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Benevolent institutions. 1910 online

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LIBRARY



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13143?



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DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

WM. J. HARRIS, Director



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BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS

1910







WASHINGTON

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

1913



GIFT OF THE
6overffi3ct ef the Unitd Siatej.



153031



r C



CONTENTS.






\c



Introduction

Previous reports

Thirteenth Census Report (1910)

Period covered by the report

Scope of the report

Classes of institutions included

Information furnished

Special features

State legislation and supervision

State boards of charities

General summaries of statistics of benevolent institu-
tions

Institutions, inmates, and finances of institutions

Comparative summar\', 1910 and 1904

Distribution of institutions, inmates, and persons re-
ceived . by class of institution

Distribution of finances of institutions, by class of

institution

Information furnished

Significance of figures reported

Statistics for individual classes of institutions

Class I. — Institutions for the care of children

Classes of children received

Methods of management

Cottage system

Placement in families

Comparison OTth report for 1904



Page.

11-14
11
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
14

15-25
15
17

18

22
22
22
26-57
2&-33
26
26
27
30
30



Statistics for individual classes of institutions — Contd.

Class II. — Societies for the protection and care of cliildren

Information furnished

Children placed

Receiving homes

Class III. — Homes for the care of adults or adults and
children

Comparison with report for 1904

Permanent and temporary homes

Permanent homes

Temporary homes

Sex and age of inmates

Class IV. — Hospitals and sanitariums

Classes of institutions included

Medical and nursing staff

Patients reported

Dispensaries

Treatment of tuberculosis

Class V. — Dispensaries

Class VI. — Institutions for the blind and deaf

Special summaries

Sex and age of inmates

Placement of children

Supervising agencies of institutions

Finances of institutions

Comparison with report for 1904

Institutions under governmental care



PRINCIPAL TABLES.



General summary, Ijy divisions and states 16

Comparative summary, by aivisionsand states, 1910 and 1904. 17

Institutions, by class of institution 19

Inmates of institutions, by class of institution 20

Persons received into institutions, by class of institution 21

Receipts of institutions, by class of institution 23

Payments of institutions, by class of institution 24

Value of property of institutions, by class of institution 25

Distribution of institutions for the care of cliildren, by

divisions and states 27

General summary of institutions for the care of children. ... 28, 29

Children in institutions for the care of children, 1910and 1904. 31
Children received into institutions for the care of children,

classified according to type 32

Children in institutions for the care of children, classified

according to agencies through which received 33

General summary of societies for the protection and care of

children .• 86, 37

General summary of homes for the care of adults or adults and

children 39

Comparative summary of homes for the care of adults or

adults and children, 1910 and 1904 40

Inmates of permanent and temporary homes 41

Persons received into permanent and temporary homes 42

Inmates of permanent humos 43

Persons received into temjxirary homes 45



General summary of hospitals and sanitariums

Institutions for the treatment of tuberculosis

Dispensaries operated by hospitals or independently

General summary of dispensaries

General summary of institutions for the blind and deaf

Persons under care of institutions at close of the year, by sex

and age

Persons received into institutions during the year, by sex

and age

Children in institutions at close of year, by sex

Adults in institutions at close of year, by sex

General summary of child-placing

Institutions classified according to super\-ising agency

Inmates of institutions, classified according to supervising

agency

Receipts of institutions from public appropriations

Receipts of histitutions from donations

Receipts of institutions from care of inmates

Running expenses of institutions

Value of land, buildings, and equipment owned by institu-



tions .



Value of invested funds owned by institutions.

Institutions under Federal care

Institutions under state care

Institutions under county care

Institutions under municipal care



Page.

34-38
34
35
35

38-46
40
40
43
44
46
46-50
46
46
47
47
47
50-52
53-57
57-84
57
65
68
72
72
80



Page.

48,49
50
51
52

54,55

58,59

60,61

62,63

64

66

68

70,71
73
74
75
76

77
78
81
82
83
84



(3)



13143?



CONTENTS.



GENERAL TABLES.



Table I. — Institutions for the Care of Children.



