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V.28 no. 2, 6 1867

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Agriculture is the nursing mother of the Arts.— Xknophon.
Tillage and Pasturage are the two breasts of the State.— Sulxy.





Editor and Proprietor.
General Agent.

New Series.


Yol. I.~.No. 1.



Breeding and Rearing Cattle— a Prerainm Essay, by Prof. Henry Tanner, Ac 65

The Supposed Exhaustion of the soil by the Modern System of Agriculture, 72

Poisoning Soils, by P»rofessor E. Pugh, 78

Feeding and Management of Hogs .♦. 82

Sixteen Months Experience in Raising Hogs, by Geo. Watt 84

Tlie Importance of the Thorough Education of those Men whose business it is

to Cultivate the Soil. By Prof. J. B. D 86

Our Young Men and the Pursuits of Life 89

The Mineral Wealth of the State of North Carolina 91

Theory of Land Drainage 92

Barley, its Uses, &c 93

The Law of Enclosures — Report to Farmer's Assembly 96

Black Hawk— vS. W. Ficklin's)— His Likeness and Pedigree „ 103

Peruvian Guano, some of its Defects and their Cause.s IM

Mineral and Agricultural Wealth of South Western Virginia 109

The Study of Agricutural Facts, by Dr. Daniel Lee 110

Hidden Treasures 112

Osage Omnge — How to Cultivate 113

• The Southern Agriculturist and the Negro Mutuallj' Dependent Ho


Grape Culture, Locations of Vineyards, Manures, and Manner of Cultivation... IW

Potatoes — Growing them Under Straw..., 119

Work for the Month in Kitchen Garden 120

, Household Department :

Poultry Account 121

Editorial Department; j

Spring 123

The Situation „ 123

Our Exchanges 126

Book Notice 128

Commercial Report ^ « 127

CHAS. H. WYSrSTE, Printer, 1328 Main Stre«t.



1315 Main Street,


Chief Honse — WasbiDgton Building, 165 and 1G7; Baltimore St., Bftltitnore, Md.
Branch Houses — Petersburg, Va., Norfolk, Va., Washington, D. C. feb — ly




Has now on hand a choice selection of RIDING VEHICLES of the most approTcd
styles, consisting, in part, of

Caleelies, Coaches, Barouches, Six-Seat Rockaways,

Of all kinds, to -which the attention of those in want of such articles is invited,
feb— ly

1011 MAIN STREET, opposite Post Office,

Gold and Tin FoiL Teeth and Dentists Materials for sale at Man-
ufacturer's Prices. Silver Tea Sets, Silver Goblets and
Cups for presentation. Silver Forks and Spoons.
Watches and Jewelry repaired. Old Gold and Silver purchased or exchanged fr.f
new. feb— ly



Likewise for sale ao assortment of



See adrertisement and certificates of WATT PLOUGH in advertising sheet.


feb— ly ' No. 1450 Franklin Street, Richmond, Va.

J> 9




Agriculture, Horticulture and the Mining, Mechanic and Household Arts.

Agriculture is the nursing mother of the Arts.— Xenophon,
Tillage and Pasturage are the two breasts of the State.— Sully.

CH: B. WILLIAMS, Editor and Proprietor.

New Series. RICHMOND, VA., MARCH, 1867. Vol. 1-No. 2.

:2^6^ Agricultural §cpartmntt.

1 « [From the Transactions of the Highland and Agricultural Society.]

~ •7 b On Breeding and Rearing Cattle.


Professor of Agriculture, Queen's College, Birmingham.

[premium — THE GOLD MEDAL.]

[No. 1.]*

This subject is invested with deep interest, for it involves one of
the most important branches of agricultural industry. Errors are
often multiplied and perpetuated, and consequently must be more
jealously avoided. The management of breeding cattle claims our
most careful attention, because not only are the sources of remune-
ration from many districts chiefly dependent upon it, but the profits
of every farm are, in a greater or less degree, under the influence
of the system adopted, -whether good or bad. I shall at once pro-
ceed to notice those points which appear to me to be of the greatest
importance, and which I believe to be worthy of consideration in
Breeding and Rearing Cattle.

I need scarcely stay to remark that, by the process of domestica-
tion, our breeds of cattle have undergone great changes of form,
both externally and internally ; so much so, indeed, that there is
scarcely any part of the animal which has not yielded to the change
of circu'nstances which has resulted from their being brought under

* Divided into numbers by Editor Southern Planter.
VOL. I. — 5


the care of man. The deviations from the standard character of
our wild breeds only continue so long as they are kept under this
artificial system, for we find that as a more neglectful course of
management is adopted, so the original character of the wild ani-
mal will again be developed. Hence the peculiar conformation of
our improved breeds of cattle must not be looked upon as any per-
manent modification of form, but as entirely dependent upon their
being continued under the same system by which the change was
originally produced.

