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Fortnightly Review

Founded, Edited and Published



Twenty-Eighth Year





January 1

Suitable Plays for the Catholic Stage
are difficult to obtain

Here is a List of Approved Popular Plays

They are from the pens of Catholic play-writers, and have been successfully produced
from coast to coast, in Catholic schools, colleges and academies. They are strongly recom-
mended by the clergy and teachers for their educational value and entertaining features.


THAT $10,000.00 FARCE— In three acts, for 19
(or more) male characters. Translated and
adapted from the French. A hilarious entertain-
ment, easily produced by upper grade and high
school boys. Price 50c. Dozen $5.00.

DOWN YOU GO— A comical absurdity in one act;
10 male characters. Price 20c. Dozen $2.00.

comedy in one act; 6 female characters. Price
20c. Dozen $2.00.

in one act; 2 female and 4
Price 20c. Dozen $2.00.

A FLAT— Comedy
juvenile characters.

PYRAMUS AND THISBE — A farce in three
scenes, extracted from Shakespeare's "A Mid-
summer Night's Dream." For 7 male characters,
Price 20c. Dozen $2.00.

STATION — Farce in one act; IS female charac
ters. Price 20c. Dozen $2.00.

PHILOSOPHY EXPLODED— Comedy in one act.
Two male and one female characters. Can be
performed by male characters only. Price 20c
Dozen $2.00.

THE LIVING STATUE— A comedy in four acts
for 11 principal male characters. Price 40c
Dozen $4.00.


TARCISIUS or The Little Martyr of the Blessed

Sacrament — Drama in one act and two scenes,

for boys, (9 principal characters). Price 20c.
Dozen $2.00.

THE BENEDICTION— A dramatic little curtain-
raiser; two female characters. Price 20c. Dozen

ST. PHILOMENA — A sacred drama in three acts,
for 12 male and one female characters. Price
40c. Dozen $4.00.

ST. LAWRENCE— A sacred drama in four acts,
for 14 principal male characters. Price 40c.
Dozen $4.00.

THE GRECIAN PRINCESS — A sacred drama,
with an excellent vein of comedy, in four acts,
for 22 male and 4 femile principal characters.
Price 50c. Dozen $5.00.

QUO VADIS — A dramatization of the celebrated
Roman novel, adapted for the Catholic stage, in
six acts; 22 male and 7 female principal charac-
ters. Price 50c. Dozen $5.00.

^:HE MONK'S PARDON — A dramatization of
Raoul de Navary's novel, in four acts. 14 male
and 6 female principal characters. Price 50c.
Dozen $5.00.

ROME UNDER VALERIAN— A sacred drama in
four acts; for 24 male and 5 female characters.
Price 50c. Dozen $5.00.

FABIOLA — A dramatization of Cardinal Wiseman's
novel, in five acts; for 20 male and 7 female
principal characters. Price 50c. Dozen $5.00.

AlOTHER MACHREE — A typical Irish play in
three acts, 6 female characters. Price 50c.
Dozen $5.00.

acts; for 11 male principal characters; timed
with the Crusade to the Holy Land. Price 50c.
Dozen $5.00.

drama in five acts. 14 male and 2 female prin
cipal characters. Female characters may be im
personated by boys. Price 50c. Dozen $5.00.

GENEVIEVE— Historical melodrama in six acts
18 male and 6 female characters. Price 50c,
Dozen $5.00.

THE GYPSY'S REVENGE— Drama in two acts
4 male and 3 female characters. Price 40c
Dozen $4.00.

THE WEALTHY USURER— A romantic drama
in four acts; for 18 male and 6 female principal
characters. Price 50c. Dozen $5.00.

Plays are not sent "on approval." When an assortment totals at least twelve copies,
remittance can be made on basis of the dozen rate of each plav. Mailed postpaid only if
remittance accompanies the order.


Publisher of Catholic Books and Literature
214 East Eighth Street CrNCiNXATi, Ohio




The Fortnightly Review



January 1, 1922

Denouncing Capitalism

The Sunday Watchman (Oct.
23) says: "The late issues of the
Fortnightly Eeview bristle with
denunciations of the capitalistic
regime. Now these same contrib-
utors to Mr. Preuss' able organ
are indulging in another form of
wastage while condemning the in-
efficiency of Capitalism. For every
intelligent Catholic knows that co-
operation is the system on the
horizon and that the wage system
is showing- even outward signs of
dissolution. The above intellectual
energy, therefore, should go into
constructive channels, should be
used in devising ways and means
of introducing this or that form
of co-operation."