Alabama 86

Arizona 86

Arkansas 86

California 86

Colorado 90

Connecticut 90

Delaware 92

District of Columbia 92

Florida 94

Georgia 94

Idaho 96

Illinois 96

Indiana 100

Iowa 102

Kansas 104

Kentucky 104

Louisiana 106

Maine 108

Maryland 108

Massachusetts 110

Michigan 112

Minnesota 114

Mississippi 116

Missouri 116

Montana 118



Nebraska 118

Nevada 118

New Hampshire 118

New Jersey 120

New Mexico 122

New York 122

North Carolina 132

North Dakota 134

Ohio 134

Oklahoma 140

Oregon 140

Pennsylvania 140

Rhode Island 148

South Carolina 148

South Dakota 148

Tennessee 148

Texas 150

Utah 1.50

Vermont 152

Virginia 152

Washington 154

West Virginia 154

Wisconsin 154

Wyoming 156



Table II. — Societies for the Protection and Care of
Children.



Page.
158
158
158
158
158
158
158
158
158
158
160
160
160

Kentucky 162

Maine 162

Maryland 162

Massachusetts 162

Michigan 162

Minnesota 162

Missouri 164

Montana 164



Alabama

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

District of Columbia.

Florida

Idalio

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas



Nebraska 164

New Hampshire 164

New Jersey 164

New Mexico 164

New York 164

North Carolina 166

North Dakota 168

Ohio 168

Oklahoma 168

Oregon 168

Pennsylvania 168

Rhode Island 170

South Carolina 170

South Dakota 170

Tennessee 170

Texas 170

Virginia 172

Washington 172

West Virginia 172

Wisconsin 172



Table III.



-Homes for the Care of Adults or Adults and
Children.



Alabama

Arizona

Arkansas

California. ..

Colorado

Connecticut.
Delaware



Page.

174

174

174

174

178

178

180

District of Columbia ISO

Florida 182

Georgia 182

Idaho 184

Illinois 184

Indiana 188

Iowa 192

Kansas 192

Kentucky 194

Louisiana 196

Maine 196

Maryland 198

Massachusetts 200

Midiigan 206

Minnesota 208

Mississippi 210

Missouri 210



Page.

Montana 212

Nebraska 212

New Hampshire 214

New Jersey 214

New Mexico 218

New York 218

North Carolina 230

North Dakota 230

Ohio 232

Oklahoma 236

Oregon 236

Pennsylvania 236

Rhode Island 246

South Carolina 248

South Dakota 248

Tennessee 248

Texas 250

Utah 250

Vermont 252

Virginia 252

Washington 254

West Virginia 254

Wisconsin 254

Wyoming 256



Table IV. — Hospitals and Sanitariums.



Alabama

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

District of Columbia.
Florida



Page.
258
258
258
260
262
266
268
268
268

Georgia 270

Idaho 270

Illinois 272

Indiana 278

Iowa 282

Kansas 284

Kentucky 286

Louisiana 288

Maine 288

Maryland 290

Massachusetts 292

Michigan 300

Minnesota 302

Mississippi 306

Missouri 308



Page,

Montana 310

Nebraska 310

New Hampshire 312

New Jersey 314

New Mexico 318

New York 318

North Carolina 334

North Dakota 334

Ohio 336

Oklahoma 340

Oregon 340

Pennsylvania 342

Rhode Island 352

South Carolina 352

South Dakota 352

Tennessee 354

Texas 354

Utah 356

Vermont 356

Virginia 358

Washington 360

West Virginia 362

Wisconsin 362

Wyoming 364



CONTENTS.



Table V. — Dispensaries.



rage.
366
366
366
366
366
366
366
366
368
368
368
370
370
370
370
370
370
372

Michigan 372

Minnesota 374



Alabama

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

District of Columbia.

Georgia

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Marjland

Massachusetts



Page.

Missouri 374

Montana 374

Nebraska 374

New Jersey 376

New Mexico 376

New York 376

North Carolina 382

Ohio 384

Oregon 384

Pennsylvania 384

Rhode Island 396

South Carolina 396

South Dakota 396

Tennessee 396

Texas 396

Virginia 396

Washington 396

West Virginia 398

Wisconsin 398



Table VI. — Institutions for the Blind and Deaf.



