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Snlat Bay is a deep indentation in the coast open to the northeast.
The head of the bay is shoal, otherwise Sulat Bay is free from danger
with the exception of a small coral patch, covered by a least depth
of 3 feet, lying % mile southeastward of Anajao Island. A heavy



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302 SAMAB.

sea sets into Sulat Bay during the northeast monsoon, and during
that period better anchorage may be found off the village of San
Vicente, south side of Catalaban Island.

Taio Point, forming the southern shore of Sulat Bay, is prominent
only because of the long and broad reef j dry at low water, which
extends 1^ miles northeastward of it, with a uniform width of %
mile, upon which lie four small, rocky islets, the northern one,
Agauan, 16 feet high. The point is fringed with mangroves, behind
which are coconut trees among which rise rocky outcroppings almost
hidden by the tall trees. The town of Sulat is built on the east side
of the river of the same name, which empties just westward of Taig
Point. The stone walls of a large, ruined church, within which is
erected a nipa edifice, is the most prominent building in town.

Directions. — Vessels entering Sulat Bay should bring the south
end of Anajao Island, the southern island in the bay, to bear 260°
(259° mag.) and steer for it; this course should take a vessel about
% mile southward of the rock awash southeastward of Catalaban
Island and about the same distance off the reef on the south side of the
entrance. When the ruins of the church bears 195° (194° mag.)
they should be steered for and an anchorage taken up in 5 fathoms,
muddy bottom, about % mile northward of Taig Point; inside of
this position the water shoals rapidly.

Paninihian Point is the projection of the coast separating Sulat Bay
from Port Libas. The reef from Taig Point continues southward
and fringes Paninihian Point for over ^ mile in places ; it has many
large bowlders upon it, a smooth outline, and deep water close to its
edge.

Port Libas is between Cannomanda Point on the northern and Na-
jibil Point on the southern side. Eeefs from both entrance points
narrow the channel to about % mile. The interior of the bay has a
very irregular shore line, broken up into five projecting points with
as many bays between them, all of which are shoal and of no value.
The village of Eemedios lies at the head of one of these bays on the
north side of the port. San Julian, the largest town, is southwest
of the southern entrance point. Nearly all the points in the bay
have reefs, baring at low water, projecting from them, and in the
southern part of the port are many detached patches, some of them
with mangroves growing on them. Only a small area of this port is
available for anchorage, about 1 mile from the entrance and %
mile north and south. Magnana Point is the most conspicuous and
readily identified point in the port and bears about 244° (243° mag.)
when first opened southward of Cannomanda Point. Immediately
behind Magnana Point the land rises into steep conical hills, the
highest of which. Mount Magnagua, affords a good range for enter-
ing the port between the reefs contracting the channel.

Palan Point is the western side of the southern entrance point
where the coast turns sharply southward; the town of San Julian
is immediately southward of this point. Tubigan Point is the second
point inside the entrance on the north side of the port ; it forms the
western side of the bay on which the village of Eemedios is situated.

Directions. — From a position about 1 mile offshore bring Mount
Magnagua to bear 250° (249° mag.), when it should be under the
depression between the horns of a saddle-shaped mountain in the



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EAST COAST OF SAMAB. 303

interior, a little nearer the southern and higher horn, and steer in on
this range. This course will carry a vessel midway between the
reef extending from the northern entrance point and the limit of
the foul ground outside of the reef on the southern side. When San
Julian begins to open westward of Palan Point, haul northwest-
ward for Tubigan Point and anchor about % mile eastward of it in
5 fathoms. In smooth weather small vessels can go much farther
in and anchor between Tubigan and Magnana Points in 16 feet,
sandy bottom.

From Najibil Point the coast trends south-southeastward 5^ miles
to Anitaguipan Point, and is low, covered with coconut trees, and
fringed with mangroves. The shore reef which fringes Najibil
Point continues southward with several breaks nearly to Anita-
guipan Point. A line from Najibil Point to Anitaguipan Point runs
tangent to Haravis, Macatucas, and Guinanug Points, all ^nearly
equidistant from each other and from the terminals. The three bays
formed by the four southern points are nearly blocked by reefs and
of little value to navigation.

Anitaguipan Point is a bold, rocky, steep-to headland, 282 feet high,
and well wooded with coconut trees. The shore reef fringing the
coast from Port Libas ends a short distance northward of the point,
leaving it exposed to wave action, which has so undermined the base
that the upper part overhangs the sea.

