United States. Bureau of the Census.

Manufacturing and mercantile resources and industries of the principal places in Wayne, Henry, Delaware and Randolph counties, Indiana : with a review of their manufacturing, mercantile and general business interests, advantageous location, &c, including a brief historical and statistical sketch of online

. (page 2 of 38)
Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of the CensusManufacturing and mercantile resources and industries of the principal places in Wayne, Henry, Delaware and Randolph counties, Indiana : with a review of their manufacturing, mercantile and general business interests, advantageous location, &c, including a brief historical and statistical sketch of → online text (page 2 of 38)
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until 1818. It remained there until re-
moved to Richmond the present county
seat, in 1875. The county taxes for the
year the first court was held were 8468.40
and some idea of this primitive period
may be obtained from the following pro-
vision price list for the year 1824. .

Apples, dr. *abu.l.25<fc 1.50 Butter, uc Ih 4 to 5

Peaches '• " 1.25 & 1.50 Beef, • VA 1

Potatoes, " 25 Veal, " \% 2

Com, " 10 15 Sugar, '• 4 5

Beans, " 25 Tallow, " 5

Turnips, " 12 Flax, " 8 10

Flour, per ewt. 1 25 1 50 Chickens, p<-r doz. 50

Wood, per cord, 37»^ Eggs, " 2 3

This county is well supplied with rail-
roads. The Pan-Handle road from Indi-
anapolis to Pittsburg, follows the course

of the old National road, passing through
Dublin, Cambridge City, Germantown,
Centrcville and Richmond; Fort Wayne
& Richmond road running through Foun-
tain City in Garden Township; Chicago
division Pittsburg, Cincinnati & St. Louis
road, from Richmond through Washing-
ton and Hagerstown; Dayton & Rich-
mond road; Richmond division Cincin-
nati, Hamilton & Dayton road; Cam-
bridge City and Columbus road; Fort
Wayne, Muncie & Cincinnati road runs
through Cambridge City; "White "Water
Valley road from Cambridge City to Cin-
cinnati, along the line of the old canal;
also, a short line of road from Hagers-
town to Cambridge City. In addition to
this very extensive system of railroads
there are innumerable gravel roads lead-
ing in and out of all the principal villa-
ges and towns in the county, so that in re-
spect to internal improvements that fur-
nish egress and ingress for travelers and
commerce, no county in the state except
Marion, can boast of greater facilities
There are 88J68 miles of railroad, 12H>
miles toll roads and turn pikes and 6<*~
miles of common road.

The latest statistics show 252,136 acres
of land entered for taxation, valued ait
88,372,690; personal property 86,585,^62.
In 1880 there was produced 660,195 bus.
of wheat, 1,975,176 of corn and 287,155
of oats. There were also 9,091 horse?,
440 mules, 15,321 head of cattle, 50,433
hogs and 18,505 sheep. The apple crop
was worth 8304,289 and peaches 824,085.

The numerous cities and towns in the
county call for a large number of mer-
cantile concerns in every branch of trade
to supply its large population of over
40,000 people, which added to the maay
extensive manufacturing establishing
conducted therin, combined with the rich
agricultural country surrounding, mak-e
it one of the first counties in the state.


This city, the largest in Wayne County,
is among the leading commercial centers
of the state, and is one of Indiana's finest
cities. It is substantially built, is sur-
rounded by one of the richest agricultu-
ral sections in the Northwest, has ample
railroad facilities and is enjoying a large
and healthy commerce. We know of no
-other town of its class in this part of the
Union that so impresses the stranger with
its metropolitan manners or goaheaditive-
ness, yet it is plain to be seen that busi-
ness is conducted on a solid, conservative
basis, which we attribute to the predomi-
nance of an element composed principally
of members of the Society of Friends,
whose antecedents were the original set-
tlers here.


It was in the latter part of 1806 that
the settlement of Richmond was com-
menced, much of the land in its vicinity
liaving been taken up in that year. David
Hoover and his companions are supposed
to have been the first white men whe ex-

?lored the territory north of Richmond.
'he land was settled principally by the
Friends, from North Carolina, some of
them from that state direct, others after a
brief residence in Ohio. John Smith
-entered on what is now the south side of
Main Street. Jeremiah Cox purchased
his quarter section somewhat later, north
of Main Street. Among the first families
who settled here were those of Jerry Cox,
John Smith, Elijah Wright, Frederick
Hoover, Andrew Hoover, David Hoover,
Wm. Bulla and John Harvey. John
Smith commenced a store in a log build-
ing, with barrels for supports to a counter
of boards, in 1810. Robert Morrison
started another store in 1814. Two tan
yards were established in 1818, one by J.
Smith for the benefit of Jos. Wilmot and
the other by Robert Morrison. In 1816
Smith laid out in town lots the land along

