United States. Bureau of the Census.

Thirteenth census of the United States taken in the year 1910 online

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DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

E. DANA DURAND, Director



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-or —



THIRTEENTH CENSUS



OF THE



UNITED STATES



TAKEN IN THE YEAR 1910



ABSTRACT OF THE CENSUS

STATISTICS OF POPULATION, AGRICULTURE, MANUFACTURES

AND MINING FOR THE UNITED STATES, THE

STATES, AND PRINCIPAL CITIES




WASHINGTON

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

1913



^VLhllG Kealth iib.






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PUBUO
HEALTH

ORGANIZATION OF THE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS ""^^"^
DURING THE THIRTEENTH DECENNIAL CENSUS : 1909-1912

DIRECTOR

E. DANA DURAND

ASSISTANT DIRECTOR

WILLIAM F. WILLOUGHBY : 1909-191 1
ROLAND P. FALKNER : : : : 1911-1912

CHIEF CLERK
WILLIAM S. ROSSITER, 1909 : ALBERTUS H, BALDWIN, 1909-1910
VOLER V. VILES, I9I0-I9II : WILLIAM A. HATHAWAY, I9I1-I9I2

DIVISION OP POPULATION

WILLIAM C. HUNT, Chief Statistician

DIVISION OP AGRICULTURE

LE GRAND POWERS, Chief Statistician
JOHN LEE COULTER, Expert Special Agent on Agriculture

RAY PALMER TEELE, EXPERT SPECIAL AGENT ON IRRIGATION
DIVISION OF MANUFACTURES

WILLIAM M. STEUART, Chief Statistician
ISAAC A. HOURWICH, Expert Special Agent on Mining

DIVISION OF VITAL STATISTICS
CRESSY L, WILBUR, CHIEF STATISTICIAN

DIVISION OF REVISION AND RESULTS

JOSEPH A. HILL, Chief Statistician

GEOGRAPHER
CHARLES S. SLOANE



iw67(}579



CONTENTS.



SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS.

Page.

Introduction 15

POPULATION.

1. Number and Distribution of Inhabitants 21

2. Color ok Race, Nativity, Parentage; Sex; Population 21 Years of Age and Over; Males op Miutia Age 77

3. Age and Marital Condition 121

4. State of Birth of Native Population 169

5. Population of Foreign Birth and Foreign Parentage, by Country of Origin 187

6. The Foreign-Born Population — Date of Immigration 215

7. School Attendance and Illiteracy 219

8. Dwellings and Families " , 259

AGRICULTURE.

9. Farms and Farm Property , 265

10. Tenure, Mortgage Indebtedness, Color and NATrvmr of Farmers, and Size op Farms 285

11. Live Stock on Farms and Elsewhere 309

12. Live Stock Products, and Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered on Farms 343

13. Farm Crops — Acreage, Production, and Value 359

14. Irrigation and Irrigated Crops 422

MANUFACTURES.

15. Statistics for States, Cities, and Industries 437

MINES AND QUARRIES.

16. Mines and Quarries 541



ABSTRACT OF THE CENSUS.
INTRODUCTION.



Scope and character of the report



Page.
. 13



Organization of the Thirteenth Decennial Ceusus .



Page.
. 15



POPULATION.



Chapter 1.— NUMBER AND DISTRIBUTION OF

INHABITANTS.

Page.

Population uf the United States and of states and territories. . 21

Area of enumeration in 1910 21

United States 21

Divisions and states 22

Rank according to population: 1790-1910 24

Apportionment of representation 26

Population for apportionment purposes: 1910 26

Number of members in the House of Representatives

under each apportionment: 1789-1910 27

Area and density of population 28

Area 28

Population per square mile 28

Center of population 30

Population of counties 32

Urban and rural population 54

Proportion urban and rural 54

Increase in urban and rural population 55

Communities classified according to size 59

Proportion in the several classes of communities 59

Growth of the several classes of urban communities 60

Metropolitan districts 61

Population of individual cities 63



Page.