From Anitaguipan Point the coast trends southwestward for
nearly a mile to Capinas Point, thence curves around westward and
southward, forming a large bay with a very irregular coast line to
Lalauigan Point, about 5 miles south by west from Anitaguipan
Point. Andis Island lies in the middle of the entrance to this
bay, dividing it into two parts. Napla Bay, the northern part, on
the indentations of which are several villages, aflfords good anchor-
age in a basin about 1 mile in diameter. This anchorage is not
recommended in the northeast monsoon as easterly winds send in a
heavy sea.

Andis Island lies 1% miles southwestward of Anitaguipan Point.
Amogotada Point, the northeast extremity, is a bold rocky headland
over 100 feet high. The south point is also rocky, but not so high.
A coral reef fringes the east coast, but does not reach either point.
The northwest point is low and sandy and a narrow reef, bare at
low water, borders the western side of the island. There is a narrow
boat channel between the northwestern extremity of Andis Island
and the reefs extending from the mainland.

Port Borongan is between the south point of Andis Island and the
north side of Divinubo Island. The channel between the shoal spot
southwest of the south point of Andis Island and the reefs northward
of Divinubo is l^/^ miles wide, clear, and deep. At the head of the port
there is a point projecting eastward beyond which extends a narrow
reef, bare at low water, which divides the head of the port into two
bays; the northern one only is used. The Borongan River empties
into the northwest part of the northern bay. There is a small land-
ing pier on the eastern side of the river mouth. About y^ mile east-
ward of the mouth of the river there is a small, low, bushy islet sur-
rounded by a reef about 400 yards wide. The Oom River empties
about 1 mile southward of the Borongan River, just northward of



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306 SAMAR.

breakers from the reefs at the northern entrance fill it with foam
and cause a strong current from that direction which quickly re-
verses with the receding waters. These changing currents keep a
vessel sheering about and bring heavy and sudden strains on her
cable.

Directions. — ^The northern entrance is not recommended, as it is
nearly blocked with reefs, leaving a narrow, deep channel between
them. From southward pass about 600 yards southward of Minanut
Island, keeping a good lookout for the reefs on either side ; as soon as
San Miguel Point opens westward of Minanut haul northward and
anchor in the middle of the cove in 9 or 10 fathoms, muddy bottom,
with San Miguel Point bearing 350** (349° mag.) and the southeast
point of Minanut Island open southward of the southwest point.

There^ is a good boat landing in a break in the reef just southeast
of a bright- faced, rocky bluflf with a deep cave on the northwest side,
situated on the southwest shore of the cove. A trail from this land-
ing runs to the Lanang River opposite Llorente, where a small boat
ferry is maintained.

The Lanang Eiver empties about 1 mile southwest of the southeast
point of Minanut Island near a rocky point fringed with mangroves
and surrounded by a reef to a distance of about 250 yards. The south
side of the river is a low sand point and the shore is a sand beach
for 1 mile southeastward; a rocl?y point extends % mile eastward
from the end of the sand beach. From the extremity of the latter
rocky point the north end of Iniyao Island lies about % mile east-
ward and between the two is the mouth of a bay extending about 1
mile southwestward, whose shores are fringed with coral. Iniyao
Island is very small, 90 feet high at the northern end, looks like the
other high rocky points on this coast, and is connected with the shore
by a reef which bares at low water.

Llorente lies on a low grassy flat on the south side of the entrance
to the Lanang River. The ruins of a church and some buildings
show seaward and in front of them is a tall flagstaff, which is the
most conspicuous object. The town is small and offers few resources.
Coasting steamers call and some business is done in hemp and copra.

The usual anchorage is in 10 fathoms about % mile eastward of
the river mouth; small vessels can anchor in 7 fathoms closer to
the town. These anchorages are untenable at times during the
northeast monsoon.

From Iniyao Island to Tugnug Point, nearly 5 miles southeast-
ward, the coast consists of rocky cliffs 40 to 90 feet high, with deep
indentations filled with coral reefs. This coast is fringed by steep-
to coral reefs, in some places to a distance of nearly ^ mile; these
reefs gradually narrow to the coast and finally disappear at Tugnug
Point. The cliffs are nearly perpendicular and the tops are covered
with bushes and small trees; a short distance inland the land rises to
a height of from 300 to 500 feet and is heavily wooded.

