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A UNITED STATES
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ongressional

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93d Congress



U.S. DEPARTMENT
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Social and Economic
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BUREAU OF
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A STATISTICAL
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http://www.archive.org/details/congressionaldis1973unit



Congressional

District

Data Book

93d Congress




A STATISTICAL
ABSTRACT SUPPLEMENT

Prepared under the direction of

WILLIAM LERNER

Chief,Statistical Compendia Staff

Data User Services Office



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
Frederick B. Dent, Secretary

Social and Economic Statistics Administration

Edward D. Failor, Administrator

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
Vincent P. Barabba, Acting Director



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BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

Vincent P. Barabba, Acting Director
Robert L. Hagan, Deputy Director

Robert B. Voight

Chief, Data User Services Office



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This volume was prepared under the direction of William Lerner, Chief,
Statistical Compendia Staff, Data User Services Office. Helen E.Teir assisted
in planning of content and review. Charles S. James was responsible for
coordination of procedures and technical supervision. Alma L. Butler was
responsible for supervision of editing and clerical operations, assisted by Kay
Swenson. Robert Higdon was responsible for computer programming and
operations, assisted by William Lisowski.

Morton A. Meyer, Chief, Geography Division; Gerald J. Post, Assistant
Chief; and Silla G. Tomasi and Susan B. Hardy were responsible for providing
the geographic delineations and related data and the maps.

Donald E. Starsinic, Population Division, was responsible for compilation
of 1970 census population totals for congressional districts.

The Congressional District Data Book is issued as a part of the publication
program of the 1970 Census of Population and Housing.



Library of Congress Card No. A 63-7725

SUGGESTED CITATION

U.S. Bureau of the Census, Congressional District Data Book,

93d Congress (A Statistical Abstract Supplement).

U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973.



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC. 20402. Price: $8.30, domestic postpaid; $7.75, GPO Bookstore
Stock No. 0324-00130



CONTENTS



List of items

Introduction

Definitions and explanations

MAPS AND TABLES

(For subject content of tables, see list of items, pages iv and v)



Page



UNITED STATES



Page



ALABAMA

ALASKA

ARIZONA


4
11
14


ARKANSAS


23


CALIFORNIA


29


COLORADO


80


CONNECTICUT
DELAWARE


89
98


FLORIDA


... 101


GEORGIA


... 123


HAWAII


... 135


IDAHO


... 140


ILLINOIS


... 145


INDIANA


... 167


IOWA


... 181


KANSAS

KENTUCKY


187
. . . 194



LOUISIANA 203

MAINE 212

MARYLAND 216

MASSACHUSETTS 227

MICHIGAN 241

MINNESOTA 262

MISSISSIPPI 271

MISSOURI 277

MONTANA 291

NEBRASKA 295

NEVADA 301

NEW HAMPSHIRE 304

NEW JERSEY 308

NEW MEXICO 324

NEW YORK 328

NORTH CAROLINA... . 367

NORTH DAKOTA 378



1

Page

OHIO 381

OKLAHOMA 408

OREGON 418

PENNSYLVANIA 426

RHODE ISLAND 448

SOUTH CAROLINA .... 452

SOUTH DAKOTA 458

TENNESSEE 462

TEXAS 469

UTAH 491

VERMONT 495

VIRGINIA 498

WASHINGTON 512

WEST VIRGINIA 524

WISCONSIN 530

WYOMING 544



APPENDIXES

Appendix A. Apportionment of membership in House of Representatives, by States, from adoption of

Constitution to 1970 census 548

Appendix B. Congressional redistricting by the States, 88th to 93d Congresses: Month and Year 549

Appendix C. Population of smallest and largest districts of the 88th and 93d Congresses, by States 550



ELECTIONS AND POPULATION



ITEMS
INCLUDED



Item
No.



ELECTIONS

ite cast for Representative, 1970

Democratic Party

Republican Party

Percent for party with most vote

968



Vote cast for Represen

Democratic Party

Republican Party

Percent for party with most vote

Vote cast for Representative, 1966

Democratic Party

Republican Party

Percent for party with most vote

Vote cast for President, 1968

Democratic Party

Republican Party

American Independent Party ..
Percent for party with most vote



CENSUS OF POPULATION, 1970

Total population, 1970

Percent of State total

Total population, 1960

Percent change, 1960 to 1970

Average population per district, 1970

Population above (+) or below (-) average .