Per cent of increase in total population, by states: 1900-1910. . 23

Population per square mile, by states: 1910 29

Center of population at each census: 1790-1910 31

Per cent urban in total population, by states: 1910 54

Per cent of increase in urban population, by states: 1900-

1910 58

Per cent of increase in rural population, by states: 1900-1910. . 58

Chapter 2.— COLOR OR RACE, NATIVITY, PARENT-
AGE; SEX; POPULATION 21 YEARS OF AGE AND
OVER; MALES OF MILITIA AGE.

Color or race, nativity, and parentage of the total population . . 77

United States as a whole 77

General summary: 1910 and 1900 77

White and negro population 78

Indian, Chinese, and Japanese population 79

Black and mulatto population 79

Native and foreign-bom population 80

White population by nativity and parentage 80

Divisions and states 81

Population by color or race, nativity, and parentage. . ^

White population by nativity and parentage 88

Increase by color or race, nativity, and parentage 89

^5)



CONTENTS.



Color or race, nativity, and parentage of the total population —
Continued. Page.

Urban and rural population 91

Principal cities 93

Classification by sex 97

United States as a whole 97

General summary: 1910 and 1900 97

Comparison with earlier censuses 97

Divisions and states 98

Urban and rural population 102

Principal cities 103

Population 21 years of age and over 106

All persons 21 years of age and over. 106

General simimary: 1910 106

Sex ratios, by divisions and states 106

Males 21 years of age and over 107

United States as a whole 107

Divisions and states 108

Urban and rural communities 112

Principal cities 113

Citizenship of foreign-bom whites 116

Females 21 years of age and over 117

Males of militia age (18 to 44 years) 119

DIAORAXS.

Color or race, nativity, and parentage, by states: 1910 87

Color or race, nativity, and parentage, by divisions: 1910 and
1900 88

Color or race, nativity, and parentage, in lurban and rural com-
munities, by divisions: 1910 91

Color or race, nativity, and parentage in cities of 100,000 inhab-
itants or more: 1910 94

Number of males to 100 females in urban and rural communi-
ties, by divisions: 1910 102

Ccdor or race, nativity, and parentage of males 21 years of age
and over, by states: 1910 109

Color or race, nativity, and parentage of males 21 years of age
and over in urban and rural communities, by divisions : 1910 . 112

MAPS.

Percentage of negroes in the total population: 1910 84

Percentage of foreign-bom whites in the total population : 1910. 84
Percentage of native whites of foreign or mixed parentage in

the total population: 1910 85

Percentage of foreign-bom whites and native whites of foreign

or mixed parentage combined in the total population: 1910.. 85

Ratio of males to females in the total population: 1910 98

Chapter 3.— AGE AND MARITAL CONDITION.
Age:

United States as a whole 121

Classification by 5-year age periods: 1910 121

Classification by broader age periods: 1910 125

Comparison with previous censuses 127

Divisions and states 128

Geographic divisions 128

Urban and rural communities 129

Principal cities 130

Marital condition:

United States as a whole 146

Age groups 147

Color or race, nativity, and parentage classes 148

Comparisons with previous censuses 151

Divisions and states 153

Total population, by divisions 153

Color or race, natiArity, and parentage classes, by divi-
sions 153

States 155

Urban and rural communities 155

Principal cities 155



DIAGRAMS. p^g^

Distribution by age periods of total population: 1910 121

Distribution by age periods of the principal classes of the
population: 1910:

Native white of native parentage 124

Native white of foreign or mixed parentage 124

Foreign-born white 124

Negro 124

Distribution by age periods of native white and negro and of

foreign-born population: 1910 125

Distribution by age periods of total population, by divisions:

1910 128

Distribution by age periods of urban and rural population, by

divisions: 1910 129

Marital condition of population : 1910 147

Marital condition of principal classes of the population, by age

periods: 1910 151

Marital condition of the total population 15 years of age and
over, by divisions: 1910 153

Chapter 4.— STATE OF BIRTH OF NATIVE
POPULATION.
General extent of migration of native population within the

United States 169

Interdivisional migration 170

Division of birth in relation to division of residence 173

Migration of native white and native negro population 174

Migration to the several divisions from other divisions and

from foreign countries 174

Migration to the several states from other states and from for-
eign countries 175

Interstate migration 176

State of birth in relation to state of residence 177

MAPS.