Immediately southward of Tugnug Point is a small cove about %
mile in extent. This cove is vevj deep and the head is filled with
coral. From this cove the coast runs southward for nearlv 1 mile
to Agdan Point, and consists of perpendicular steep-to cliffs, whose
bases are much undermined and whose faces are worn into fantastic
shapes by wave action. The tops of these cliffs are 25 to 50 feet



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EAST COAST OP SAMAB. 305

the north side to within a short distance of the rocky bluflf on the
south side and confining the river to a narrow channel between them.
The village of Suribao lies on the north side of the river, just inside
of the sandy point at the entrance. The 10- fathom curve is a good
distance from shore off this river and the beaches on either side of it.

Maidnun Islands, about 5 miles southward of Divinubo Islands, are
two small wooded islands at high water only, being surrounded by a
broad coral reef reaching out from the mainland inside of them.
This reef bares at low water for ^ mile northeastward of the
islands, then turns northward for about ^4 mile, and thence continues
northward as a sunken reef for about i^ mile farther; it should be
given a wide berth.

Maydolong is a small village on the mainland about 1 mile westward
of Maiduun Islands, at the head of Maydolong Cove, an opening
between the shore reef and some detached reeis lying outside and
eastward. A small but fair anchorage may be found here by bring-
ing the west side of Divinubo Island in range with Anitaguipan
Point, bearing 356° (355° mag.), and standing ir with this range
astern, keeping a good lookout for the reefs on both sides, until a
large coral bowlder in a small bight on the mainland bears 248°
(247° mag.), where anchorage will be found in about 10 fathoms,
muddy bottom. Vessels from southward should not haul in for the
range until they are about 2 miles northward of Maiduun Islands;
then pick up the range and proceed as previously directed.

Minasangan Island, close to the land at the northern side of the en-
trance to Cabay Bay, as well as the coast behind it, is covered with
coconut palms with some large trees scattered among them. The
eastern extremity of the island is a shelving rock, with deep water
close-to, on which the sea breaks heavily even in moderate weather.
The south side of the island is steep-to.

Cabay Bay lies immediately southwestward of Minasangan. The
shores are fringed by a narrow reef, leaving plenty of available
anchorage space, which, however, is exposed to northeast winds and
seas. The village of Cabay lies at the head of the bay.

From the south point of Cabay Bay the coast trends in a general
southeasterly direction for about 9 miles to Tugnug Point. This
coast is indented by several bays, is fringed by coral reefs, and faced
by a number of islands.

Minannt Island lies about 2 miles southeastward of the southern en-
trance point to Cabay Bay and about % mile eastward of San Miguel
Point. It is three-cornered in shape, with sharp points projecting
southeast and southwest and a blunt point northward. The north-
ern point is clean and steep-to; the rest of the island is surrounded
by a reef. The north and northeast ' face of the island consists of
perpendicular cliffs nearly 100 feet high. The southwest point is
low and sandy, and behind it the lowland rises to a ridge and is
densly covered with coconut trees.

Minannt Anchorage is a cove formed by a bend in the. coast south-
ward of San Miguel point ; the shore is fringed with coral. Minanut
Island, lying in the entrance, affords protection from northeast winds
and seas. This anchorage is not recommended during the typhoon
season nor even in strong northeast monsoon weather, because with
a heavy northeast sea, while the cove is absolutely smooth, the
97172°— 19 ^20



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308 SAMAB.

rounded, wooded top 148 feet high and a low extension southward
upon which there is a grove of coconut pahns. It makes a prominent
landmark. Linoa Island, % mile northwestward of Matarinao
Point, has a more irregular summit than Minaloa, is also heavily
wooded and 81 feet high. Kanadag Island, % mile southward of
Linoa and the same distance westward of Matarinao Point, is a
small, low, flat island covered with brush and some coconut trees,
showing a bright, sandy beach beneath them. Pou Rock is a small
black rock about 12 feet high lying on a bright sand cay almost
awash at high water; it is i^ mile west-northwestward of Kanadag
Island.

The usual commercial anchorage for large vessels is in 7 fathoms,
muddy bottom, about % mile southwest of the south end of Anahao
Island ; small vessels can anchor farther northward in not less than
5 fathoms, as the reefs are verj steep-to. This anchorage is well
protected, but better anchorage m typhoon weather can be found in
Matarinao Bay, % mile westward of Kanadag Island, in a basin about
700 yards in diameter. The southern part of the bay offers a large
area of well-protected anchorage, but it is encumbered by a number
of small reefs which bare at low water, and also a number of dan-
gerous shoal patches, which make it difficult of access.

