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United States coast pilot, Philippine Islands .. online

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A beacon to be left to the westward in entering marks the north-
eastern side of a large reef partly bare at low water. It consists
of a post surmounted by a diamond-shaped daymark painted white,
with a 3-foot black diamond in the middle and is about 6 miles west-
northwestward of Sungi Point. This beacon should be given a berth
of at least 800 yards.

A beacon to be left to the westward in entering marks the eastern
side of a small, detached reef lying nearly 1 mile southeastward of
Bar Islet. It consists of a post surmounted by a diamond-shaped
daymark painted white, with 3-foot black diamond in the middle and
is 114 miles west-south westward of Raton Islet.

A black buoy moored in 9 fathoms immediately southeastward of
a rock covered by 7 feet, lying 1^ miles southwestward of the
church at Guiuan, marks the junction of the southeast and south-
west channels.

Southwest Channel. — A beacon to be left to the northwestward
in entering marks the southeastern edge of a large reef lying about
2 miles northeastward of Manicani Island. It consists of a post sur-
mounted by a diamond-shaped day mark painted white, with a
black diamond in the middle ^d is about 2 miles southwestward of
Guiuan Church.

Inner Channel. — A red buoy marks the extreme northwest edge
of a. large reef lying over 1 mile southwestward of Guiuan Church.
Vessels entering must pass close northwestward of this buoy to avoid
a small rock lying about 200 yards northwest from it.

A beacon to be left to the southeastward in entering marks a small
rock on the south side of the channel. It consists of a post sur-
mounted by a square day mark painted white, with a red square in
the middle.

A black buoy marks the eastern side of a small shoal patch on the
western side of the channel.

Directions. — Vessels entering from the eastward should round
Sungi Point at a distance of not less than 1% miles, and when it bears
91° (90° mag.), distant iy2 miles, steer 314° (313° mag.) for d%
miles, heading for the first beacon; pass it at a distance of about 200
yards and steer for the second beacon, 1 mile westward, which should
be given a berth of not less than 300 yards, and steer for the beacon
southeastward of Bar Islet, 2% miles northwestward, which may be
passed at a distance of 100 yards, and steer for the first black buoy,
iy2 miles northwestward, thence close northwestward of the red buoy
and beacon with the red center and southeastward of the second black
buoy and anchor in 4 fathoms when the end of the wharf bears 91°
(90° mag.), distant ^ mile.

Vessels from the westward should pass about 1^ mile southward
of Manicani Island and bring Guiuan Church and the highest point



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ftl2 8AKAB.

on the range of hills behind it in line, bearing 48® (47** mag.), and
steer in on this range, keeping a good lookout for the reefs on both
sides, which partly bare at low water and at other times are generally
marked by breakers. Pass ^4 mile southward of the beacon with a
black diamond in the center, and when up with the first black buoy
follow the previous direction.

Caution. — Strangers entering Guiuan are advised to take a pilot in
case the buoys or beacons should be gone or out of position. Vessels
should proceed slowly and cautiously, depending more on a good
lookout and careful navigating than on the lead, as most of the dan-
gers are steep-to.

Salcedo is at the head of the bay, about 9 miles northward of Mani-
cani Island. The approach is narrow and intricate because of the
numerous coral patches.

ftuinapundan Bay, northwestward of Manicani Island, between Gigo-
so Point and Balinatio Islet, contains numerous islets and reefs, among
which good, protected anchorages may be found; the best and most
easily accessible appears to be in the eastern part of the bay. Ves-
sels seeking anchorage are advised to pass about 600 yards westward
of Balinatio and steer 348° (347° mag.) for about % mile and good
anchorage will be found in 12 or 14 fathoms; muddy bottom. Per-
fectly protected anchorage may be found farther northward by con-
tinuing on the same course, keeping a good lookout for reefs on both
sides. When about 1% miles northward of Balinatio Islet the chan-
nel contracts to a width of about 400 yards with mangrove islets on
either side and then widens out to a basin about % mile in extent,
having depths of 10 to 14 fathoms over a muddy bottom. Caution
must be used in entering this anchorage, as the reefs are steep-to and
the lead does not give any warning oi their proximity.

Walker Shoal is a dangerous shoal with a least depth of 2 feet lying
about 4 miles soutJi-southeastward of Gigoso Point. It can be dis-
tinguished by the light-green color of the water.

Gigoso Point, 8 miles northwestward of Manicani Island, is low but
rises to a height of 408 feet about % mile inland.

From Gigoso Point the coast trends westward for 16^ miles to
Capines Point, the eastern entrance to San Pedro Bay, and forms
between these two points deep bays, with reefs and shoals surrounded
by deep water in them. The villages along this coast offer few re-
sources.

