The bullet is carried in the same direction that the sights are
moved ; for example, if shots strike above and to the right of
the bull's-eye, the elevation should be lowered and the windage
set to the left. Winds carry the bullet to the right or left with
the wind ; therefore the windage is set to windward.
146 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
522. The elevation is not always set at exactly the actual
range at which the firing takes place. With some rifles the
elevation is set above the range and with others below it, and
all rifles are not exactly true for windage.
To teach sight setting it is not sufficient to explain it to the
men. They must be practiced in it.
NOTES ON PISTOL SHOOTING.
523. When a pistol is first taken in hand it should be exam-
ined to make sure that it is not loaded.
524. Both the front sight and the rear sighting groove should
be blackened. When the pistol is aimed the front sight should
be seen through the middle of the rear sighting groove and the
top of the front sight should be flush with the top of the
groove. The part of the target to be aimed at must be deter-
mined by practice. With most pistols, at 25 yards the aim is
usually taken at the bottom edge or in the bottom part of the
bull's-eye, and at 50 yards in the center or in the upper part
of the bull's-eye.
525. Grasp the stock of the pistol as high up as you can, so
that the barrel, hand, and arm are as nearly as possible in one
straight line. The thumb should be extended along the upper
pavt of the frame. The second joint of the forefinger should be
on the trigger.
526. Start with a light grip and gradually squeeze with the
whoje hand, the trigger finger squeezing gradually back as the
grip is tightened, and continue squeezing without a jerk until
the pistol fires. Decide to call the hold and to keep the right
527. If the hits are bunched to one side, they can be moved to
the right by increasing the pressure of the thumb against the
left side of the pistol or to the left by decreasing the pressure.
528. Snapping that is, aiming and squeezing the trigger with
the pistol not loaded is most valuable practice. No man should
load and fire until he has snapped several times to get ac-
quainted with the trigger pull of the pistol. Expert pistol
shots do a great deal of snapping instead of a great deal of
firing. Steady holding can be acquired only by much snapping
529. Positions. In the prone position the right elbow has ex-
cellent support on the ground. In the kneeling position the
firer may kneel on either knee. Kneeling on the left knee
INSTRUCTIONS FOE COAST GUARD STATIONS. 147
affords an excellent rest on the right knee for the elbow. In
the squatting position both elbows rest on the knees. In the
standing position face the target squarely or nearly so. Stand
upright, not craning the head forward, and extend the arm to
its full stretch.
NOTES ON THE CLEANING AND CARE OF RIFLES.
530. The following is quoted from Ordnance Department,
United States Army, pamphlet No. 1917, Description and Rules
for the Management of the United States Rifle, caliber .30,
model of 1917 :
" CLEANING TIJE RIFLE.
" The proper care of the bore requires conscientious, careful
work, but it pays well in reduced labor of cleaning and in pro-
longed accuracy life of the barrel, and better results in target
practice. Briefly stated, the care of the bore consists in re-
moving the fouling resulting from firing, to obtain a chemically
clean surface, and coating this surface with a film of oil to
prevent rusting. The fouling which results from firing is of
two kinds one, the products of combustion of the powder ; the
other, cupro-nickel scraped off (under the abrading action of
irregularities or grit in the bore). Powder fouling, because of
its acid reaction, is highly corrosive ; that is, it will induce rust
and must be removed. Metal fouling of itself is inactive, but
may cover powder fouling and prevent the action of cleaning
agents until removed, and when accumulated in noticeable
quantities it reduces the accuracy of the rifle.
" Powder fouling may be readily removed by scrubbing with
hot soda solution, but this solution has no effect on the metal
fouling of cupro-nickel. It is therefore necessary to remove
all metal fouling before assurance can be had that all powder
fouling has been removed and that the bore may be safely
oiled. Normally, after firing a barrel in good condition, the
metal fouling is so slight as to be hardly perceptible. It is
merely a smear of infinitesimal thickness, easily removed by
solvents of cupro-nickel. However, due to pitting, the presence
of dust, other abrasives, or to accumulation, metal fouling
may occur in clearly visible flakes or patches of much greater
thickness, much more difficult to remove.
" In cleaning the bore after firing, it is well to proceed as
follows: Swab out the bore with soda solution (see below) to
148 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
remove powder fouling. A convenient method is to insert the
muzzle of the rifle into the can containing the soda solution
and, with the cleaning rod inserted from the breech, pump the
barrel full a few times. Remove and dry with a couple of
patches. Examine the bore to see that there are in evidence
no patches of metal fouling which, if present, can be readily de-
tected by the naked eye, then swab out with the swabbing
solution a dilute metal-fouling solution. (See below.) The
amount of swabbing required witL the swabbing solution can
be determined only by experience and by observation of the
color of the patches. Swabbing should be continued as long
as the wiping patch is discolored by a bluish-green stain.
Normally a couple of minutes' work is sufficient. Dry thor-
oughly and oil.
" The proper method of oiling a barrel is as follows : Wipe the
cleaning rod dry; select a clean patch and thoroughly saturate
it with sperm oil or warmed cosmic, being sure that the cosmic
has penetrated the patch; scrub the bore with the patch, finally
drawing the patch smoothly from the muzzle to the breech,
allowing the cleaning rod to turn with the rifling. The bore
will be found now to be smooth and bright, so that any subse-
quent rust and sweating can be easily detected by inspection.