Directions. — When well outside of the reefs bring Minaloa Island
to bear 218° (217° mag.), and steer for it; when Kanadag Island is
well open west of Linoa Island, and the south end of Anahao Island
bears about 257° (256° mag.), the vessel will be in the entrance to
the channel; from here steer 249° (248° mag.), heading about 14 "fiile
southward from the south end of Anahao Island, and keeping a good
lookout for the reefs on either side. When Pou Rock is abeam, the
narrowest part of the channel (about % mile) will be passed, and
when Minaloa Island is abeam the vessel may be hauled westward
for the anchorage off the south end of Anahao Island.

If intending to anchor westward from Kanadag Island, having
brought Pou Rock abeam on the track just described, steer for Minaloa
Island, bearing 198° (197° mag.), and when Pou Rock is abeam
change the course to pass midway between the reefs surrounding
Minaloa Island and Pou Rock, and when Pou Rock is again abeam
haul graduallv eastward and anchor in 7 fathoms, muddy bottom,
with the south end of Kanadag Island bearing 91° (90° mag.), and
Pou Rock 350° (349° mag. ) .

In approaching this anchorage there is a dangerous shoal with a
least depth of 1 fathom 730 yards south-southwestward of Pou Rock,
and another shoal with a least depth of V^ fathom 950 yards south-
southeastward of Pou Rock.

From Matarinao Point the coast trends southeasterly for about 27
miles, forming a narrow peninsula between the Pacific and the shoal
bay westward of Guiuan. A chain of islands consisting of Calicoan,
Leiebon, and Candolu extend southeastward, forming a prolongation
of this peninsula and from a distance appear part of it. The passages
between the peninsula and the islands and also those between the
islands are narrow and shoal and bare in places at low water.

The most prominent feature of this section of the coast is a bold
coral ridge about 400 feet high that reaches from Matarinao Point to
Suiigi Point, the southern extremity of Candolu Island. At several



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SOUTH OOAST OF SAMAB. 809

places it is broken by steep gaps and at one place it disappears for over
a mile, but the general impression is one of uniform height, smooth,
even, sky line, and vertical sea faces over 300 feet high, usually cov-
ered with bushes, but sometimes entirely bare. This ridge is remark-
able for its length, its narrowness, being only 3i(X) to 650 yards wide,
and its abrupt, steep face, both in front and where it is broken by
passes through it. On the western side the slope is gentle. There is a
belt of low, level ground between the ridge and the sea. The shore
line is made up of high sand beaches and coral bluffs alternately^ the
latter averaging about 20 feet in height. In most cases these bluflts do
not extend more than 300 or 400 yards; in some cases they are merely
the foot extensions from the high cliffs farther inshore. The storm
beaches are from 8 to 10 feet high and indicate severe wave action dur-
ing the northeast monsoon. They show well out to sea.

Asgad and Pananamitan Points, 5 miles and 7^^ miles, respectively,
southeastward of Matarinao Point, are fairly prominent. Hagnaya
and Bagtong Points, 1 mile and 5 miles, respectively, southeastward of
Pananamitan Point, are not distinguishable from the sea, being merely
bluffs 20 or 30 feet high along a concave coast. From just northward
of Asgad Point to Hagnaya Point the coral cliffs are vertical, mostly
bare, and very prominent. The ridge south of Hagnaya Point is
broken into heavily wooded hills. The bluff at Bagtong Point is
practically vertical, 408 feet high, and is the most noticeable one in
this peculiar ridge. From this point to Luyong Point, 2 miles south-
eastward, the ridge is one vertical wall of coral rock, with a few bushes
on its face and a covering of bushes and shrubs on its top. From Ma-
tarinao Point to Luyong Point the coast is fringed with a coral reef
to an average distance of Yg mile; from Luyong Point to Calicoan
Pass, 1% miles southeastward, it widens to about y^ mile.

Calicoan Pass, between the peninsula and the north end of Calicoan
Island, is passable by small boats at high water, but is partly bare at
low tide.

Calicoan Island, the first island southeastward from the peninsula,
is about 7 miles long and lyi miles wide. It contains a ridge of hills,
similar to those on the peninsula, averaging 250 to 350 feet in height.
The bluff facing Calicoan Pass is nearly vertical, but soon loses this
appearance and changes into moderate slopes. For 2i^ miles south-
eastward from the pass there is no shore reef, and the shore line is
formed of coral rock about 20 feet high. From here a fringing reef
begins which extends along the remainder of this island and all the
eastern coasts of I^eleboon and Candolu Islands, gradually widening
to y2 mile, and continues around Sungi Point into Guiuan Bay.
There are several villages on the west.coast of this island.