Sua Bay is 2 miles westward of Gigoso Point, between Cagbanilio
Point and Sua Point.

Cablagna Point, 6 miles westward of Gigoso Point, is low and
wooded.

Lncson Point, 2^^ miles northwestward of Cablagna Point, is promi-
nent and 400 feet high.

Lauaan Point, 3% miles northwestward of Lucson Point, is low.

Capines Point is clear and steep-to and rises to a height of 400 feet
within 14 mile of the sea.

Alabat Point lies 1 mile west-northwest of Capines Point.

San Pedro Bay is described on page 337.

There are a number of dangerous shoals lying between Gigoso and
Capines Points. A line drawn from 1 mile south of Manicani Island
to 1 mile south of Capines Point, running 285° (284° mag.) and 105°



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ISLANDS SatTTH OF SAMAB. 313

(KM"* mag.), will clear them all. The principal ones are Walker
Shoal (previously described), one southward and one westward of
Cablagna Point, and Calianan Shoal, extending 2 miles southward
from Lauaan Point, about midway between Cablagna and Capines
Points.

An extensive coral reef nearly awash lies nearly 1 mile southward
of Cablagna Point. Gigoso Point, bearing 80° (79° mag.), clears
the southern edge of this reef.

A shoal with a least depth of 1 fathom lies about 1 mile westward
of Cablagna Point.

Calianan Shoal, with rocks awash, extends 2 miles southward from
Lauaan Point. Cablagna Point, bearing 88° (87° mag.), clears the
southern side of this shoal.

Homonhon Island, 9 miles southwestward of Sungi Point, is a cres-
cent-shaped island with the concave side facing northeastward. The
northwestern part of the island is 1,120 feet high and the south-
eastern 700 feet. The narrowest part of the island is near the middle,
where it is 1^4 miles wide and 170 feet high. From a long distance
southward Homonhon appears as two islands. The island is heavily
wooded with small trees, with a narrow fringe of coconut trees along
the shore where it is not too steep for them to grow. Homonhon is
fringed by reefs for 50 to 100 yards except in Casogoran Bay, which
is the large bay on the northeast side of the island, where they are
350 to 600 yards wide. There arc no outlying dangers beyond a dis-
tance of % mile, and Homonhon Island can be skirted in safety at a
distance of 1 mile. The island is very sparsely populated. Most of
the inhabitants live in the village of Homonhon, at the head of
Casogoran Bay. The chief product of the island is copra.

Montoconan Islet is a small, low islet covered with coconut trees,
about 1/^ mile from the western shore of Homonhon, with which it
is connected by a reef, part of which bares at low water. There are
two smaU hills on the western side 95 and 109 feet high, respectively.
Lying on the same reef and about 400 yards northeastward of Monto-
conan is a small islet with a few small bushes on it.

Homonhon Island offers no good anchorages and is seldom visited
except by the smaller native craft. Vessels desiring to communicate
with the village of Homonhon can anchor in 23 fathoms, coral and
sand bottom, about 1 mile eastward of the village and l^ to % mile
from shore. This is only a fair-weather anchorage ; easterly swells
roll, in heavily, but it is partly protected from southeast swells.
Landing may be made in a break in the reef in front of the village.
Better landing can be made in a break in the reef about ll^ miles
northwestward of Homonhon; in this break there is a rock with 1
foot on it, marked by a wooden post, which should be left to north-
ward in entering.

The best anchorage in the vicinity of Homonhon Island is eastward
of the south end of Montoconan Islet, in the middle of the bight,
in 6 to 11 fathoms ; sandy bottom. Vessels will find shelter here from
all winds except from south to southwest. The clearest approach
to this anchorage is found by following the western shore of Homon-
hon at a distance of % mile.

Suluan Island lies 10 miles southeastward of Sungi Point, Samar.
Situated as it is — to windward during the northeast monsoon, at the



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814 SiLMAB.

entrance to Surigao Strait, and being conspicuous — ^it is a good point
to make for when approaching the strait from the Pacific. Near the
northwest point are two hills, 178 and 204 feet high, respectively,
and the eastern side is formed by a high coral ridge which attains a
greatest elevation of 410 feet. This ridge has the same characteristic
features as the long ridges from Matarinao Bay to Sungi Point. The
southwestern half of the island is a low plain covered with coconut
groves. From the northwest point a reef, partly bare at low water,
extends % mile in a southwest direction, and a similar reef, not so
prominent, extends from the village of Granadas to the southern
point of the island and has a general width of % mile. The coast
on the north and east sides of the island are free from dangers and
a vessel may approach within, i/^ mile with safety. There are eight
small islets ran^ng in height from 7 to 163 feet lying close to the
main island, with which they are all, with the exception of the
southern two, connected by reefs. The village of Granadas lies on
the western shore.