This is very interesting indeed.
In the first place we wish to con-
gratulate our contemporary for
so boldly espousing co-operation.
The vast majority of our Catholic
editors and writers, to say noth-
ing of "intelligent Catholics," are
not yet within hailing distance of

Dr. Eyan, in the National Cath-
olic Welfare Council Bulletin, un-
der the title, "Criticisms of the
Social Action Department," re-
cently stated in answer to these
criticisms: "The essence of the
new order is some form of owner-
ship and management of industry
by the workers themselves. Let us
assume that the responsible heads
of the Social Action Department
accepted this theory and were
eager to promote its realization.

How far could they go in this
direction at the present moment f
The first obstacle confronting the
department is the fact that neither
the bishops, the priests, nor the
laity are convinced that our indus-
trial system should be reorganized
in this radical fashion." In an
address before the National Coun-
cil of Catholic Women, the same
authority, while discussing "Some
Obstacles to Catholic Social Re-
form," made this significant state-
ment : "After years of pronounce-
ments on the social question by
popes and bishops and the setting
up of the administrative machin-
ery of the National Catholic Wel-
fare Council, our social principles
are not recognized as such by
large sections of our own people;
and when attempt is made to ap-
ply these principles to actual con-
ditions, the expression of them
'may be given the lie by the prac-
tice of powerful laymen.' "

We have quoted Dr. Ryan, for
we believe that his word in these
matters will and should reach
farther than that of any other
authority. The fact is, however,
that a few observations round
about us would suffice. Why is it
that labor unions are so ineffect-
ive, except that they are bound to
the belief that the present order
is sufficiently good to justify re-
taining it with some alterations.
Trade unionism as a movement is
blind to co-operation. Scan the
press, periodicals and books, and


January 1

who will make bold to say that it
is clear in the minds of even the
intellectuals that the wage system
is doomed and that some form of
co-operation is near at hand?
What is it that one hears on every
side at the present time? — discus-
sions of means to better the pres-
ent sad conditions, discussions of
the fundamental evils of our pres-
ent system based on Capitalism
and landlordism? It is a signifi-
cant fact that there is little or no
such talk. There is hopeless mut-
tering and ceaseless grumbling
against obvious injustices, but
there is no realization of the
causes or of the w^ay out. The
great mass of people have come to
an impasse. On the one hand they
see the inevitable injustices, w^hile
on the other they behold piled up
nothing but dreary, dark hopeless-

Is it, therefore, a waste of time
to point out the rottenness of the
present system? Is it more im-
portant to discuss w^hy certain
sections of a city should be con-
demned and razed to make room
for a new civic center, or to dis-
cuss the plans and the means to
realize and actualize the plans?
Certainly, if the majority are ig-
norant of the reasons for the con-
demnation, then let us make those
reasons clear first. The plans and
the means of realization will fol-
low quickly enough. In the same
manner, let us first make it clear
to the majority that the present
regime is essentially unsound. We
predict that if this is done, there
will be little difficulty in making
the change. Once have an intelli-
gent and instructed populace
clearly see the evils of modern
Capitalism and their causes, and
the rest will take care of itself.

We should like to add in this

connection that in oui' opinion
eiitirely too much stress is placed
on the co-operative idea as a basis
for the new order of society. If
we merely changed to co-operation
in consumption, production, and
distribution, there would be little
relief from the present intolerable
evils. Unless landlordism and
privilege are abolished first, and
some form of co-operative society
is built up, we shall be simply
marking time. The savings effect-
ed by the co-operative societies
would eventually be swallowed up
by the landlords, the privileged
classes, the owmers of our natural
resources, from which in the final
analysis all the w^ealth flows.

Hence it is that we shall con-
tinue to point out the evils of
Capitalism. We are certain that
if in our ow^n limited circle it is
perfectly clear wdiat the underly-
ing rottenness really consists of,
we shall have done a far greater
service to our readers than by
discussing, at this juncture, a
programme of co-operation and
the means to attain it. And, in
closing, we wish to say that we
intend to analyze the evils of the
present regime, to show their
genesis, character, and composi-
tion. It is not enough to insist
that Capitalism is unsound and
must go.