Percent above (+) or below (-) average . . .

Land area sq. mi

Population per square mile, 1970



SEX AND RESIDENCE



Urban

Percent of total populatic

Rural nonfarm

Rural farm



Metropolitan (SMSA)

Percent of total populatic

Central cities

Outside central cities . . .



Nonmetropolit



RACE AND NATIVITY



White

Negro ,

Percent of total populai



Persons of Spanish heritage . . .
Percent of total population



Total foreign stock

Percent of total popula



Native of foreign


orm


xed parentage


Country of origin of forei


n stock:*


' Austria




Lithuania


Canada




Netherlands


Czechoslovakia




Norway


Denmark




Poland


Finland




Portugal


France




Romania


Germany




Sweden


Greece




Switzerland


Hungary




United Kingdom


Ireland




U.S.S.R.


t_ Italy




Yugoslavia


Mother tongue (other


thar


English):








German





Spanish . . .
Swedish . .
Yiddish . . ,

'Variable number of c



Item
No.



CENSUS OF POPULATION, 1970-Con.

AGE

Under 5 years

5- 1 3 years

14-15 years

16-17 years



18-20 years. .
21-24 years . .
25-34 years . .
35-44 years .

45-54 years . ,
55-61 years. .
62-64 years . .
65 years and c

18 years and c



HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES

Number of households

Number of families

Number of unrelated individuals

Population in group quarters



MARITAL STATUS

Male, 18 years old and over

Married (excludes separated) . . .

Widowed

Divorced



Female, 18 years old and over . .
Married (excludes separated)

Widowed

Divorced

Single



EDUCATION
Public school enrollment (ages 3 34)

Percent Negro

Nursery and kindergarten

Elementary (grades 1-8)

Secondary (grades 9-12)



Private school enrollment . .
Elementary (grades 1-8)
Secondary (grades 9-12) .

College enrollment ,



Persons 25 years old and over

Completed 5 years of school or less
Completed 8 years of school ....
Completed 4 years of high school o
Completed 4 years of college or mo
Median years of school completed



INCOME IN 1969



Less than $3,000
$3,000-34,999 . .
$5,000-36,999 . .
$7,000-39,999 . .



$10,000-314,999

$15,000-324,999

$25,000 or more

Percent families with $15,000 c



Median family income

White

Negro

Unrelated individuals, median income

Per capita income, all persons

Families below-
Low income level

Percent of all families

Percent with female heads

Persons

Percen plated children under 18 years
Percef _J> 35 years and over

Numbe, of unrelated individuals



s shown for each State;



POPULATION AND HOUSING



Item
No.



CENSUS OF POPULATION. 1970 -Con.

VETERAN STATUS
Civilian males, 18 years old and over

Percent of total

Vietnam

Korea

World War II

World War I and other service

EMPLOYMENT STATUS

Total tabor force, 16 years old and over

Armed Forces

Civilian

Employed

Unemployed

Percent of civilian labor force

Male civilian, 16 years old and over

Employed

Unemployed

Female civilian, 16 years old and over

Employed

Unemployed

CLASS OF WORKER

Private wage and salary workers

Government workers

F ederal

State

Local

Self employed workers

INDUSTRY

Employed in-
Manufacturing

Transportation, communications, and other

public utilities

Construction

Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries

Mining

Wholesale and retail trade

Finance, insurance, and real estate

Business and repair services

Personal services -

Professional and related services

Educational services

Public administration

OCCUPATION

Male employed:

White collar

Percent of total

Professional and technical workers

Managers and administrators

Salesworkers

Clerical workers

Blue collar

Craftsmen and foremen

Nonfarm laborers

Service workers

Farmworkers

Female employed:

White collar

Percent of total

Professional and technical workers

Managers and administrators

Salesworkers

Clerical workers

Blue collar

Service workers

Private household

Farmworkers

MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION TO WORK

Workers using private automobile

Workers using public transport ■

MIGRATION

Persons 5 years old and over, 1970

Residence in 1965:

Same house as in 1970 {nonmovers)

Different house, same State

Different State or abroad



Item
No.



CENSUS OF HOUSING, 1970

All housing units (incl. seasonal and
migratory)

All year-round units

Urban

Rural nonfarm ._

Rural farm ."