Leleboon Island, immediately southward of Calicoan, is very small
and about 200 feet high. The village of Salanga is on the west side.

Candoln Island, the southern islet of the chain, immediately south-
ward of Leleboon, is well wooded and 188 feet high in the northern
part.

SOUTH COAST OF SAMAR.

Snngi Point, the southeastern extremity of Samar, forms the south-
ern end of Candolu Island. It is about 150 feet high and surrounded
by reefs for about % mile; soundings of 19 and 26 feet are shown on



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810 SAHAB.

the chart about 1 mile southward of Sungi Point, and there is a 2%
fathom patch about 1 mile southeastward of the same point. The
channel between Sungi Point and Handig Point, the northwestern
extremity of Homonhon Island, 9 miles southwestward, is clean and
deep, not less than 9 fathoms being found in it. The water is clear
and the bottom may frequently be seen; this, added to the presence
of tide rips and overfalls, has probably led to the reports of dangers
in this channel.

The reefs which surround Sungi Point continue westward to
within 1 mile of Manicani Island and then curve northeastward to-
ward the town of Guiuan. They are very extensive, many places
baring at low water and having between them numerous deep chan-
nels in which good anchorage, protected from the sea, may be ob-
tained, but owing to the absence of any aids to navigation they are
not available without local knowledge.

Directions. — ^Vessels from the eastward should give Sungi Point a
berth of at least 1% miles, and if bound for San Pedro Bay or intend
to enter Guiuan by the southwest channel, steer 275° (274** mag.)
until the southwest tangent to Manicani Island bears 320° (319°
mag.), when the course may be shaped as desired.

Manicani Island, about 12 miles west-northwest of Sungi Point, is
534 feet high. It is surrounded by a reef less than ^ mile wide on
all sides except the northwest, where it extends 5 miles northwest-
ward with a greatest breadth of 2 miles and has on its end the islets
Baul and Binabasalan.

Between the island and reef of Manicani and the main coast reef
is a deep channel running about 8 miles northwest and southeast
with several islets and shoals in it. Vessels of all sizes by carefully
avoiding the coral patches can find anchorage in this channel under
the lee of the islets. The southern entrance to this channel is between
the southeast point of Manicani Island and a small shoal which is
awash, Iving a little more than 1 mile from it, and has depths of 12
and 14 fathoms.

At % mile northeast of Manicani Island is a rock which dries at
low water and which can be passed on either side, but the best course
is to leave this rock and Cambasingan and Cabalarian to the south-
west and Caninoan Islet to the northeast. Good anchorage may be
found off the northeast side of Cabalarian Islet in 12 or 14 fathoms.

The northern entrance, between Balinatio Islet, near the north
shore, and Baul and Binabasalan Islets, is % mile wide and 18 to 20
fathoms deep. There is a small shoal with a least depth of 1^
fathoms and surrounded by deep water midway between Balinatio
and Binabasalan Islet; in the channel between the reef ^^ mile east-
ward from Binabasalan and the anchorage there are a number of
shoal coral patches which are generally visible. The small islets in
this vicinity are all white sand oelow and wooded above except Cam-
basingan, which is formed of sand and low rocks nearly awash.

Gniuan (chart 4467) is a small town on the mainland of Samar,
about 10 miles northwestward of Sungi Point. The anchorage,
though small, is well sheltered from southerly and southwesterly
seas, but is exposed to the winds from these directions. Guiuan may
be approached by two long, straight channels which join about 1^
miles southward of the town, whence to the anchorage the channel



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SOUTH COAST OF SAMAB. 811

is rendered narrow and tortuous by numerous reefs and shoals.
There are a number of aids to navigation marking the dangers along
these channels; their positions will be best understood by reference
to the chart.

Southeast Channei^ — ^A beacon to be left to the eastward in
entering marks the southwest side of a small reef bare at low water.
It consists of a post surmounted by a square daymark painted white,
with a 3-foot red square in the middle and is about 6 miles west-
northwestward of Sungi Point.



Online LibraryUnited States. Coast and geodetic survey.om olUnited States coast pilot, Philippine Islands .. → online text (page 41 of 49)