Gain or loss in native population by interstate migration: 1910. 176
Percentage of population bom in each state living in other

states: 1910 , 178

Percentage of native population living in each state bom in

other states: 1910 178

DIAGRAMS.

Distribution of total population of each state, by place of
birth: 1910 177

Distribution of natives of each state, by place of residence : 1910 . 177
Migration of native population from and to each state: 1910. . 186

Chapter 5.— POPULATION OF FOREIGN BIRTH AND
FOREIGN PARENTAGE, BY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN.

Definition of terms 187

Mother-tongue statistics 187

United States as a whole 188

Total foreign born, by country of birth: 1910 and 1900 .... 188

Comparison for censuses of 1860 to 1910 190

Immigration in relation to foreign-bom population 190

Foreign born, by sex 191

Foreign bora from Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Rus-
sia, classified by mother tongue 192

Foreign white stock: 1900 and 1910 192

Divisions and states 195

Total foreign bom, by divisions 195

Foreign white stock, by divisions 198

Foreign bom and foreign white stock, by states 199

In urban and mral communities 199

In principal cities 200

DIAGRAMS.

Foreign-born population, by principal countries of birth: 1910
and 1900 189

Per cent of the foreign-bom population bora in the principal
countries: 1910 189



CONTENTS.



Face.
Per cent of the foreign-born population bom in the principal

countries: 1900 189

Per cent of the foreign white stock, by principal countries of

origin: 1910 192

Foreign white stock, by principal countries of origin : 1910 194

Chapter 6.— FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION— DATE
OF IMMIGRATION.

United States as a whole 215

Divisions and states 216

Urban and rural communities 217

Principal cities 218

Chaptkb 7.— school ATTENDANCE AND
ILLITERACY.

School attendance 219

United States as a whole: 1909-10 219

Persona attending school:

Classified by color or race, nativity, and parentage. 219

Classified by sex 219

Classified by age groups 220

Percentage attending school :

Classified by age groups 220

Classified by color or race, nativity, and parenti^e . 221

Classified by sex 222

Urban and rural population 222

Divisions and states: 1909-10 223

Number and percentage attending school , by age groups 223

Persons 6 to 20 years of age 223

Children 6 to 14 years of age 225

Persons 6 to 20 years of age, lU'ban and rural 226

Principal cities: 1909-10 231

Comparative summary: 1910 and 1900 236

United States as a whole 236

Divisions and states 236



Illiteracy 239

Population 10 years of age and over:

United States as a whole 239

Number of illiterates 239

Percentage of illiteracy 239

Sex 240

Age groups 240

Urban and rural population 240

Divisions and states .' 242

Percentage of illiteracy 243

Sex 248

Urban and rural population 248

Principal cities 249

Cliildren from 10 to 14 years of age 254

United States as a whole 254

Divisions and states 254

Males 21 years of age and over 255

United States as a whole 255

Divisions and states 255

Principal cities 256



Percentage of illiteracy in the population 10 years of age and

over: 1910 246,247

Total population 246

Native whites of native parentage 246

Foreign-bom whites 247

Negroes 247

Chapteb 8.— DWELLINGS AND FAMILIES.

United States as a whole 259

Divisions and states 259

j Urban and rural communities 260

1 Principal cities 260



AGRICULTURE.



Chapter 9.— FARMS AND FARM PROPERTY



Page.



United States as a whole: 1910 and 1900 265

Farms and farm land, by divisions and states: 1910 and 1900. . . 266

Geographic distribution of farms and farm land 266

Increases and decreases: 1900-1910 267

Percentage of land in farms and percentage improved 270

Average size of farms 271

Value of farm property, by divisions and states: 1910 and 1900. 274

Gec^raphic distribution of farm values 274

Increase in value of farm property 274

Average value of farm property per acre of land 278

Average value of farm property per farm 278

Farms and farm property: 1850 to 1910 , 281

United States as a whole 281

Geographic divisions 282

MAPS.