The only partly sheltered anchorage is off the southwest coast in
6 or 7 fathoms, sandy bottom, about i^ mile southward of the 204-
foot hill on the northwest point and the same distance westward of
the village. This anchorage is protected from winds from north-
west through north and east to southeast. The best and about the
only landing is on the shore line inside of the above-mentioned
anchorage.

A group flashing light, visible 28 miles, is shown from a cylindri-
cal concrete tower on the sununit of Suluan Island, about ^ mile
northward from the southeastern point.

The channel between Sungi Point and Suluan Island has depths of
10 to 25 fathoms, the deeper water being found nearer Suluan. The
channel between Suluan and Homonhon is about 7 miles wide, and
the bottom consists of a number of parallel ridges running north
and south, which are covered with depths of 7 to 13 fathoms and
have depths of 18 to 23 fathoms between them. In this channel
the deeper water is also found nearer Suluan. With a smooth sea
and a high sun these ridges are readily distinguished by the lighter
color of the water and by the tide rips which they cause.

Snrigao Strait is famous for having been traversed by Magellan
when he crossed the Pacific Ocean and discovered the Philippine
Islands in 1521. The strait is now less frequented than San Ber-
nardino Strait, which is more to windward in the northeast mon-
soon. It is, however, more direct than that strait, but it obliges sail-
ing vessels that take it, if they are bound for Manila, to work up
the west coast of Negros and Panay and the east coast of Mindoro.
It is of advantage to vessels going to the southern Philippines or
to the Sulu Sea. The main strait is safe and deep throughout
its length, and the shores of the islands that border it are steep-to.

WEST COAST OP SAMAB.

Balicuatro Point, the northwest point of Samar, is clean and steep-to.

From Balicuatro Point the coast trends south and west for 2%
miles to Malalimon Point, thence south and east for 31 miles to
Jibatan Point. This coast is fairly clean and bold, the chart show-
ing no dangers more than i^ mile from shore.



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WBST COAST OF SAliCAB. 815

lipata Point, 1% miles southward of Malalimon Point, is high and
rocky and bordered by a reef of sand and rock.

Bnrobodiongan Pointy 3^^ miles southward of Lipata Point, is cov-
ered with high trees. The tidal streams, which run 7i^ knots at
springs and 4 knots at neaps, strike the point with great force, pro-
ducing violent eddies.

There is good anchorage in the northeast monsoon in the open bay
of ftuinaguitman, about 1 mile southeastward of Lipata Point; the
depth of water in the northern part is 27 to 13 fathoms, and in this
part of the anchorage there is a good stream from which water
may be obtained. Vessels may also anchor off the ruins of the town
of AUeuj formerly La Gran j a, about 1 mile to the southward of
Quinaguitman Bay, y^ mile out from shore, in 10 fathoms, sand
bottom, with patches of coral. This is not a good heavy-weather
anchorage.

The mouth of the Mauo River is about 2 miles southeastward of
Burobodiongan Point. The shore between these two points is bor-
dered with rocks, extending in places y^ mile from shore. The
entrance to the river is rocky, and the channel is close to the wooded
bluff northward. It is about 20 yards wide between the inner end
of the bluff* and lon^ reef to the southward, and there are 2i/^ fathoms
at low water. Inside, a shoal which has 6 feet on its outer edge
makes out from the village on the north bank. A sharp turn to the
right as soon as the bow is inside of the reef is necessary to clear it.
Above the reef there are 3 to 5 fathoms, but only 2^^ can be counted
on 50 yards above. This is a snug anchorage for vessels drawing
9 feet and 140 feet long, but in protracted storms with much rain,
stumps and big trees may be looked for from upriver. Two fathoms
may be carried to the falls 1 mile up, where boats may water very
expeditiously. Large vessels may anchor outside. The best place
is with the river well open; soundings less than 20 fathoms should
be approached carefully. The ground is foul, both north and south
of the bank about the mouth of the river, which is very limited in
extent.

From Mauo Eiver the coast trends south and east for 4 miles to
Looc Point, the westerly entrance point to Looc Bay. This part of
the coast forms the base of a high range of mountains covered with
dark-green trees; the shore consists of sand and rock, covered with
mangroves down to the water's edge. At % mile from the shore the
depth is 7 fathoms, sand and rock.