The characteristic points possessed by cattle in a state of nature,
are all eminently adapted for the preservation and perpetuation of
the species, for Nature is perfect in all her details. Under our ar-
tificial system, we require certain modifications which are better
adapted to our requirements. For instance, instead of having an
animal almost destitute of fat, which is the condition of our wild
breeds, we desire a fuller development of this material, together
with a more tractable disposition ; but to attain these results we
have to alter the entire system of the animal. It does appear ex-
traordinary that man should have control over the animal race, but
experience teaches him how to accomplish the desired result. We
cannot accomplish this without the aid of Nature, and it is chiefly
done by adopting two simple principles — 1st, That the development
of any part is promoted or checked by the degree of exercise which
that part may have ; and, 2dly, That under similar conditions like
produces like.

To illustrate these points more fully, I shall state as briefly as
possible the principal changes which are observed in our improved
breeds of cattle. I do so as concisely as possible, because I con-
ceive it is desired that the report should be restricted as much as
possible to the management of breeding cattle, and not extend to
the more general treatment of cattle.

If we take either of our improved breeds of cattle, and examine
one individual of the class, we shall find that there is a marked dif-
ference in the general outline of the body. The wide and deep
chest, the roundness of the barrel, and the full development of
muscle and fat over the body, give the improved animal a certain
squareness of outline which is totally at variance with any speci-
men of the original breed. Nor does the difference end here, for
the internal conformation presents peculiarities of which the exter-
nal form may be taken as a constant indication. The luno^s and
liver are found to be considerably reduced in size when compared
with those possessed by animals having perfect liberty. The cause


is evident, and admits of easy explanation. In a state of nature
the animal is accustomed to violent exercise, and this brings the
lungs into active work, and the result is a full development of the
part. But suppose an animal of the same breed, kept in a very
conJBned space the greater part of its life, the lungs, not having
been equally exercised, would not be as fully developed. The pro-
geny from this animal would also possess a tendency in the same
direction ; and if such an offspring were kept in a state of confine-
ment, it would probably possess even smaller lungs than its parent.
Thus the restricted exercise of our cattle has produced and perpet-
uated a small development of this part of the body. The same
results are observable in the liver in an equal degree with the lungs ;
for similar active exercise induces increased energy in the liver,
whilst the luxurious life of the improved animal produces a torpid
and inactive liver.

Thus we observe that domestication has modified the devel
opment of the lungs and liver, and hence the functions they per-
form are proportionately diminished. It is well known that the
food which an animal consumes chiefly consists of two classes of
bodies — those which form muscle, and those which maintain the heat
of the body. It is the latter class to which we must now refer. The
heat of the body is maintained by the combustion of the carbona-
ceous matter of the food. Combustion is not necessarily attended by
that manifestation of flame which is generally observed ; but the
same change and the same results may be produced in a much more
gentle manner. This change actually takes place in the animal
body, and the carbonaceous matter of the food under this action
yields to the body the heat which is more necessary for the healthy
discharge of its functions.

The blood, on passing through the body, bears with it the heat-
giving matter of the food, and also carries other important chemical
agents in its coloring matter ; when these bodies come together, a
change takes place and heat is produced. Now this change does
not take place to any great extent in the arteries, but it is whilst
the blood is passing through the capillary vessels, which pervade
every portion of the body, that the action is rendered complete, and
thus these vessels not only carry nourishment for the support of the
system, but also distribute an equable supply of warmth.

It is clear, then, that the larger the lung the more fully does the
body receive the oxygen which is to develope heat in the body; and
the natural result is that a more perfect combination of the carbon-
aceous matter of food takes place. Fat is composed of the same


materials as are thus used for keeping up the heat of the body, and,
consequently, the more there is used in this way, the less remains
for being stored away as fat. Thus large lungs are prejudicial to
the formation of fat.

We may here observe that food may be very much economized
by being consumed by " high-bred " animals ; but it must be added
that there are other attendant circumstances which act prejudicially.
We may modify the operation of Nature ; but she, with jealous
care, guards these alterations, and continually places obstacles to
check, and frequently to prevent, the perpetuation of the unnatural
conditions which we desire so much to produce. These difficulties
are constantly arising in breeding from animals of this class, and
we shall subsequently have occasion to notice this fact.

With these introductory remarks I will proceed to the practical
portion of this subject, and in it we shall find the principle thus
briefly noticed more fully illustrated. It will be convenient to notice
this subject under the following divisions :

The Management of Cattle before Breeding.

whilst Breeding.
... . ... ... after Calving.