— Speaking of a movement for the
international organization of Catholics
(F. R., Dec. 1st), writes a correspond-
ent, how much prejudice and malice is
to be overcome in the way of bringing
aljout a friendly understanding and
SMicere co-operation in our own coun-
try alone between American Catholics
of, c. g.. the Celtic and the Teutonic
races, in view of some of the hate-
inspired utterances we have heard dur-
ing tlie war and since?


An Acrostic
The following poem, which was
lately sent to one of the editors
of the Freeman, is, on the face of
it, first-class magazine verse; it
has the manner, accent and sub-
stance of the verse which you can
find scattered, week by week,
month by month, through this or
that American periodical.


Rose-petals fall slowly

to the seats of alabaster
On the edge of the garden;

All the peacocks move languidly
Where the long shadows

Portend the coming dark.

Peacocks seven follow each other
Golden and blue and purple —

The iris-hued procession
That moves like some evangel

Of a dream unborn, but soon
To play a part.

I am waiting, waiting —

O surely out of the red sunset

Dreams will tremble into being,
Dreams quiver and quicken.

Once star-dust, now the nimbus
Of the young god of joy.

Upon closer inspection the poem
turns out to be an acrostic. The
first letter of the first line in each
stanza, the second of the second,
and so on, form the words. Rotten
poetry is easy!

'*It struck me," comments the
Freeman editor (No. 83), ''that
this achievement carried with it
about all the essential critical im-
plications upon the bulk of our
current verse. Such poetry is
easy; so easy that a practised
literary hand can churn out the
undetectable counterfeit of it by
the barrelful, if so disposed, and
can even, with no great effort,
playfully put the literary hand's
trade-mark on the counterfeit.

Such poetry is so easy to write
that, as Sheridan said of easy
writing, it is very hard to read.
Thus it seemed to me that by say-
ing 'most of it is unreadable' and
by sending me his acrostic, my
friend has supplied me with a
fairly complete apparatus criticiis
for application to our current
lyric poetry."


By Eugene M. Beck, S. J., St. Louis

Yon garden is a meeting-place

Where stand with bannerets aloft

The bright-hued congregation of the flowers.

Contentment marks each happy face:

There's gladness in the candy-tuft

And music in the honey-suckle towers....

Dahlias and roses

For lovers' posies.

Tulips and peonies

And poppied wizardries ;

Bright worshippers in golden frock

And surpliced hollyhock —

Ah me,

What deafening melody!

'Tis not for mortal mind

The tangled orchestration to unwind;

Nor may I here

Divine simplicity revere.

Your bright confusion likes me not.

Your tinted chorus not a jot,

Fair mouths that shall be dumb!

Inconstant as the futile world

Whose moods you borrow.

Where shall your banners be unfurled


Soon — very soon —

November's frosty shoon

Shall press you to the earth

And still your garish mirth.

But one last worshipper shall brave

The frost, to guard the garden-grave

Where lies your heaven's sum.

To-morrow shall the stiffened turf

Be showered with the fragrant surf

Of requiem chrysanthemum!
Beneath a coverlet of white
Shall flowers grand and gay
Be softly tucked away,
Until the snowy prophecy
Has come to pass, and from the sky
The dancing snow-flocks shall alight !



The Mistake of Malthus
The Malthusian heresy has been
hotly debated for over a century.
Its fundamental proposition is
that social evils are not attribu-
table to social institutions, but to
the everlasting tendency of popu-
lation .to increase up to the limits
of subsistence.

It must never be forgotten that
Malthus' "Essay" was not a dis-
passionate scientific inquiry into,
the law governing the increase or
decrease of population; it was an
ad hoc argument against the Uto-
pianism of William Godwin. It
was deliberately .constructed to
oppose the improvement of the
conditions of the working classes ;
it was one of the most important
incidents in Avhat Thorold Rogers
called "a conspiracy, concocted
by the law and carried out by par-
ties interested in its success, to
cheat the English workman of his
v/ages, to tie him to the soil, to
deprive him of hope and to de-
grade him into immediate pover-