Metropolitan (SMSA)

Central cities

Outside central cities

Rural

Nonmetropolitan

Occupied units

White ,

Negro

Owner-occupied units

Percent of all occupied

White

Renter-occupied units

White

Negro

Year-round units—

With 1 and 2 rooms

With 3 and 4 rooms

With 5 and 6 rooms

With 7 rooms or more

Median number of rooms

With 1 unit in structure

With 2-4 units in structure

With 5-49 units in structure

With 50 or more units in structure

Mobile home or trailer

In structure built—

1960 to March 1970

1950 to 1959

1940 to 1949

1939 and earlier

With 1-1% bathrooms

With 2 or more bathrooms

With other bathroom arrangement or none

Occupied units—

With all plumbing facilities

1 or more persons per room

Lacking some or all plumbing facilities ....
Percent of occupied units

Persons per unit:

1 person

2-3 persons

4-5 persons

6 persons or more

Median

Persons per room:

1.00 or less

More than 1.00

Automobiles available:

1 per household

2 or more per household

Value:

Specified owner-occupied units

Less than $5,000

$5,000-$9,999

$10,000-$14,999

$15,000-$ 19,999

$20,000-$24,999

$25,000-$34,999

$35,000-$49,999

$50,000 or more

Median value

Gross monthly rent:

Specified renter- occupied units

Less than $40

$40-$59

$60-$79

$80-$99

$100-$149

$150-$199

$200 or more

Median rent



ITEMS
INCLUDED



congressional District

Data Book



INTRODUCTION



This volume, the third in the Congressional District Data
Book series, presents a variety of data from the 1970 census
and recent election statistics for districts of the 93d
Congress, elected in 1972. It also presents maps for each
State showing counties, congressional districts, and selected
places.

The first report for congressional districts in this series
published by the Bureau of the Census appeared as
Appendix G in the County and City Data Book, 1956. That
appendix, which presented a limited selection of demo-
graphic and economic statistics for whole-county districts
only and elections data for all districts, was subsequently
issued as a reprint entitled "Selected Data for Congressional
Districts." The initial Congressional District Data Book
presented figures for districts of the 87th Congress, which
was elected in 1960. The second Data Book presented
statistics for districts of the 88th Congress, and was
followed by a series of supplements for States that
redistricted for the 89th and 90th Congresses.

A series of State reports entitled Congressional District
Data, Districts of the 92d Congress (series CDD-92), was
issued in 1971, presenting basic 1970 population and
housing data and recent election statistics. In 1971-1972,
these data were reissued in a partial series (30 States) for
districts of the 93d Congress. That interim series
(CDD-93X) was followed in 1972 by a Congressional
District Data Book series (CDDB-93) for all States, pre-
senting a much broader selection of 1970 census data for
districts as constituted for the 93d Congress. The latter
series forms the basis for this volume.

A Congressional District Atlas depicting the boundaries
of all congressional districts was issued in 1960 for the 86th
Congress, and has been issued biennially since 1964 for the
89th, 90th, 91st, 92d, and 93d Congresses.

In 1972, the Bureau of the Census also issued a series of
Congressional District Computer Profiles for each district
and each State (except single-district States) presenting
1970 census data in the form of analytical text and
statistical tables for districts of the 93d Congress. Although
prepared primarily for the use of Congressmen and their
staffs, these computer-generated narrative profiles are avail-
able to the public from:

U.S. Department of Commerce
National Technical Information Service
Springfield, Virginia 22151



Orders for the Profiles should be addressed to that agency.
The Profiles, which present much of the same data
contained in this volume, are available on microfiche (sheet
microfilm) at 95 cents per State (regardless of the number
of districts) or on paper copies reproduced from microfiche,
with the price varying from $3.00 to $13.00 per State.



CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT

The Constitution provides that "Representatives. ..shall
be apportioned among the several States. ..according to their
respective numbers..." and that "the number of Represent-
atives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but
each State shall have at least one Representative...."

The primary reason for the establishment of the decen-
nial census of population, as set forth in the Constitution,
was to provide a basis for the apportionment of members of
the House of Representatives among the several States.
Such an apportionment has been made on the basis of every
census from 1790 to 1970, except that of 1920. Prior to
1870, the population basis for apportionment was the total
free population of the States, omitting Indians not taxed,
plus three-fifths of the number of slaves. After the
apportionment of 1860 the fractional count of the number
of slaves, of course, no longer applied. In 1940 it was
determined that there were no longer any Indians who
should be classed as "not taxed" under the terms of the
apportionment laws. The 1940 and 1950 apportionments,
therefore, were made on the basis of the entire population
of the 48 States, and that of 1960 on the basis of the entire
population of the 50 States. The 1970 apportionment was
based on the population of the 50 States and, for the first
time, American military and civilian personnel of the
Federal Government and their dependents overseas, allo-
cated to their State of residence. All apportionments are
made under the constitutional provision, noted above, that
each State should have at least one Representative, no
matter how small its population.