In treating of this subject we are naturally led back to the pe-
riod of the calf's birth, and we cannot do better than to trace its
course through life. A great difference of opinion exists upon the
best and most advantageous course to be pursued, and in various
localities different systems are adopted. There are two modes of
rearing calves ; either the calf is removed from the cow immediately
after birth and reared by hand, or else the calf is allowed to suck
the cow. The peculiar circumstances of different farms may lead
us to modify our course ; but before commenting upon these various
practices, it may be desirable to state them more fully.

In those cases in which the calf is never allowed to suck the cow,
it is removed immediately after its birth, and, having been placed
in a separate building, is well rubbed with straw. After a few
hours, the first milk of the cow (generally called the beastings) is
carefully given to the calf. This is best done by supporting the
head on the hand, and allowing the milk to run gently into the
mouth. This method is preferable to the more usual plan of mak-
ing the calf suck from below. Indeed, for a few days it is better to
supply the animal in this manner. Warm milk is the only food the
young calf receives for about three weeks, and during this time it


ought to be fed three or four times a-day. A strong, healthy calf
•will take from eight to ten quarts daily.

The calves are gradually trained to eat sliced turnips and linseed
cake. The general plan is to put a bit of cake into the calf's
mouth immediately after taking its milk, when it will continue to
suck and dissolve the cake. When about six weeks old the same
quantity of milk is given at two meals instead of three, and at noon
some other food can be given. This will be chiefly cut roots, hay
and crushed cake. These are gradually increased in quantity as the
calf is able to consume larger quantities, and the milk is decreased
proportionately. When the calf is first put out to grass for a few
hours, the house food is steadily decreased, so that it may be pre-
pared for grass food when turned out for the summer grazing. The.
advantages of -this method are the economy of milk, and its division
amongst the calves according to the discretion of the feeder.

The second plan differs from the above in the calf being allowed
to suck the cow for the same length of time, instead of the milk
being drawn and given to it. When this pla« is adopted, the calf
is not removed after birth, but is allowed to remain beside the cow,
and she soon dries it by the natural process of licking, which, at
the same time encourages the circulation of the blood throughout the
body of the young animal, and acts as a purgative on the cow.
Within a few hours the calf will probably be strong enough to stand
and suck, but if not it must be assisted. Should there be great weak-
ness, a little milk should be drawn and put into the calf's mouth at
intervals until it gains strength. Generally, it is kept in a crib
within a short distance, and allowed to run to the cow on her being
brought into the homestead. In too many cases the calf only re-
ceives its food morning and evening ; but the mid-day meal is much
to be desired, and should always be allowed, for the little additional
trouble is well compensated by the progress of the calf.

If the cow is an ordinary milker she will have more milk than
the calf requires, and may adopt the plan of letting one cow rear
two calves ; or if this is not done, the milk which the calf does not
require is drawn from the cow by hand. If, however, the cow is an
inferior milker, she will do but little beyond supplying her calf, and
in some cases afford it only a bare sustenance. When such is the
case, the cow must have food given her to promote the formation of
milk of good quality — such, for instance, as* oil-cake. When a cow
is rearing two calves, we frequently observe that the one being the
fastest feeder gets the lion's share of the milk, whilst the other
has only a spare allowance. This must be overcome by allowing


the weaker one to have the start of the other in commencing its
meal — unless it appears that the cow's milk is insufficient for both
of the calves, in which case give the cow richer food.

The course of practice is modified by some breeders, who, after
allowing the calf to suck ten days, allow it six or eight pints of
new milk twice daily, and after this has been continued two or three
weeks, gradually substitute skimmed milk for the new milk, adding
oatmeal porridge, and allowing the calf cut roots and hay until it is
ten weeks old, when the milk is entirely stopped. Other breeders,
when the new milk is removed, use as a substitute -|- lb. crushed lin-
seed, \ ft), bean meal, \ ft), molasses, daily, made into eight or ten
quarts of soup. And this is decidedly a good artificial food for

The stomachs of all ruminating animals — and cattle are of this
class — it is well known, differ from those possessed by other animals,
in consisting of four compartments, or stomachs, instead of only
one. In the calf, these stomachs are not fully formed — in fact, one
only is intended for action at this period of life, and the other three
are but slightly developed. The stomach which the calf possesses
is the true digesting stomach, and this is the only one which ought
to be brought into play during the period it is living upon milk.
Unfortunately, however, it frequently happens otherwise; especi'ally
in cases where the calves, from rapid drinking, have the rumen
brought into action prematurely.