Front an Pearl streets south of Main. The
first tavern was a log building put up in
1816 on lot 6, by Philip Harter. Ezra
Boswell put up the first brewery about the
time the town was first incorporated. The
first post office was established in 1*18.
Robert Morrison was postmaster and so
continued up to 1829, the office being in a
frame building s. w. cor. Main and Fourth
streets. Joseph McLane had the first
blacksmith shop. The first new-paper
was the Richmond Weekly Intelligencer,
issued in 1821 with Elijah Lacey as edi-
tor and Joseph Scott as publisher. The
Messrs. King had a woolen factory previ-
ous to 1827 and in addition to carding
and spinning began the manufacture of
cloth, blankets, jeans, etc. Mr. Smith
also had a paper mill and Dr. Cushman
& Co. opened a distillery previous to this.


The date of the birth of the town is
generally supposed to have been in 1*16;
it had no corporate existence however un-
til after Cox's addition in 1818, which em-
braced lands north of Main St. and west
of Marion. In conformity to an act of
the legislature, the citizens met on Sep-
tember first of the same year, and unani-
mously declared themselves in favor of
the incorporation of the town. Twenty-
four votes were polled. On the 14th of
September, at an election held at the same
place, Ezra Boswell, Thomas Swain, Rob-
ert Morrison, John McLane and Peter
Johnson were elected Trustees. The
authority given to the trustees by the
general act under which the town was in-
corporated being deemed inadequate, the
citizens petitioned the legislature for a
special charter, which was granted. The
charter was adopted by a vote of the citi-
zens, and borough officers elected March
13th, 1834. Richmond was governed
under this borough charter until 1S40,
when it was incorporated as a city under



a charter adopted by the citizens, and on
the 4th of May a mayor and other city
officers were elected. In 1865 a general
law was passed authorizing the people of
any town to establish a city government
without a special act of the legislature.
Under this law city officers are elected
for two years. The city is now divided
into five wards with two couneilmen from
each ward It also has a complete fire
department and a system of fire alarm
boxes. The population was 200 in 1818;
824 in 1828; 3,t00 in 1850; 12,743 in
1880; while at the present time it is fully
15,000 and rapidly increasing.


A meeting of the Society of Friends
was established here as early as 1807. The
first meeting of the M. E. church was in
1819, Presbyterian 1837, English Luthe-
ran 1853, Catholic 1846, Episcopal 183s
German Evangelical 1845, African M. E.
1*36. Other denominations here are the
Baptist, Evangelical, Christian, Sweden-
borgian and United Presbyterian, which
are represented by more than 20 different
congregations, some of whom occupy edi-
fices that would be a credit to any city.
The educational advantages of Richmond
are its pride and boast. A thorough
graded system lias been adopted, 10 school
buildings being used and the services of
over 50 teachers required. Within one
mile of the city on the National road,
stands Earlham College, an institution
owned by the Friends, having 160 acres
of land in connection with its attractive
buildings. There are most complete cour-
ses of study and both sexes are admitted
to equal privileges and opportunities.


Robert Morrison, an early settler here
and one of Richmond's most prominent
and successful business men, founded the
finepublic library which bears his name.
Believing such an institution would con-
duce to the publi'- good, he purchased a
lot and erected a fine building containing
library room, dwelling of librarian, etc.
The cost of lot and improvements was
812,500, the total donation however was
818,000, all of u hich he devised to Wayne
Township, of Wayne County, Ind., in
trust, for the benefit of the inhabitants of

said township forever. It opened in 1864
with 6,000 volumes which have acace
been increased to 10,000.


Richmond is indeed a manufacturing
city and no other place of its size in tdhe
state contains as many important ircnd
thriving manufacturing concerns, wftiich
fact explains its rapid progress. In 1*27
Geo. B. Rowlett came here from Phila-
delphia, Pa. This gentleman was in-
strumental in making one of the fin* at-
tempts at manufacturing here, which was
the production of silk from the copoon,
but he was compelled to abandon ths en-
terprise. Since then one factory after
another has been started until to-day we
find here some of the largest concerns in
the Union engaged in the manufacture of
farm implements, mill machinery, coffins,
school furnitnre, etc. The wholesale and
jobbing trade is also quite extensive, sev-
eral large concerns being located feere.
The shipping facilities are unsurpassed,
the railroads centering here being the
Pan Handle, from Pittsburgh to Indian-
apolis; Grand Rapids & Indiana, from
Richmond through Ft. Wayne into Mich-
igan; the Chicago Division of the Pitts-
burgh, Cincinnati & St. Louis R. R_ and
the Cincinnati, Richmond & Dayfom R.
R., giving shippers the benefit of coiapete-
ing lines north, south, east and west
In conclusion we can truthfully say that
that no point in the west offers gneater
inducements for those seeking a locution
than does Richmond.