Page.
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
402
402
402

Kentucky 402

Louisiana 402

Maine 402

Maryland 402

Massachusetts 402

Michigan 404

Minnesota 404

Mississippi 404



Alabama

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

District of Columbia.

Florida

Georgia

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas



Page.

Missouri 404

Montana 404

Nebraska 404

New Jersey 494

New Mexico 406

New York 406

North Carolina 408

North Dakota 408

Ohio 408

Oklahoma 408

Oregon 408

Pennsylvania 408

Rhode Island 410

South Carolina 410

South Dakota 410

Tennessee 410

Texas 410

Utah 410

Virginia 410

West Virginia 410

Wisconsin 410



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE,

BtJKEAU OF THE CeNSUS,

Washington, D. C, December 18, WIS.
Sir:

I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the benevolent institutions of the United States.

This report contains statistics relatmg to institutions for the care of children, societies for the protection and
care of children, homes for the care of adults or adults and children, hospitals, dispensaries, and institutions for
the blmd and deaf, showmg the name, location, and supervisory agency of each institution for which data was
secured and the class of inmates received by each, the movement of institutional population, the number of
employees, and certam statistics pertainmg to equipment, financial transactions, and property valuations, the
whole forming a handbook and directory for use m organized or individual philanthropy as complete as it has
been possible to prepare.

The report was prepared by Dr. Edwhi M. Bliss, under the supervision of Dr. Joseph A. HUl, expert special
agent in charge of the special census on institutions and institutional population. The list of institutions included
in the canvass was prepared by Mr. John Koren of Boston, formerly special agent of the Census Bureau.
Very respectfully,




Director of the Census.



Hon. WiLLi.\.M C. Redfield,

Secretary of Commerce. (7)



o



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS



(9)



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS, 1910.



INTRODUCTION.



The Report on Benevolent Institutions is one of a
series of reports, issued by the Bureau of the Census,
on institutions for the relief and care of the dependent
and delinquent classes. The other reports of the series
cover almshouses, penal institutions, and institutions
for the insane and feeble-minded, while this report in-
cludes homes of various types for adults or children,
organizations for the protection and care of children,
and institutions for the sick or disabled and for the
blind and deaf. The institutions covered by the other
reports are mostly public in character, while those cov-
ered by the present report are chiefly private. In the
other reports the emphasis is on the inmates, the infor-
mation furnished corresponding closely to that pro-
vided in the census reports on population; the present
report, on the other hand, emphasizes the tjrpe of insti-
tution, giving in each case its location and describing
its purpose, the class of inmates received, and its finan-
cial status, and might thus be designated as a direc-
tory of benevolent institutions.

PREVIOUS REPORTS.

Apparently the first effort to present a survey of the
charities of the United States was made in connection
with the Seventh Census taken in 1850. That report
showed the number of paupers supported wholly or in
part at pubhc expense within the year preceding, and
the actual number in institutions on June 1, 1850,
together with their nativity, and certain other par-
ticulars. It was felt, however, that as this took no
notice of those supported or reUeved by individual
charities, it was not complete, and a special effort was
made in 1854 to supply the lack. The returns, how-
ever, were imsatisfactory, and were never presented
infuU.

The Eighth Census (1860) confined itself to a report
on the iimaates of almshouses.

The Ninth Census (1870) took the same course, on
the ground that the "framers of the Census law did
not have it in contemplation that the beneficiaries of
hospitals, dispensaries, and asylmns distinctly for the
blind, sick, or insane would be embraced in the
returns," enforcing this conclusion by a reference to
the eleemosynary character of educational institu-
tions, due to their large endowments, which would
necessitate their inclusion in any complete review of
benevolences.

The Tenth Census (1880) recognized the very close
relations existing between institutions for public and



private reUef of the poor, but the difficulty connected
with a similar enumeration of the inmates of the two
classes of institutions resulted in the decision to limit
the investigation of private benevolences to institu-
tions for homeless children. The report in regard to
these was quite complete, giving the number of
" Homeless children in almshouses, in families of out-
door paupers, and in all institutions of a benevolent
or beneficent character, including orphan asylums,
homes for children, homes for the aged, friendless,
etc., also those having no given habitation.'- These
were also classified according to sex, race, and
nativity.