Per cent land in farms forms of total land area, by counties:
1910 272

Per cent improved land in farms forms of total land area, by
counties: 1910 273

Average value of land in farms per acre, by counties: 1910 — 275

Chapter 10.— TENURE, MORTGAGE INDEBTEDNESS,
COLOR AND NATIVITY OF FARMERS, AND SIZE
OF FARMS.

Tenure of farms *. . . . 285

United States as a whole: 1910 and 1900 285

Geographic divisions 286

Main tenure classes: 1910 and 1900 286

Number of farms for all tenure groups: 1910 and 1900. 288
States: 1910 and 1900 289



Page.

Farm mortgages 292

Number of farms mortgaged 292

Amount of mortgage debt 293

Statistics by states 295

Color and nativity of farmers 296

Number of native white, foreign-bom white, and colored

farmers, by tenure: 1910 296

Number of farmers, classified by color: 1910 and 1900 298

Country of birth of white farmers: 1910 298

Color and tenure of farmers in the South: 1910 and 1900 299

Farms, classified by size 303

United States as a whole: 1910 and 1900 303

Geographic divisions 303

States: 1910 and 1900 306

DIAGRAMS.

Number of farms, classified by character of tenure of operator:



1910.



289
Acreage of all land in farms, classified by character of tenure

of operator: 1910 289

Number of farms operated by their owners, free and mortgaged :

1910 293

Number of farms, classified by color and nativity of operator:

1910 296

Chapter 11.— LIVE STOCK ON FARMS AND
ELSEWHERE.

All live stock on farms 309

Domestic animals on farms 310

Cattle on farms 313

United States as a whole 313

Divisions and states .- 314



8



CONTENTS.



Pace-
Horses, mules, and asses and burros on farms 319

United States as a whole 319

Divisions and states 320

Swine on farms 327

United States as a whole 327

Divisions and states 327

Sheep and goats on farms 329

United States as a whole 329

Divisions and states 330

Poultry on farms 334

Bees on farms 337

Domestic animals not on farms 337

Domestic animals on farms and not on farms 342

MAPS.

All cattle on farms — Number, by states: April 15, 1910 318

Dairy cows on farms — Number, by states: April 15, 1910 318

All horses, mules, and asses and burros on farms — Number, by

' states: Aprill5, 1910 326

All swine on farms — Number, by states: April 15, 1910 326

All sheep on farms — Number, by states: April 15, 1910 331

All fowls on farms — Number, by states: April 15, 1910 335

Chapter 12.— LIVE STOCK PRODUCTS, AND DOMESTIC
ANIMALS SOLD OR SLAUGHTERED ON FARMS.

Dairy products 343

United States as a whole: 1909 and 1899 343

Divisions and states 344

Production of dairy products: 1909 and 1899 344

Sales of dairy products: 1909 and 1899 346

Wool and mohair 350

United States as a whole: 1909 and 1899 350

Divisions and states: 1909 and 1899 350

Mohair and goat hair: 1909 and 1899 351

Poultry and eggs 353

United States as a whole: 1909 and 1899 353

Divisions and states: 1909 and 1899 354

Honey and wax: 1909 and 1899 356

Domestic animals sold or slaughtered on farms 356

United States as a whole: 1909 356

Divisions and states: 1909 357

Chapter 13.— FARM CROPS— ACREAGE, PRODUCTION,
AND VALUE.

Crops in general 359

United States as a whole 369

Acreage and value of all crops: 1909 and 1899 359

Relative importance of different crops: 1909 and 1899. 361
Relation of prices to increase in value: 1899 to 1909.. . 363
Increase of crop production and consumption: 1899 to

1909 364

Acreage of leading crops: 1879 to 1909 364

Divisions and states 364

Distribution of all crops, by divisions: 1909 and 1899. . 364
Relative importance of leading crops in the total pro-
duction of each division, section, and state: 1909 365

Relative importance of the divisions and sections in

the production of leading crops : 1909 368

Acreage and value of crops, by states: 1909 and 1899.. 369

Sale and purchase of feedable crops: 1909 371

Expenditures for labor and fertilizers on farms 372

Expenditures for labor: 1909 and 1899 372

Expenditures for fertilizers: 1909 and 1899 374

The cereals 374

Com 378

Wheat 380



P«ce.
The cereals — Continued.