The population base for apportionment and other
significant items are shown in table A below. The results of
each apportionment, starting with the initial apportionment
in 1789 and including the apportionments based on each
census from 1790 to 1970, are shown by States in
Appendix A, page 548.

The first attempt to make provision for automatic
reapportionment was included in the act for the taking of
the seventh and subsequent censuses (approved May 23,



TABLE A. Population Base for Apportionment and the Number of Representatives Apportioned: 1790 to 1970



Census Year


Population
base 1


Number of
Representatives 2


Ratio of

apportionment

population to

Representatives


Date of

apportionment

act


1970


204,053,325

178,559,217

149,895,183

131,006,184

122,093,455

(*)

91 ,603,772

74,562,608

61,908,906

49,371,340

38,115,641

29,550,038

21,766,691

15,908,376

11,930,987

8,972,396

6,584,231

4,879,820

3,615,823


435
435
435
435
435
435
435
386
356
325
292
241
234
223
240
213
181
141
105
65


3 469,088
410,481
344,587
301,164
280,675

210,583

193,167

173,901

151,912

130,533

122,614

93,020

71,338

49,712

42,124

36,377

34,609

34,436

8 30,000


Nov. 15, 1941


1960


Nov. 15. 1941


1950


Nov. 15, 1941


1940


Nov. 15, 1941


1930


June 18, 1929


1920


(")


1910


Aug. 8, 1911


1900

1890

1880


Jan. 16, 1901

Feb. 7, 1891

Feb. 25, 1882


1870


Feb. 2, 1872 s


1860


May 23, 1850 6


1850


May 23, 1850 7


1840


June 25, 1842


1830

1820


May 22, 1832
Mar. 7, 1822


1810


Dec. 21, 1811


1800


Jan. 14, 1802


1790


Apr. 14, 1792




Constitution, 1789







1 Excludes the population of the District of Columbia, the population of the Territories, (prior to 1940) the number of Indians not taxed, and
(prior to 1870) two-fifths of the slave population. In 1970, includes selected groups of Americans abroad.
2 This number is the actual number apportioned at the beginning of the decade.

3 Ratio of resident population to Representatives in 1970 is 465,468.

4 No apportionment was made after the census of 1920.

5 Amended by act of May 30, 1872.

6 Amended by act of Mar. 4, 1 862.

7 Amended by act of July 30, 1852.

8 The minimum ratio of population to Representatives stated in the Constitution (art. 1, sec. 2).



1850). By specifying the total number of Representatives
to be assigned and method to be used, Congress hoped to
eliminate the need for a new act every decade and assure an
equitable distribution of Representatives. When this Census
Act was superseded in 1879, the automatic feature was
discontinued, and the method of computing the apportion-
ment was determined by Congress for each subsequent
apportionment.

No reapportionment was made after the Census of 1920,
the apportionment of 1910 remaining in effect. The 1929
act which provided for the 1930 and subsequent censuses
stipulated that, unless Congress within a specified time
enacted legislation providing for apportionment on a
different basis, the apportionment should be made auto-
matically by the method last used. In accordance with this
act, a report was submitted by the President to Congress on
December 4, 1930, showing the apportionment computa-
tions both by the method of major fractions (which was the
one used in 1910) and by the method of equal proportions.
In 1931, in the absence of additional legislation, the
automatically effective apportionment followed the
method of major fractions.



In 1941, the law was amended to the effect that
apportionments based on the 1940 and subsequent censuses
should be made by the method of equal proportions. In the
application of this method, the Representatives are so
assigned that the average population per Representative has
the least possible relative variation between one State and
any other.

The number of seats in the House of Representatives was
fixed in 1929 at the current figure, 435, the number
established by the last previous act in 1911. In 1959, the
number was increased temporarily to 437 with the admis-
sion of Alaska and Hawaii, to return to 435 with the
reapportionment following the 1960 census.