The Eleventh Census (1890) placed the statistics of
benevolent institutions on the same basis as those for
almshouses, prisons, etc., and called for, as nearly as
possible, the same information as to their inmates as for
the population at large. While the arrangement was
by classes of institutions, probably as the most con-
venient way of securing retiu-ns, the results were set
forth by characteristics of inmates and the institutional
element practically dropped out of sight, the emphasis
being upon the inmates.

The classification of institutions was as foUows: (1)
Those for children, with an occasional adult element;
(2) those for adults, with an occasional child element;
(.3) hospitals and infirmaries; and (4) miscellaneous,
such as homes for discharged prisoners and for mag-
dalens, inebriate asj'lums, etc.

The inmates were classified by sex, age, color, na-
tivity and race, naturalization, legal residence, liter-
acy, education, ability to speak English, marital con-
dition, health (whether in good health, ill, insane,
blind, deaf-mutes, idiots, crippled), occupations prior
to admission to institutions, and cause of depend-
ence. The classification of children in institutions was
further extended to cover the questions of legitimacy,
orphanage, abandonment, and institutional births.
The statistics were arranged in a great variety of
combinations, so as to make the presentation as com-
plete as possible. It appeared, however, that the
replies were by no means satisfactory, and although
the percentage of error, in the view of the writer of the
report, was not such as to invalidate conclusions, it was
large enough to raise a question as to the real value
of the investigation, in view of the labor and expense
involved and the degree of coilipleteness attained.

Under the law governing the Twelfth Census (1900),
the enumeration of special classes could not be under-

(11)



12



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS, 1910.



taken until the census of population, vital statistics,
agriculture, and manufactures had been completed.
By that time the permanent Census Bureau had been
established, with authority to conduct these investi-
gations, and the reports on paupers, insane, feeble-
minded, prisoners, and inmates of benevolent institu-
tions, were made as for the year 1904. All except the
last were conducted along the same lines that had been
followed in previous censuses, classifying the inmates
by age, sex, nativity, race, etc.

For the report on Benevolent Institutions, however,
an entirely different plan was adopted. The regular
census enumerators were not available, the appoint-
ment of special agents for a large number of small insti-
tutions would have involved an expense out of pro-
portion to the value of the results obtained, and it
was decided to gather the information by correspond-
ence with the institutions themselves. This method
made it especially difficult to secure the type of in-
formation set forth in the reports for the Eleventh
Census. Comparatively few private institutions keep
any records of race, nativity, literacy, etc. In many
cases those in charge, while excellent superintendents,
matrons, etc., are entirely unfitted for preparing a
detailed report as to the inmates, and not infrequently
seem to resent a request for such information. The
result was that the report became a "Directory of
Benevolent Institutions," with merely enough of sta-
tistics to give an idea of the size of each particular
home or hospital. The items covered included the
name and location of the institution ; how it was super-
vised and maintained; the year of establishment;
its specific object; the number of inmates at the com-
mencement and close of the year, and the number re-
ceived during the year; the number of paid employees;
the amounts received from public funds and from pay
inmates; and the total annual cost of maintenance.
In the tables for orphanages and homes there was a
classification by sex, and the distinction between
adults and children was recognized, but there was no
effort to show age periods, so that the term "child"
covered the period from infancy to majority, and an
adult might be 18 or 70 years of age. Furthermore,
the period covered by the financial statement was
different from that covered by the record of inmates.

THIRTEENTH CENSUS REPORT (1910).

Period covered by the report. — The law providing for
the Thirteenth Census reverted to the original plan
and made the institutional census contemporaneous
with the decennial census of population. Accordingly
the period covered by the present report is the calendar
year 1910. It appeared, however, in the case of a num-
ber of institutions, that the fiscal or institutional year
did not coincide with the calendar year, so that it was
exceedmgly difficult to secure exact figm-es for the cal-
endar year. In such cases, reports were accepted for



the fiscal or institutional year when it closed in the
early half of 1911, which was found to be sufficiently
accurate for the pm-poso of the report.

Scope of the report. — The scope of this report is essen-
tially the same as that of the report for 1904, and is
indicated by the classes of mstitutions included and
the nature of the information furnished in regard to
them.