Oats 382

Barley 386

Rye 386

Buckwheat 386

Emmer and spelt 387

Kafir com and milo maize. 387

Rice 387

Other grains and seeds 392

Dry edible beans and dry peas 392

Peanuts 393

Flaxseed 393

Grass seed and flower and vegetable seeds 394

Minor seeds with acreage reports 395

Hay and forage 396

Vegetables 398

Potatoes 398

Sweet potatoes and yams 399

Other vegetables 401

Tobacco 402

Cotton and cotton seed 404

Sugar crops 406

Sugar cane and products 406

Sorghum cane and sirup, sugar beets, and maple sugar and

sirup 407

Sundry minor crops 408

Broom corn, hemp, hops, miscellaneous, and by-products. . 408

Fruits and nuts 409

Small fruits 409

Orchard fruits 410

Apples 411

Peaches and nectarines 412

Pears 412

Plums and prunes 413

Cherries 413

Apricots 414

Quinces 414

Grapes 414

Tropical and subtropical fruits 415

Oranges, lemons, pomeloes (grapefruit), other

citrous fruits, figs, pineapples, and olives 415

Other tropical and subtropical fruits 416

All nuts 416

Almonds, pecans, and Persian or English walnuts 416

Flowers and plants, nursery products, and forest products 418

M.\PS.

All farm crops — Value, by states: 1909 371

Acreage, by states: 1909:

All cereals 376

Com 384

Wheat 384

Oats 385

Hay and forage 385

Cotton 405

Fruits and nuts— Value, by states: 1909 417

DIAGRAMS.

Land area, distribution: April 15, 1910 362

Crop acreage: 1909 362

Improved land, distribution: 1909 362

Improved land, distribution: 1899 362

Value of all crops, distribution by crops: 1909 362

Value of all crops, distribution by divisions: 1909 362

Value of all crops, distribution by crops, by divisions: 1909 . . 366



CONTENTS.



9



Chapter 14.— IRRIGATION AND IRRIGATED CROPS.

Page.

The arid region 422

Summary 422

Farms and acreage irrigated 423

Number of farms irrigated 423

Acreage irrigated 423

Acreage irrigated in 1909, acreage enterprises were capable
of irrigating in 1910, and acreage included in projects. . . 424

Acreage irrigated, classified by source of water supply 425

Irrigation works 426

Number of enterprises and number and length of ditches. . 426
Reservoirs, wells, and pumping plants 426



Face.

Cost 427

Average cost per acre 427

Average cost per acre, by type of enterprise 428

Average cost per acre, by size groups 428

Operation and maintenance 429

Crops 429

Average yields per acre 430

Average values per acre 430

Comparison with preceding census 431

Irrigation for rice growing 431

Louisiana, Texas, and Arkansas 432

Farms reporting 432

Acreage irrigate<l 432



MANUFACTURES.



Chapter 15.— STATISTICS FOR STATES, CITIES, AND

INDUSTRIES. Page.

General summary ." 437

Continental United States and noncontiguous territoiy. . . 437

Explanation of terms 437

United States as a whole 438

Comparison for 1909, 1904, and 1899 438

Comparison with earlier censuses 439

Leading industries 440

States and geographic divisions 444

Fifty leading cities 448

Distribution according to size of communitiee 449

Persons engaged in manufacturing industiies 461

Definitions and explanations 451

United States as a whole 452

Occupational status by leading industries 453

Comparison with previous censuses as to occupational

status 454

Sex and age distribution, by leading indu.stries 454

Sex and age distribution, by states 456

Comparison with previous censuses as to sex and age 457

Comparison of sex and age distribution in selected indus-
tries: 1909, 1904, and 1899 457

Divisions and states: 1909, 1904, and 1899 458

Wage earners employed, by months 459

Character of ownership 461

Summary for United States 461

Proportion (^f business done by corporations in the prin-
cipal industries: 1909 and 1904 461