In the following series of brief descrip-
tive articles, to which the attention aS. the
reader is particularly invited, will belbund
a large amount of useful and practical in-
formation of the highest value. Through
the medium of careful and eompete-v.it re-
porters a detailed review of the manufac-
turing and mercantile interests of fvich-
mond has been prepared and dwell upon
in separate articles, thus more fully reach-
ing the objects of this work. From these
much valuable information will fee im-
parted with reference to this city; nits ad-
vantages as a market for the purek.se of
supplies, its opulent and enterprising busi-
ness concerns (none of which havt been
willingly omitted) and the striking di-
versity of its resources.



Cor- Fifth and Main Sts.
Taking rank among the leading banking
houses of this city and state, the Richmond
National Bank since its organization has been
characterized by that conservative and yet at
the same time progressive policy which has
contributed to its uniform success and popular
favor,. This bank justly dates its origin back
to 1S34, at which time it was established as the
State Bank of Indiana, with Ach'lles Williams
as President, Elijah Coffin, Cashier, and
Charles F. Coffin, Teller, with a charter for
21 years. Upon the expiration of the charter,
in 185s, it was organized as a branch of the
State Bank of Indiana, with Albert C. Blanch-
ard as President and Charles F. Coffin as
Cashier. In 1S65 it was again reorganized
and chartered under the national banking laws
as the Richmond National, with an authorized
capital of $230,000, at which time Mr. Charles
F. Coffin was chosen President and Albert H.
Blanchard Cashier. In 1S73 Mr. Charles H.
Coffin was elected Cashier, upon the retire-
ment of Mr. Blanchard. The present officers
of the bank are Charles F. Coffin, President,
and Charles H. Coffin, Cashier. The present
Board of Directors are Charles F. Coffin, S.
R. Wiggins, David J. Hoerner, Eiwood Pat-
terson and Charles H. Coffin. The present
cash capital of the bank is $250,000 and its
transactions embrace a legitimate banking
business in loans, discounts, deposits, collec-
tions and exchange — embracing the largest
exchange, discount and collection business oi
any similar institution in Eastern Indiana. It
is a noteworthy fact that this institution was
the last to suspend and the first to resume
specie payment as the result ot the financial
panic of the "seventies." Mr. Charles F. Cof-
fin, the President, is a native of North Caro-
lina but came to this city in 1S34. He has
occupied many important positions of trust
and responsibility in the various benevolent
institutions of this state and declining to
accept political preferment. Charles H. Coffin
is a native of this city and since completing
his literary education has been chiefly asso-
ciated with this bank.


S. R. Wiggins & Son, Proprietors,
No. 132 Second St.
The foundations of this enterprise were laid
as far back as 60 years ago by Mr. Daniel P.
Wiggins, father of the senior member of the
present firm, that gentleman having com-
menced the tanning of leather in this city in
1823. The business was, of course, rather
small at the outset, but as energy will always
tell, so it was in this case, and* the business
grew steadily from year to year until from a
small beginning it soon reached huge propor-
tions v and after seeing it on a prosperous and
solid basis, Mr. D. P. Wiggins resigned the
care of it to his three son-, Messrs. S. R., C.
O. and J. D. Wiggins. These gentlemen con-