Mr. C. F. Pell (''The Law of
Births and Deaths : Being a Study
of the Variation in the Degree of
Animal Fertility under the In-
fluence of the Environment."
London: Fisher Unwin), sum-
marises Malthus' argument in
these words : ' ' The evils which
you deplore are necessary for the
purpose of keeping dow^n the num-
bers of the population. If you im-
prove the condition of the mass
of the poiJulation, you will cause
a fall in the death-rate. The fall
in the death-rate will be propor-
tionate to the degree of improve-
ment which you effect in the con-
dition of the people. Therefore,
the closer you approximate to an

ideal condition of society, the
lower will be the death-rate, and
consequently the more rapid will
be the increase of population. The
geometrical rate of increase will
be realised in exact proportion to
your success in improving condi-
tions. As the resources of any
country, and even of the world,
are limited, it follows that the in-
crease of population must rapidly
exceed these resources unless you
can keep down the birth-rate. Un-
less yon do so, your efforts for so-
cial progress will be self-defeat-

But the fact remains that, in-
stead of the social miseries being
checks to population, they are
stimuli to it.

— The Popular Protest, a "journal
devoted to the best interests of Am-
erican business," in its October num-
ber discusses the question "Why many
do not attend Church?" and gives one
important reason as follows: "Nearly
all fraternal lodges are governed by
religious services, and you frequently
hear the remark: 'If I live up to the
leaching of my lodge, I'm as good a
Christian as any church could make
me." Unfortunately, many Protestant
preachers encourage this idea by be-
coming lodge members themselves and
introducing all sorts of religious and
semi-religious "stunts" into the lodge
meetings. What is still worse is the
fact, to which one of our clerical cor-
respondents calls attention, that even
Catholic societies stoop to this dubious
m.eans of propaganda by calling them-
selves lodges and promising to make
better Catholics of their members. As
our reverend correspondent points out,
these societies are usurping the place
of the Church and, if they do not in-
duce their members to become more
frequent church-goers and to lead bet-
ter Christian lives, they will do more
harm than good. No society can be a
substitute for the Church.



Pre-Patrician Saints in Ireland

It is now accepted by the fore-
most scholars that the Christian
religion was known and practiced
in Ireland before the coming of
St. Patrick. British soldiers who
had served in Palestine probably
carried the stoiy of the tragedy
of Calvary and the Resurrection
and Ascension of Christ to Brit-
ain, from which it was not slow
in reaching Ireland. In the third
century scattered communities of
believers were to be met with
along the Eastern coasts of Ire-
land. The little band of mission-
aries who planted the faith in Ire-
land are usually styled ''the pre-
Patrician apostles," as they pre-
ceded St. Patrick and in the later
part of their careers labored con-
jointly with him. They were :
SS. Ibar, Kieran, Declan, and
Ailbe. In the October number of
the Irish Ecclesiastical Record
(pp. 374—383), Mr. J. B. Cullen
devotes a paper to St. Ibar.

St. Ibar was born from a noble
family in the latter half of the
fourth century in the province of
Ulster. He studied in one of the
Druid colleges which were then
the chief centres of culture in Ire-
land. In early manhood he crossed
over to Brittany. Later he visited
Rome, where he became converted
to the Christian faith. At Lerins
he is said to have met St. Kieran
and also St. Patrick. He returned
as a priest to his native land and
with some companions established
the first community of religious on
Begerin Island, where he had a
convent of 150 monks. Begerin
was one of the Arran group of
islands and is now united with the
mainland. St. Ibar's apostolic la-
bors extended probably to what

is now the County of Wexford.
Numerous miracles, prophecies,
and legends are associated with
his memory. After his death the
monastery of St. Ibar (Latin:
Iberius) continued to flourish for
almost 400 years. It was one of the
first of the religious settlements
along the East coast of Ireland
that suffered from the invasions
of the Danes. Its famous library
was totally destroyed by the Van-
dals, in 819. For ages, however,
Begerin continued to be regarded
as a sacred spot by the people of
the surrounding districts, who
were accustomed to make frequent
pilgrimages to the grave of its
holv founder.