Proportion of business done by corporations, by states:

1909and 1904 462

Size of establishments 464

Summary for United States 464

Relative importance of establishments producing products

valued at $1,000,000 or over in the principal industries. 465
Relative importance of establishments producing products

valued at $1,000,000 or over, by states 466

Establishments grouped by number of wage earners 468

Distribution of expenses 470

Leading industries 470

States 470

Engines and power 471

Summary for United States: 1909, 1904, and 1899 471

Leading industries 472

States 473

Supplementary data regarding important industries 475

Food and kindred products 475

Butter, cheese, and condensed milk 475

Canning and preserving 475

Flour-mill and gristmill products 476

Rice, cleaning and polishing 477



Supplementary data regarding important industries-Contd.

Food and kindred products — Continued. Page.

Slaughtering and meat packing 477

Sugar 478

Textiles 479

Carpets and rugs 480

Cordage and twine and jute and linen goods 481

Cotton goods, including cotton small wares 482

Felt goods 482

Hats, fur-felt and wool-felt 483

Hosiery and knit goods 483

Oilcloth and linoleum 484

Shoddy 485

Silk and silk goods 485

Woolen and worsted goods 486

Iron and steel 487

Blast furnaces 488

Steel works and rolling mills 488

Tin plate and temeplate 491

Wire 492

Leather and its products 492

Leather 493

Boots and shoes 493

Gloves and mittens, leather 494

Chemicals and allied products 494

Chemicals 495

Coke 496

Dyestuffs and extracts 496

Explosives 497

Fertilizers 498

Gas, illuminating and heating 498

Glucose and starch 499

Cottonseed oil and cake 499

Oil, essential 500

Paint and varnish 500

Petroleum, refining 501

Salt 501

Soap 501

Sulphuric, nitric, and mixed acids 502

Turpentine and rosin 503

Clay, glass, and stone products 503

Brick and tile, and pottery, terra-cotta, and fire-clay

products 503

Cement 503

Glass 504

Lime 504

Vehicles for land transportation 504

Automobiles 504

Bicycles and motorcycles, and parts 505

Carris^es and wagons and materials 505

Cars and general shop construction and repairs by

eteam-railroad companies 505



10



CONTENTS.



Supplementary data regarding important industries — Contd. Page.
Vehicles for land transportation — (Continued.

Cars and general shop construction and repairs bystreet-
railroad companies 506

Cars, steam-railroad 506

Cars, street-railroad 507

Summary for railroad cars 507

Miscellaneous industries 507

Agricultural implements 507

Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies 507

Ice, manufactured 508

Lumber and timber products 508

Pianos and organs and materials 509

Paper and wood pulp 509

Phonographs and graphophones.-. 510

Printing and publishing 511

Shipbuilding, including boat building 512

Laundries 513

Small custom sawmills and gristmills 513

OENERAIi TABLES.

Table 110. — Comparative summary for the United States, by
specified industries: 1909, 1904, and 1899 514



Page.

Table 111. — Comparative summary for the United States, by
states: 1909, 1904, and 1899 525

Table 112. — Comparative summary for the 25 principal cities:
1909, 1904, and 1899 .' 528

Table 113. — Cities of 10,000 inhabitants or over — Number of
establishments, average number of wage earners, value of
products, and value added by manufacture: 1909, 1904, and
1899 529

MAP.

Vi^lue of products of manufactures: 1909 444

DIAGRAMS.

Value of products, by industries: 1909 and 1899 436

Per cent distribution of value of products, by industries:

1909 443

Per cent distribution of average number of wage earners, by

industries: 1909 443

Value of products, by states: 1909 and 1899 446

Average number of wage earners, by states: 1909 and 1899 447

Value of products for principal cities: 1909 450



MINES AND QUARRIES.



Chapter 16.— MINES AND QUARRIES.



Page.



Pa«8L

liand tenure 552

Form of organization.' 552

Size of enterprises 553

Classification according to number of wage earners 553

Classification according to value of products 555



Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of the CensusThirteenth census of the United States taken in the year 1910 → online text (page 1 of 147)