ducted the business for some time, continuing
to enlarge and improve whenever nece-sarv,
until finally, in 1S72, the present co-partner-
ship was formed and has remained ir.tact up
to the present writing. The White Water
Tannery is one of the best equipped and most
complete of the kind in the United Stales,
with a total capacity of 150 comple'e h:i - s per
week. The establishment embraces eight
buildings, located on the south end of S-rcond
St. and covering an acre of ground. These
buildings contain 150 vats and the best grades
of strictly pure oak fanned leather is pro-
duced, including harness and upper leather,
kipp and calf of a very superior qualitv. A
60 horse power engine furnishes the motive
power of the establishment, while about :6
hands find steady employment the whole vear
around. The firm enjoy the reputation of
tanning the best leather'in the country and
their trade extends over the entire United
States. Mr. S. R. Wiggins, the senior —em-
ber of the firm, was born on Lor.g I-ia-.d,
N. Y-, and removed to Richmond -rt::h his
father in 1S23. He acted in the capacity of
Secretary of the Little Miami Raliro^i dur-
ing its construction, was City Treasurer for
the period of seven years and served the city
in the Council for four terms. He :- a"so one
of the Board of Directors of the R : c:.~or.d
National Bank, one of the leading finan :iil
institutions of the state. Mr. Hugh R. Wig-
gins, his son, is a native of this city and the
active member of the firm. Both gentlemen
are thoroughly conversant with the tanning
business, having become familiar with it at a
very early age, and the large extent of their
operations, together with their enterp.'.-e and
integrity, is every way worthy the extended
notice here given in connection with the grow-
ing industries of the city.

J. S. TAYLOR, Jr.,

Iron, Hardware, etc., North E St.

The wholesale trade of the city of Rich-
mond in nearly every branch of commercial
activity has within a comparatively few years
received a fresh impetu- from the* infusi a ot
new vigor and enterprise into the old e?"ab-
lished houses and the organization c: new
ones with a determination to compete with the
markets of more distant cities and furnish to
dealers in the interior towns of Eastern Indi-
ana and Western Ohio opportunities for pro-
curing their supplies more expeditiouslj cir.d
at a saving of freight charges and other ex-
penses. In that special department of cur
commercial system devoted to trie sa'e of bar
iron, steel, wagon and carriage hard a ..-. •. j
stock, etc., the city can offer to manufacturers
and dealers advantages which car. not be
readily duplicated in the great ci:ie< East or
West, as can be easily demonstrated by :n
inspection of the extensive stock of J. S. Tay-
lor, Jr., whose warerooms are located ^n North
E St.. opposite the passenger depot. This
house was originally started by W. W. Fou'.ke



as early as 1S54 as an exclusively retail estab-
lishment. He was succeeded by the firm of
A. Bradley & Sons, from whom the present
proprietor purchased the stock and good will
in 18S1. Since that time under his judicious
management the increase in trade has been
almost phenomenal. Mr. Tajjlor occupies at
the above named location two entire floors and
basement, each 25x132 feet in dimensions, of
the commodious warehouse, where he carries
a stock valued at about $20.coo, comprising
iull lines of the best varieties of bar iron and
steel, carriage and wagon hardware and trim-
mings, carriage makers' supplies, felloes, hubs,
shafts, spokes and general wood work in this
line. He transacts both a wholesale and retail
business, his annual sales closely approxi-
mating $$0,000. Three assistants" are regu-
larly employed and two traveling salesmen
are constantly on the road in various sections
of Indiana and Ohio, trom whence his trade is
principally derived. Mr. Taylor is a native of
Ohio and was born in 1S4.5. He came to
this city in 1SS1, at which time he engaged in
the business which is now occupying his at-
tention and which has under his energetic
menagement assumed its present proportions
and established a claim to recognition as one
of the leading houses of its class in this section
of the state.


General Mill Machinery, Sixteenth
and North F Sis.

Among the notable improvements which
were invented and brought into use at about
the time of the adoption of the Federal Con-
stitution were those of Oliver Evans, of Penn-
sylvania, in respect to the manufacture of
flour, the importance of which may perhaps
be sufficiently indicated by saying that in all
the subsequent processes of invention no radi-
cal change has ever been made in the system
of milling machinery, as Mr. Evans devised
it, and that it constitutes to-day the mechani-
cal basis upon which all the extensive flouring
mills of the United States and Europe are
operated. As in all other branches of indus-
trial enterprise in America, important modifi-
cations and improvements have been intro-
duced from time to time, notably those known
in commercial and milling phraseology as the
"new process," which, while embodying many
new and valuable ideas, still retains the most
salient features and essential principles of Mr.
Evans' early improvements. Utilizing in
their operations every improvement which
practical experience and actual tests have
demonstrated to be of value and introducing
many specialties of their own invention, the
Richmond City Mill Works, of this city, stand
to day among the foremost establishments in
the United States engaged in the manufacture
ot flouring mills and mill machinery, ranking
in the extent of their operations third of this
class in the Union, and in the general com-
dleteness of their works, equipment, excel-