Looc Bay is about y^ mile wide and % mile deep, with 5 fathoms in
the center; there are rocks off Looc Point, and the upper part of the
bay is filled with reefs. Canaguayon Islet lies % mile southward of
Looc Point. Vessels of any size can find sheltered anchorage be-
tween it and the coast of Samar in good depth of water and good
holding ground, but the space is limited.

The coast trends southerly 3 miles to Sojoton Point, just to the
northward of which is a small steep-sided cove with a depth of 4
fathoms near the shore at the mouth of the Palanit Eiver.

Sojoton Point is high and jagged, and has an islet of the same name
off it at a distance of 50 yards.

From Sojoton Point the coast trends south and east for 7% miles
to Malayoc Point; for 1^ miles southward, as far as Maglagaboij



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816 SAMAB.

Point, it is rocky, and from there to Malayoc it is steep-to. From
Malayoc Point the coast trends southeastward for 10 miles to Jibatan
Point ; this part of the coast is high and clear. From Jibatan Point
the coast trends easterly for about 3 miles to the mouth of the Calbayog
River. Binalio Point, 5 miles from Malayoc Point, has a small reef
about 14 Hiile westward, and the small islet Binalio is ^ mile south-
westward from the point.

Daraga Islet, 2i^ miles farther on, is connected with the shore by
a reef.

Damita Islet lies on the edge of a shoal li/^ miles west-northwest-
ward of Jibatan Point and about i/^ mile offshore. There are 6%
fathoms outside of it, and inside there are 2 and 4 fathoms, decreas-
ing regularly to the shore. A bank begins at Jibatan Point and
widens out to about 1 mile off the mouth of the Jibatan River, and
then narrows down to about ^ mile off the mouth of the Calbayog
River.

Jibatan River (chart 4456), with 2 feet on the bar at low water and
6 to 12 feet inside, empties immediately eastward of Jibatan
Point. Trinidad is on the east bank of the river about 1% miles from
the sea. From the mouth of the Jibatan River the coast trends
easterly for about 3 miles to the mouth of the Calbayog River.

Calbayog, the largest town and principal hemp-shipping port on the
island, is on the eastern side of the Calbayog River. The ruins of
a long, wooden wharf extend southward of the town and form a
prominent landmark. There is little water on the bar at the mouth
of the river at low tide and about 5 feet at high tide and only small
lighters can enter. Improvements to the bar are contemplated.

There is a light on the beach at the mouth of the river at the
western end of the town of Calbayog.

Shoal water extends off some distance in front of the town, the 5-
fathom curve being more than 1 mile southward of the light. Large
vessels are advised not to go closer in, as the depths are irregular
and in places the water shoals rapidly. Sailing vessels wishing to
keep away from a lee shore during the southwest monsoon seek a
sheltered anchorage in 12 or 14 fathoms in a bay on the north side
of Libucan Daco Island and transfer their cargoes by small sailing
lighters. Launches sometimes seek shelter here and also in the small
harbor of Santo Nino, 12 miles southwestward of Calbayog.

From Calbayog the coast trends southeastward for 24 miles to
Catbalogan, and is broken into bays with little depths in them and
exposed to southwest winds. From Calbayog for 12 miles southeast-
ward the shore is low and intersected by small streams. The Gan-
dara Kiver, the largest and most important river on the west coast of
Samar, empties about 9 miles southeast of Calbayog. It is open to
navigation at high water for launches under 90-foot length and 6-
foot draft as" far as the fork just above the town of Gandara.
Launches of 2-foot draft can proceed to Pena Plata and to San
Miguel on the north and south branches, respectively. The northern
entrance carries the deepest water, 3 feet at low water, into the river.
Inside the bar the depth is from 2 to 5 fathoms. The currents in
the river are ordinarily small. Local fishermen can usually be ob-
tained as pilots. The lower end of the Sondara Eiver is an ex-
-Kjellent harbor for small craft; otherwise it is of little importance,



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WEST COAST OF SAMAR- 317

its branches being narrow and crooked and navigable by small boats
only. Napalisan Island, 161 feet high, lies on the western edge of the
shoal water extending northwest of Palanas Point, and forms a good
landmark for the entrance to the rivers.

There are a number of small towns along this coast, of which Santa
Margarita and Tarangnan are the most important. Tarangnan Point
is a prominent headland with the Tagdaranao Islands, 190 and 268*
feet high, lying westward of it. Sheltered anchorage for small ves-
sels may be found at the head of Cambatutay Bay and in Silanga Bay
eastward of Buri Island. In fair weather anchorage may be had
anywhere along this coast. The channel between the coast and the
Libucan and Canahauan Islands is nearly 2 miles wide in the narrow-
est part and is moderately deep and free from danger. It is regu-
larly used by the local traders.