The process of digestion in the calf is invested with much inter-
est, because it illustrates the simplicity, and at the same time the
perfection, of all the functions of life for accomplishing the object
in view. It devolves upon food to assist in building up the body of
the young animal ; hence it should supply all the materials required
for forming the various parts of the body. These parts consist of
muscles, sinews, nerves, fat, membranes, arteries, veins, bones, &c.;
and it is possible that in milk we have all the requisite elements pre-
sent. Yes ; we learn from daily observation that such is the case,
and a knowledge of the composition of milk confirms and explains
the fact. The following analysis of cows' milk has been given by
Chevalier and' Henry :

Casein, 4.48

Milk sugar,
Saline matter,







In this food we have the saline matter required for the growth of
the skeleton, the casein for the production of the muscles and vari-
ous organs of the body, together with the butter and milk sugar,
which are prepared to furnish warmth and fat to the body. As
soon as the milk passes into the stomach of the calf, a fluid, called
the gastric juice, is thrown off from the coats of the stomach, in a
manner somewhat similar to perspiration from the skin. This gas-
tric juice is of an acid character, and immediately curdles the milk;
for it combines with the soda holding the casein in solution, and im-
mediately the curd is separated. Thus we have the same change
immediately produced which we observe in milk which has been
kept for a long period and allowed to become sour. This curdling
of the milk is rapidly followed by a decomposition of its several
parts, which pass into the blood and nourish the system.

Thus the internal organism of the calf points to the use of milk
alo7ie for the early period of its life, and a careful observation of
the most successful practice tends to confirm this opinion. For the
same reason we may also learn another lesson from the natural
habits of the animal — that the supplies of food should rather be •
moderate and frequent, than larger in quantity after longer inter-
vals. In this respect there is a great difference in the general prac-
tice of feeding the calf which is separated from the cow, as com-
pared with others which are not taken away. We find that calves
which run with the cow thrive better than others, because they can
draw their supplies of milk frequently and in small quantities — in
fact, at such times as they feel the want. The stomach of the calf
is small, and when the process of digestion is vigorous, the food
which it can contain is soon used for the support of the system, and
consequently a period of want often intervenes before the fresh
supplies are received. This does not arise when the calf has a free-
dom of access to the cow, for immediately the desire for food com-
mences it can get a further supply. No doubt it may be questioned
whether this is an economical method, and one desirable for general
adoption : but there are cases which render such a course absolutely
essential to success, and I believe in many other cases the question
of economy is too often viewed under the contracted aspect of pre-
sent cost rather than future return.

[to be continued.]


The Supposed Exhaustion of the Soil by the Modern System of



When the progress of any art is examined, and the successive
steps by which the improvement of its practice is accomplished are
carefully traced,"its development is seldom found to be the simple
and peaceful occupations of our fields. It most generally involves,
not merely a succession of conquests gained with greater or less
difficulty, but a constant and watchful struggle to maintain the
vantage-ground which has been attained. Every difficulty which
has been overcome carries new difficulties in its train, opens up new
problems to be examined, and entails the more minute study of facts
and phenomena, which in a less advanced state of knowledge may
have appeared of little moment, but which acquire increased
importance as a means of fortifying us in the position we have

All this is very forcibly illustrated in the practice of agriculture,
in which we may be said to maintain a constant struggle with
nature, for we seek to obtain from the soil an amount of produce
greater than it yields in its natural state; and when it has been
brought into a condition in which this result is obtained, there is a
constant tendency to revert to its original state, which must be re-
sisted by artificial means ; and this object is arrived at, not by
forcing nature, or attempting to run counter to fixed and immutable
laws by which the universe is governed, but by studying the prin-
ciples on which their action depends, and thus learning how to
modify the conditions under which they operate, so as to suit the
ends we have in view. It is only in the latter stages of agriculture,
however, that this phase in its progress is arrived at, a great part
of our practical knowledge being in the first instance acquired
by purely empirical observations ; and it is astonishing how much
information can be, and has been, thus accumulated at a very early
period ; but there is a limit which cannot be passed, and after it
has been reached, although the art may not stand still, its progress
becomes exceedingly slow. Judging from the writings of the class-
ical authors on agriculture, it would appear that the husbandmen
of ancient Rome, nearly two thousand years ago, were well ac-
quainted with all the important operations of agriculture, and their
practice appears to have been little inferior to that in use throughout
Europe seventy or eighty years since. In some respects, indeed,
they were in advance of that period, for their manure-heaps were


carefully attended to, and they drained their land ; as a proof of
which, it may be stated that the instructions given by Columella for
makins a covered drain with stones, might be transferre air, so that it is diffi-
cult to decide how far they are obtained by the plant directly from
the air through the leaves, or indirectly from it at the roots, through
the soil ; consequently while all scientific men admit that these


eight substances must always be present in the soil, to ensure .its
fertility, there has been a difference of opinion as to how far it is
necessary to add some of the remaining five to the soil to ensure
conditions "amply sufficient for the purposes of agriculture." Tf
all of these substances are not accessible to the plant in the soil, or
the air, it cannot grow. At times some of them fail in the
requisite quantity, and it becomes the duty of the farmer to find

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