lence and reliability of their products equal 4©
any. This important addition to the produc-
tive industries of Richmond had iis inception
in 1S76, when a «tock company was organized
and incorporated under the lawsol the statecof
Indiana with a capital stock of $75 < 00 and Hie
present works were erected. Since that time,
although the nominal capital remains the
same, the accumulated earnings and surplus
have been invested in the business*, making
the actual rapi al employed largelv in excels
of the original amount. The pi int'ot these ok-
tensive works, at the corner of Sixteenth and
North F Sts., covers an area of about fwe
acre*, upon which is erected numerous sub-
stantial and conveniently arranged buildings,
among which may be especially mentioned
the main structure, containing office- pattern
rooms, wood working department and ma-
chine shop, 60x150 feet in size, to which is
attached a wing or "L" of the same dimen-
sions. The building used for the stone departt-
ment is 60x100 feet, the foundry building
50x60 feet, the blacksmith shop 40x50, and
the wood working shop, occupied for fee
manufacture of bolting chests and kindraid
articles, is 32x200 feet, while in addition tto
these are numerous smaller buildings, used
lor a variety of purposes. Owing to Che
heavy character of the work constructed fierce,
the mechanical operations are all conducted
upon the ground floor, the aggregate area cof
which is not less than 36,000 square feet.
The processes of manufacture are facilitated
and expedited by the use of improved special
machinery in each department, the motive
force for which is supplied by an So hensse
power engine, built expressly for this com-
pany by the well known Buckeye Engine
Company, of Salem. O. An average force o»f
125 hands is employed, the greater portion tof
which are skilled mechanics and practical
millwrights, and the weekly pay roll readies
fully $1,300. The facilities enjoyed by ihis
company as mechanical contractors and manu-
facturers of mill stones and mill machinery
and for the construction and thorough equip-
ment of flouring mills in any section of Ihe
United States, are not surpassed by those of
any contemporaneous establishment, whik- a
prominent specialty is made of remodeling
old mills and introducing the u nevv proce»s"
system. The limits allotted in the present
sketch will not permit a detailed description of
the various products of these works and euwen
an attempt at enumeration would fail to <-do
justice to the subject. Suffice it to say fhat
the company are fully prepared to funihsh
estimates and make contracts for the construc-
tion and equipment of flouring mills in wmj
part of the country, for remodeling old mills
entire or in part and also for furnishing amy
and every article required in the construction
or repair of milling machinery, from tthe
heaviest and most complicated device to 'the
very minutest detail. The company issue a
finely and elaborately illustrated descriptive
catalogue and special circulars, giving mill



information as to the merits, advantages and
economy of their products, which will be
found to be invaluable to millers or those con-
templating the erection of mills upon either
the old or new process plans. The original
officers of the company were Joseph G. Lemon,
President; N. W. Brings, Secretary and
Treasurer, and Charles F. Walters, Mechani-
cal Engineer. The office of Secretary and
Treasurer was vacated in November, 1S77, by
the death of Mr. Briggs, and Mr. Leonard T.
Lemon was elected as his successor. With
this exception the original board has conducted
the affairs of the company since its organiza-
tion, with the most marked and gratifying
degree of success, the annual transactions at
the present time amounting to more than
$300,000, with a demand for their products
extending to every state in the Union and to
the Dominion of Canada. The progressive
policy ol the company since its inception and
the determination of the officers to excel
rather than to compete in their chosen field of
industrial enterprise have made the Richmond
City Mill Works the leading estiblishment of
its kind in the state of Indiana and one of the
most important {actors of our city's commer-
cial importance and manufacturing thrift.

Butter, Cheese, Produce, etc., 32S axd
330 Maix St. and 2 Fort Wayne Ave.
Among the largest, thoroughly equipped and
admirably conducted establishments of this
class in the United States and the most exten-
sive one in the state of Indiana is that located
at 32S, 330 and 334 Main St., Richmond,
•where, under the designating title of the
"Wayne Creamery Company," the manufac-
ture of fine creamery butter is conducted upon
a scale of magnitude and upon scientific prin-
ciples which entitles it to prominent recogni-
tion among the most important industries of
the state. Although established as recently as
1SS1, the growth of this business has been
almost phenomenal. The production of but-
ter auring the first week of its existence did
not exceed 150 pounds, while at the present
time (18S3) they are turning out upon an
average 15.000 pounds per month and have a

Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of the CensusManufacturing and mercantile resources and industries of the principal places in Wayne, Henry, Delaware and Randolph counties, Indiana : with a review of their manufacturing, mercantile and general business interests, advantageous location, &c, including a brief historical and statistical sketch of → online text (page 2 of 38)