Libncan Islands are a group of three islands and several smaller
islets about 4 miles off the coast of Samar. Libucan Daco, the largest
of the group, is 528 feet high. There is good anchorage in a bay on
the north side of the island in 12 to 14 fathoms, soft mud, and ves-
sels on the coast make for this anchorage when the southwest gales
called coUas begin to blow. Tangad Libucan and Libucan Gutiay
are two small islands lying less than 1 mile northwestward of Libucan
Daco. Kawayan, Moroporo, and Nagsanga are three small, rocky
islets lying about V^ mile from the southwest side of Libucan Daco.
Layalaya Islets are two rocky islets connected by a reef which dries
at low water, lying 1 mile southeastward of Libucan Daco.

Lnnod Rock, awash at low water, lies ^^ mile west-southwestward of
the southeast point of Libucan Daco Island. Uaray Vanoa Rocks,
awash at low water, lie % mile southwestward of Libucan Gutiay
Island. Dapdap Reef, awash at two points, with only a few feet be-
tween them, lies 1 mile southward of the Layalaya Islets. Cam-
bidsos Rocks are two large, moderately high rocks lying 1 mile north
of Canahauan Daco Island.

Canahanan Islands are a group of two large islands and several
smaller ones about 4 miles from the coast of Samar. The Canahauan
Islands offer good anchorage among them, sheltered from all winds,
that of Port Aguirre affording excellent refuge during typhoon
weather. As these islands lie 12 miles from Catbalogan and 15 miles
from Calbayog, both towns on an open coast, this anchorage offers
safe refuge for both. The inner anchorage area between Canahauan
Daco and Timpasan is very small and the channel is narrow and
crooked. The best entrance is from eastward, passing northward of
Poro Island and westward of the two small islands lying southward
of Canahauan Daco, anchoring in 9 to 11 fathoms in the center of
the basin. This basin may also be approached from northward by
small vessels drawing not over 10 feet. Protected anchorage may
also be found between Batgongon and Timpasan Islands, and for
large vessels in the area northward and eastward of Poro Island in
15 to 16 fathoms of water. The channel between Batgongon and
Balading Islands is easily picked up at night and is deep and clear
except for a rock lying about 60 yards west of the south end of the
latter island. The passages between these islands are safe and deep.
Vessiels from northward should pass eastward and southward of
Canmamot Island to avoid the rocks awash at low water lying about



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818 SAMAB.

y^ mile westward and northwestward of that island. A shoal with
a least known depth of 4^4 fathoms lies % mile westward of the
south end of Boloang Island. The channel between this shoal and
Bolo Rock northward of Cambaloi Island is % mile wide, deep and
clear. Borobaloto Rock, the westernmost of the Canahauan Islands,
is almost % mile northwest of the western point of Timpasan Island,
and is about 2 feet above high water. The channels between it and
Timpasan and Tangad Islands are deep and clear.

CagduUon Islands are two small, wooded islands lying about 1^4
miles westward of the south end of Buri Island. The western island
is 90 feet high and the eastern 122 feet high. They can be rounded
at a distance of ^ mile, and the navigable channel between them and
the reefs off the southern part of Buri Island is about ^ mile wide
and 8 to 11 fathoms deep.

Buri Island is a small, irregularly shaped island about 1 mile in
extent lying on the north side of the northern channel into Catba-
logan ; it is separated from Samar by a narrow channel nearly bare at
low water. Buri is covered with grass and palms and broken up into
several small hills, the highest of which, 243 feet, is on the eastern
side.

Marisan and Candongos Reefs are two detached reefs, bare at low
water, lying in the channel between the southern part of Buri Island
and the CagduUon Islands.

Silanga Bay, between the eastern side of Buri Island and Samar,
affords excellent anchorage in from 3 to 5 fathoms, muddy bottom,
sheltered from all except southerly winds. By keeping about 200
yards from the eastern aide of Buri small craft can proceed farther
north and find good shelter from all winds in 2^^ fathoms; muddy
bottom. This inner anchorage is much used by boats and small steam-
ers from Catbalogan.

Lntao Reefs, lying in front of Catbalogan Harbor, are three danger-
ous, rocky ledges, the western one of which is covered only at ex-
tremely high tides ; the others bare at low water and half tiae. The
northern extremity of the western reef, about 2^^ miles westward of



Online LibraryUnited States. Coast and geodetic survey.om olUnited States coast pilot, Philippine Islands .. → online text (page 42 of 49)