Cldsses of institutions included. — The institutions
covered by the investigation may be classified under
the following general heads:

I. Institutions for the care of children.

II. Societies for the protection and care of children.

III. Homes for the care of adults, or adults and children.

IV. Hospitals and sanitariums.
V. Dispensaries.

VI. Institutions for the blind and deaf.

Certain changes from the report of 1904 should be
noted. Day nurseries, included then with orphanages
and children's homes, have been omitted; societies for
the prevention of ci-uelty to children, children's aid
societies, and other similar organizations have been
brought together as a distinct class; dispensaries,
formerly mcluded with hospitals, have been classed
by themselves ; and the distinction between permanent
and temporary homes for adults and children has been
dropped and both classes have been united under the
head of homes for the care of adults, or adults and
children.

Thii classification, while perhaps the best available,
is not completely satisfactory. Many mstitutions
might easily be placed in either of two classes; others
have developed quite differently from their avowed
purpose; and stUl others seem to fit into no class.
There are foundling asylums and children's hospitals
which might be mcluded imder either Class I or Class
IV; homes for incurables, convalescents, and the like
which might be included under either Class III or
Class IV; societies included under Class II which are
practically of the same type as institutions included
under Class I.

Confusion arises also from the difficulty of deter-
minmg the line between adults and children; strictly,
all minors are children, yet to include under Class I a
rescue home merely because the inmates are under their
majority is scarcely fitting. Accordingly, in general,
the principal object of an institution has determined
the class to which it was assigned.

iVnother perplexhig problem arose in connection with
the decision as to what are the distinctive charac-
teristics of a "benevolent institution." The ordinary
use of the term is sufficiently clear, even though an
exact definition that is also inclusive is scarcely pos-
sible. The report for 1890 made no attempt at defini-
tion, merely calling attention to some of the incon-
sistencies in its use. The report for 1904, after stating
that an mstitution was considered benevolent "if sup-



INTRODUCTION.



13



ported, wholly or in part, by public taxation, private
endowment, or subscriptions, donations, and other
forms of gift, for the benefit of the sick, aged, and
needy," elaborated exceptions to such an mterpreta-
tion, untn the criteria of admission to the list became
more or less uidefinite.

In the preparation of the present report the same
difficulties were met, and it was deemed best not to
follow any rigid rule, but to rely upon the best obtam-
able testimony and to exercise judgment in each indi-
vidual case.

In general, it may be stated that the benevolent
institutions included in this report are those for the
benefit of the sick, the needy, and the dependent,
exclusive of those covered by the special reports on
paupers, the insane, and the feeble-minded. The
great majority are conducted by private persons or
corporations both with and without financial assist-
ance, whether from public authorities or private bene-
faction. Some are charitable in the sense that inmates
are cared for free of all charge; others are benevolent
rather than charitable, in that they provide succor
and relief for persons who are not destitute, but whose
means or circumstances are inadequate for the fuU
provision for their need. In most cases the income,
from whatever source received, is applied to the pur-
poses of the institution.

Information furnished. — The scope of the informa-
tion furnished in this report has been determined
largely by the fact that, as in 1904, the correspond-
ence method of conducting the canvass was adopted.
It was recognized as impracticable to expect the
officials in charge of an orphanage, asylum, or hospital
to undertake to furnish facts not provided in then- own
records. Consequently only such questions were asked
as would naturally be readily answered by those officers.

The classification by sex has been extended to
include all persons under the care of institutions,
patients in hospitals or treated in dispensaries, nurses,
agents, and other employees; and in the statistics for
hospitals children under 15 years are shown separately.
The financial reports have been elaborated to include,
in addition to the items previously presented, the
receipts from donations, the amount of invested funds,
and the value of property; and inqunies have been
made as to the date of incorporation, if incorporated,
the admission of colored persons, the number of beds
in hospitals, and the adoption of the cottage plan in
the conduct of institutions for the care of children.

Special features. — The most important new feature
is the presentation of a new phase of activity involv-
ing the enumeration of a distinct class of benevolent
organizations. Up to 1904 the care of dependent
children, of which a census investigation could legiti-



Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of the CensusBenevolent institutions. 1910 → online text (page 1 of 75)