like deformation. Very injurious.

Desaiption: A reddish-brown weevil about 12 mm. long with short, stout beak.
Larva curved, legless, white, makes a cone shaped burrow in the wood.

Distribution: Australia.
French, C. Handbook of Injurious Insects of Victoria, pt. 4, 1909, pp. 128-130.

pi. 82.

B. OTHER IMPORTANT EUCALYPTUS INSECTS.

HEMIPTERA.
Coccidae:

Armored —

Aspidiotus (Aonidiella) ininiatx Green; Australia; Eucalyptus miniata.

Aspidiotus alatus Froggatt; Australia; Eucalyptus rostrata.

Aspidiotus confusus Froggatt; Australia.

Aspidiotus tasmanix Green; Australia.

Chionaspis frenchi Green: Australia.

Lecaiiiodiaspis conver.us Froggatt; Australia.

Lecaniodiaspis frenchi Froggatt; Australia.

Lecaniodiaspis newmanni Froggatt; Australia.
Unarmored—

Apiomorpha attenuata Froggatt; Australia.

Apinmorpha baaerleni Froggatt; Australia.

Apiomorpha czlycina Tepper; South Australia; Eucalyptus dumosa, E. oleosa.

Apiomorpha conica Fro?gatt; Australia; Eucalyptus viminalis, E. uncinata.

Apiomorpha duplex Schrader; Australia.

Apiomorpha ellipsoidalis Tepper; Australia.

Apiomorpha floral is Froggatt; Australia.

Apiomorpha heimsii Fuller; Australia.

Apiomorpha karschi Riibsaamen; Australia.

Apiomorpha maliformis Fuller; Australia; Eucalyptus patens.

Apiomorpha minor Froggatt; New South AVales; Eucalyptus hxmastoma.



INSECTS OF EUCALYPTUS. 99

Coccidae— Continued.
Unarmored — Continued.
ApiomoTpha munita Schrader; Australia; Eucalyptus rohusla, E. niderophloia.

A piomorpha ovicola Sohrader; Australia; Eucalyptus hiemastoma, E. gracilis, E.leucoxylon, E.rostrata.
Apinmorpha ovicoloides Tepper; Australia; Eucalyptus incrassata.
Apiomorpha pedimculata Fuller; Australia.

Apiomorpha pharetrata Schrader; New South Wales; Eucalyptus sieberiana, E. corymbosa, E. capitellata.
Apiomorpha pileata Schrader; New South Wales.
Apiomorpha pomiformis Froggatt; -Vustralia; Eucalyptus rostrata.
Apiomorpha, rugosa Froggatt; Australia.
Apiomorpha sessilis Froggatt; Australia.
Apiomorpha sloanei Froggatt; Australia.

Apiomorpha strombylosa Tepper; Australia; Eucalyptus incrassata.
Apiomorpha thorntoni Froggatt; Australia.
Apiomorpha umbellata Froggatt; Australia.
Apiomorpha urnalis Tepper; New South Wales; Eucalyptus uncinata, E. gracilis, E. melliodora, E. poly-

anthemos.
Apiomorpha variabilis Froggatt; Australia; Eucalyptus piperita.
Ascelis attenuata Froggatt; Australia; Eucalyptus piperita.
Ascelis echiniformis Fuller; West Australia; Eucalyptus tessellaris.
Ascelis prxmollis Schrader; Australia; Eucalyptus corymbosa.
Ascelis schraderi Froggatt; Australia; Eucalyptus corymbosa.
Ceronema caudata Froggatt; Australia; Eucalyptus robusta.
Ctenochiton eucalypti Maskell; Australia; Eucalyptus siderophloia.
Eriococcus confusus Maskell; Australia; Eucalyptus viminalis.
Eriococcus coriaceus Maskell; Australia.