— Fr. Bede Jarrett, O.P., in his work
on the English Dominicans, says that
the Franciscan Order was organized
by popes and cardinals against the wish
of its founder. There is much in the
life of St. Francis to lend probability
to this statement. Yet, as a writer in
the Tablet (No. 4251) points out, we
must always remember that the ideals
of St. Francis were not fixed from the
start, but had in them to the end an
element of indecision. Rather, then,
does it seem true to say that his life
was a progress, — the goal, long unseen
by him, being the complete loosing
of his own wishes, and a replacing of
them with the will of God, as mani-
fested to him by the Church and her
rulers. This progress was accompanied
by deep distress, and though the popu-
lar view of St. Francis is to fix on his
joy — which was indeed there, as it must
always accompany a deep sincerity of
purpose — below it we can easily detect
a continuous undercurrent of sadness.
Bartholomew of Pisa has drawn out
an elaborate conformity between St.
Francis and Christ : the real conformi-
ty lies in this — that both were "men of
sorrows," though of St. Francis it may
be said, in the old monastic phrase,
that his was a hiloris fristitia.


January i

Fr. Junipero Serra and the Military Heads of California

By Francis Borgia Steck, 0. F. M.


Besides these, the Instruccion con-
tained directions regarding the even-
tual founding of towns and the enUst-
ment of suitable recruits for the mili-
tary department. The scandalous inci-
dents, which had occurred between
pagan Indians and Fages's lawless sol-
diers, and which Fr. Serra justly ex-
posed and condemned in his Represen-
tacion, induced the viceroy to admonish
Rivera that strict discipline had to be
enforced among the soldiers and that
incorrigibles had to he remanded to
San Bias. At the same time, Bucareli
ordered that married soldiers were to
take their families with them to Cali-
fornia, and that unmarried men were
to present testimonials proving their
single state. " The reader may judge
for himself whether Rivera's "powers
were cither too loosely defined, or else
too specifically stated." " Quite natu-
rally, the viceroyal government was
turning to account what it had thus far
learned in the school of experience.

The instructions with which Gover-
nor Felipe de Neve came to California
dated back to the time when he was
chosen to succeed Don Felipe de Barri
in Lower California. They were issued
by Bucareli on September 30, 1774.
The viceroy told him very earnestly
that "every good official must have as
guide in his transactions the service of
God and of the King. The Peninsula
of the Californias," he continued, "has
sufifered disturbances that must be
banished ; and there is need of a pru-
dent person, de/oted to the service, in
order to establish, maintain, and sta-
bilitate good order; a thing which can
not be attained, however, as long as
the necessary harmony and mutual co-
operation is not observed between the
royal ofificers and the missionary Fath-
ers." For this reason, the viceorv found

it expedient to remind Neve of the
various instructions, decrees, and pro-
visions drawn up already in 1769 by
the inspector-general, Don Jose de
Galvez, all of which should be observed
wherever they did not conflict with the
Rcglamento Provisional of 1773, which
went into effect on January 1, 1774,
and which also must be strictly en-
forced. The governor should remem-
ber that these regulations treat of the
"mutual co-operation and harmony he
is obliged to preserve with the mis-
sionary Religious, in order to advance
the commendable object of the king's
intentions and the holy purpose of
bringing the gentiles to the bosom of
the Church." As the King has com-
manded, both the governor and the
comandante ^' "should direct their at-
tention mainly to the deliverance of
those inhabitants (of the missions and
new establishments) from their un-
happy state and to the propagation of
the Faith in those unknown regions."
The natives should receive good treat-
ment ; the servants, troops, and settlers
of the old establishments should set a
good example ; and all should be pro-
vided with the necessary sustenance.
"In order to forestall and impede scan-
dals and quarrels, there shall be vested
in the governor the highest jurisdiction
proper to his office and character, and
the superiors of the missionaries should
take no action that will hinder the
missionaries or rhe soldiers from mak-
ing the rounds of the localities assigned
to them; although the Rev. Fr. Presi-
dente is vested with the authority of an
ecclesiastical judge, his faculties are
those that are accorded him in Article
5 of this Instruccion with reference to
what was resolved in the Junta de
Gucrra y Hacienda, held on May 6,
1773." Then, after giving detailed di-

^ Viceroy Bucareli, Instntccion, . August
17. 1773. Bancroft Collection.
J" C. H. R., ut supra, p. 146.

'^ In 1774, when these instructions were
drawn up, Upper California was still under a
comandante. who was subject to the governor
of Lower California.



rections as to foreign trading vessels,
br£.nding cattle, transmitting reports,
working mines, etc., the viceroy con-
cludes : "I hope from his zeal for the
service that ... he will make every
effort to observe inviolably all that I
prescribe as long as a serious obstacle
does not present itself on some point,
in which case he may suspend it and
give me an account, precisely noting

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