For further information on the relationship between the
Census of Population and congressional apportionment, see
86th Congress, 2d session. Congressional Apportionment-
Role of the Bureau of the Census, House Report No. 2223,
U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1960; and
91st Congress, 2d session, The Decennial Population Census
and Congressional Apportionment, House Report No.
91-1314, U.S. Government Printing Office, July 1970.



CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS

Although the creation of congressional districts is not
explicitly required by the Constitution, election from such
districts has been the rule.

The Constitution does provide that "the times, places,
and manner of holding elections for. ..Representatives shall
be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but
the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such
regulations...." The first congressional regulation affecting
congressional district boundaries was enacted in 1842 and
required every State populous enough to be entitled to
more that one Representative to be divided by the State
legislature into districts "composed of contiguous terri-
tory," each returning one member. The districting require-
ment was omitted in the apportionment act of 1850, but an
act of 1862 revived the provisions of the act of 1842. The
apportionment act of 1872 continued the original require-
ment and added a provision that districts should contain
"as nearly as practicable an equal number of inhabitants."
The apportionment law of 1901 added a requirement that
the districts be compact. The 1911 reapportionment act
provided that Representatives "be elected by districts
composed of a contiguous and compact territory containing
as nearly as practicable an equal number of inhabitants." In
1901 and 1910, refusal to seat members from districts
clearly violating the legislative standards was debated but
never carried out. In the Automatic Reapportionment Act
of 1929, the regulations of the 1911 act were omitted.
There were no congressional regulations affecting congres-
sional district boundaries until 1967 when Congress enacted
legislation, effective for most States in 1968 and for all
States beginning with the 1970 elections, requiring States
with more than one Representative to divide their territory
into single-member districts.



"ONE PERSON, ONE VOTE"

Prior to 1962, questions relating to apportionment and
redistricting were not accepted for judgment by Federal
courts on the grounds that they ought to be resolved by the
legislative branches of government (Congress and the State
legislatures). In 1962, however, in the case of Baker v. Can
(challenging State legislative districts in Tennessee), the
U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the courts have authority,
under the "equal protection" clause of the Fourteenth
Amendment, to decide cases involving inequality of popula-
tion among legislative districts. Over the next few years, in
a series of cases concerning voter representation, the
Supreme Court further extended court participation.
Speaking for the majority in Gray v. Sanders in 1963 (a
case which overturned the "county unit" election system in
Georgia), Justice William O. Douglas said in part: 'The
conception of political equality from the Declaration of
Independence, to Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, to the
Fifteenth, Seventeenth, and Nineteenth Amendments can
mean only one thing— one person, one vote."



In Wesberry v. Sanders in 1964, the Supreme Court
invalidated the congressional district system in Georgia,
where the largest district had 823,680 inhabitants, com-
pared with 272,154 in the smallest district. This time the
Court based its decision on Article I, Section 2 of the
Constitution, which states that Representatives in Congress
shall be elected "by the people of the several States."
Writing for the majority, Justice Hugo L. Black concluded
that, historically interpreted, this Section means that "as
nearly as is practicable one man's vote in a congressional
election is to be worth as much as another's...."

As a result of the Court's decisions requiring that
election districts be "as nearly as practicable" equal in
population, most of the States revised their congressional
district boundaries in the 1960's, some of them more than
once (see Appendix B, page 549).



REAPPORTIONMENT AND REDISTRICTING
BASED ON 1970 CENSUS

As a result of reapportionment based on the 1970
census, five States gained Representatives: Arizona, 1;
California, 5; Colorado, 1; Florida, 3; and Texas, 1. Nine
States lost Representatives: Alabama, 1; Iowa, 1; New
York, 2; North Dakota, 1; Ohio, 1; Pennsylvania, 2;
Tennessee, 1 ; West Virginia, 1 ; and Wisconsin, 1 .

Effective for the 93d Congress, 40 States revised their
congressional district boundaries during 1971-1972 (see
Appendix B). North Dakota joined the list of five others
having only one Representative— Alaska, Delaware, Nevada,
Vermont, and Wyoming. Four other States— Hawaii, Maine,
Nebraska, and New Mexico— did not change their bound-
aries (except for Hawaii, the 1970 census had left their
existing districts nearly equal in population).

The effect of the "one man, one vote" rule is shown in
the following table, which summarizes the distribution of
districts by their variations from the State average district
populations for the 93d Congress and compares it with the



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