.Eriococcus eucalypti Maskell; Australia, Tasmania; Eucalyptus diversicolor.
Eriococcus simplex Maskell; Australia.
Eriococcus crofti Froggatt; Australia; Eucalyptus piperita.
Eriococcus gregarius Froggatt; Australia, New Zealand.
Eriococcus irregularis Froggatt; Australia: Eucalyptus piperita.
Eriococcus serratilobis Green; Australia; Eucalyptus gracilis.
Eriococcus picta Froggatt; Australia.
Eriococcus tesselatus Froggatt; Australia.
Eriococcus spinigcr Maskell; Australia.

Eriococcus tepperi Maskell; Australia, Tasmania; Eucalyptus globulus.
Opisthoscelis conica Fuller; Australia.
Opisthoscelis fibularis Froggatt; Australia.

Opisthoscelis globosa Riibsaamen; New South Wales: Eucalyptus capitellata.
Opisthoscelis maculata Froggatt; New South Wales; Eucalyptus gracilis, E. leucoxylon.
Opisthoscelis mammularis Froggatt; Australia.
Opisthoscelis maskelli Froggatt; Australia.
Opisthoscelis nigra Froggatt; Australia.
Opisthoscelis pisiformis Froggatt; New South Wales, Australia; Eucalyptus melliodora, E. robusta, E.

resinifera, E. piperita.
Opisthoscelis serrata Froggatt; Australia.

Opisthoscelis spinosa Froggatt; Australia; Eucalyptus siderophloia.
Opisthoscelis subrotunda Schrader; Australia; Eucalyptus capitellata.
Opisthoscelis verrucula Froggatt; Australia.
Pseudococcus lobulatus Maskell; Australia; Eucalyptus globulus.

ISOPTERA.
Termitidae.

Termcs australis Hagen; Australia. (See Apple.)

LEPIDOPTERA.
ArctUda:.

Nola metallopa and Spilosoma fuscinula: Australia: attacks the foliage.
Termissa nivosa; Australia; larvfe found under the bark in August.

Bombycidae.

Ocinara lewinii Lewin; Australia; attacks foliage.

Geometridse.

Crypsiphona occuUaria and Oastrophora henricaria: Australia; defoliate.
Mnesampela privata Gn.; Australia; defoliator.



100 A MANUAL OF DANGEROUS INSECTS.

Lasiocampldae.

Odonestis australasix Fabricius; Australia; defoliator.

Lymantrlldae.

Teara contraria Walker; and Trichetra marginalU, Australia; defoliators

Heplolldse.

Charagia lignivora Lewin; Australia. (See Apple.)

DIPTERA.
Itonldldse (Cecldomyltdae).

Diplosis exicalypti Skuse, D. paralis Skuse, and Lasioptera miseella Skuse; Australia; breed in twins.

LITERATURE.

SoBAUER, P. Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten, 3d ed., 1913, vol. 3.
Feoggatt, W. W. Australian Insects.

EUGENIA spp.

(Family Myrtacese.)

Fruit-bearing trees of South America, etc., cultivated in the Southern States and

California.

DIPTERA.
Trypetldae.

Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann. (See Fruit.)

Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, attacks Eugenia braziliensis, E. jamboa, E. malaccensis , E. uniflora.

(See Fruit.)
Dacus ferrugineus Fabricius; India, etc., attacks fruit of Eugenia malaccensis. (See Fruit.)

FIG; ASSAM RUBBER; BANYAN.

{Ficus spp. Family Urticaceae.)

This is a very large genus of valuable plants, including the fig {Fkus carica), the
India or Assam rubber plant {F. elastica), and the banyan {F. benghalensis). Many
varieties of the fig are prized for their fruit. The India rubber of commerce is derived
from F. elastica. Other varieties are popular in conservatories.

A. BETTEE KNOWN FIG INSECTS LIKELY TO BE IMPORTED.

Sinoxylon sudanicum Lesne.

(Fig stem-boring beetle. Bostrychidae; Coleoptera.)

Host: Fig.

Injury: Bores in the twigs of young trees.

Description and biology: Adult beetle, brown with basal half of elytra tinged with
yellow, about one-quarter inch long. The apex of the elytra is concave bitubercu-
late. The adult bores in twigs near the buds and girdles the twig under the bark,
laying its eggs in the outer portion which soon falls to the ground. The species is
especially dangerous to nursery stock juat planted, as it does not usually attack strong
healthy trees.

Distribution: Sudan.
King, Harold H. Fourth report. Wellcome Tropical Research Lab. Khartoum,

vol. B, Gen'l Science, p. 140, pi. 9, fig. 1.

Colobogaster quadridentata Tabricius.

(Family Buprestidse; Coleoptera.)

Host: Cultivated fig (Ficus carica).

Injury: Injury occasioned by galleries made by larvse in trunk and twigs. Liable
to be introduced in cuttings or plants.



FIG INSECTS. 101

Description and biology: Adult beetle 25-30 mm. long, 11-12 mm. broad; blue black,
with small points of metallic green. Practically entire Life spent in plant.

Distribution: Brazil .
BoNDAR, Gregorio: Os insectos damninhos no Agricultura, 1913, p. 4.

Batocera bolsduvall Hope.

(Fig-tree borer. Family Cerambycidae; Coleoptera.)

Hosts: Ficus macrophylla, F. australis.

Injury: Borea in stems and branches of damaged and freshly fallen trees.

Adult: A beautiful grayish-green beetle, about 2 inches long, with a row of white
marks on the elytra; very strong, heavy antennae; prothorax laterally armed with
very strong spine on each side. Pupa light brown. Larva about 3 inches long, very
robust, head black.

Distribution: Queensland.
French, C. Handbook of Destructive Insects of Victoria, 1911, pt. 5, pp. 134-137,

pi. 126.

Taenlotes scalarls Fabricius.

(Family Cerambycidae; Coleoptera.)

Host: Cultivated fig {Ficus carica).

Injury: Injury due to galleries made by larvae.

Description and biology: Adult beetle 15-30 mm. in length; general color obscure,
nearly black, with spots and streaks of yellow; triangular spot between the eyes,
and behind the eyes is situated a half-moon-like spot. Practically entire life is spent
in the plant.

Distribution: Brazil.
BoNDAK, Gregorio: Os insectos damninhos no Agricultura, 1913, p. 9, figure.

Hellipus bonelli Bobeman.

(Brazil Fig Borer. Curculionidae; Coleoptera.)

Host: Cultivated fig {Ficus carica).

Injury: Larvae make galleries in trunks and branches of fig. Liable to be intro-
duced on plants or cuttings.

Description and biology: Adult weevil 12 mm. long, with characteristic designs on
thorax and elytra, color light coffee brown, with symmetrical yellow spots. Larvae
and pupae white. Practically the whole life cycle is spent in the tree.

Distribution: Brazil.

BoNDAR, Gregorio. Os insectos damninhos no Agricultura, 1913, p. 11. Figures
injury, larvae, pupa, and adult.

Hyleslnus porcatus Cbapuis.

(The Fig-Branch Borer. Scolytidae; Coleoptera.)

Host: Fig.

Injury: Occasioned by tunneling of insect. Liable to be imported in cuttings or
plants.

Description and biology: Adult beetle short, thickset, rounded, general color black,
varying to reddish brown in immature specimens; head and thorax slightly rugose
and lightly covered with fine hairs. Breeds in galleries in twigs, entering just above
a bud. (See plate xx.)

Distribution: New South Wales.
Froggatt, W. W. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 1899, vol. 10, pt. 4, p. 268.



102 A MANUAL OF DANGEROUS INSECTS.

B. OTHER IMPORTANT FICCS INSECTS.

HEMIPTERA.
Coccidse:


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of EntomologyA manual of dangerous insects likely to be introduced in the United States through importations → online text (page 10 of 27)