" If patches of metal fouling are seen upon visual inspection
of the bore, the standard metal-fouling solution prepared as
hereinafter prescribed must be used. After scrubbing out with
the soda solution plug the bore at the breech with a cork at the
front end of the chamber, or where the rifling begins. Slip a
2-inch section of rubber hose over the muzzle down to the sight
and fill with the standard solution to at least one-half inch
above the muzzle of the barrel. Let it stand for 30 minutes,
pour out the standard solution, remove hose and breech plug,
and swab out thoroughly with soda solution to neutralize and
remove all trace of ammonia and powder fouling. Wipe the
barrel clean, dry and oil. With few exceptions, one application
is sufficient, but if all fouling is not removed, as determined by
careful visual inspection of the bore and of the wiping patches,
repeat as described above.
"After properly cleaning with either the swabbing solution
or the standard solution, as has just been described, the bore
should be clean and safe to oil and put away, but as a measure
of safety a patch should always be run through the bore on the
next day and the bore and wiping patch examined, to insure
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 149
that cleaning has been properly accomplished. The bore should
then be oiled, as described above.
" If the swabbing solution or the standard metal-fouling solu-
tion is not available, the barrel should be scrubbed, as already
described, with the soda solution, dried and oiled with a light
oil. At the end of 24 hours it should again be cleaned, when it
will usually be found to have ' sweated ' ; that is, rust having
formed under the smear of metal fouling where powder fouling
was present, the surface is puffed up. Usually a second clean-
ing is sufficient, but to insure safety it should be again exam-
ined at the end of a few days before final oiling. The swabbing
solution should always be used, if available, for it must be
remembered that each puff when the bore * sweats ' is an incipi-
ent rust pit.
"A clean, dry surface having been obtained, to prevent rust
it is necessary to coat every portion of this surface with a film
of neutral oil. If the protection required is but temporary and
the arm is to be cleaned or fired in a few days, a sperm oil may
be used. This is easily applied and easily removed, but has not
sufficient body to hold its surface for more than a few days.
If rifles are to be prepared for storage or shipment, a heavier
oil, such as cosmic, must be used.
" In preparing arms for storage or shipment they should be
cleaned with particular care, using the metal-fouling solution as
described above. Care should be taken, insured by careful in-
spection on succeeding day or days, that the cleaning is properly
done and all traces of ammonia solution removed. The bore is
then ready to be coated with cosmic. At ordinary temperatures
cosmic is not fluid. In order, therefore, to insure that every
part of the surface is coated with a film of oil, the cosmic should
be warmed. Apply the cosmic first with a brush ; then, with the
breech plugged, fill the barrel to the muzzle, pour out the sur-
plus, remove the ping, and allow to drain. It is believed that
more rifles are ruined by improper preparation for storage than
from any other cause. If the bore is not clean when oiled
that is, if powder fouling is present or rust has started a half
inch of cosmic on the outside will not stop its action and the
barrel will be ruined. Remember that the surface must be per-
fectly cleaned before the heavy oil is applied. If the instruc-
tions as given above are carefully followed arms may be stored
for years without harm.
150 INSTRUCTIONS FOE COAST GITAKD STATIONS.
PREPARATION OF SOLUTIONS.
" Soda solution. This should be a saturated solution of sal
soda (carhonate of soda). A strength of at least 20 per cent is
necessary. The spoon referred to in the following directions is
the model of 1910 spoon issued in the mess outfit.
" Sal soda, one-fourth pound, or 4 heaping spoonfuls ; water,
1 pint or cup, model of 1910, to upper rivets. The sal soda will
dissolve more readily in hot water.
" Swabbing solution. Ammonium persulphate, 60 grains, one-
half spoonful smoothed off ; ammonia, 28 per cent, 6 ounces, or
three-eighths of a pint, or 12 spoonfuls ; water, 4 ounces, or one-
fourth pint, or 8 spoonfuls. Dissolve the ammonium persul-
phate in the water and add the ammonia. Keep in. tightly
corked bottle ; pour out only what is necessary at the time, and
keep the bottle corked.
' Standard metal-fouling solution. Ammonium persulphate,
1 ounce, or 2 medium heaping spoonfuls ; ammonium carbonate,
200 grains; ammonia, 28 per cent, 6 ounces, or three-eighths
pint, or 12 spoonfuls ; water, 4 ounces, or one-fourth pint, or 8
spoonfuls. Powder the persulphate and carbonate together, dis-
solve in the water, and add the ammonia ; mix thoroughly and
allow to stand for one hour before using. It should be kept in
a strong bottle, tightly corked. The solution should not be used
more than twice, and used solution should not be mixed with
unused solution, but should be bottled separately. The solution,
when mixed, should be used within 30 days. Care should be
used in mixing and using this solution to prevent injury to the
rifle. The ammonia solution should not be used in a warm
barrel. An experienced noncommissioned officer should mix the
solution and superintend its use.
" Neither of these ammonia solutions has any appreciable
action on steel when not exposed to the air, but if allowed to
evaporate on steel they attack it rapidly. Care should, there-
fore, be taken that none spills on the mechanism and that the
barrel is washed out promptly with soda solution. The first
application of soda solution removes the greater portion of the
powder fouling arid permits a more effective and economical
use of the ammonia solution. These ammonia solutions are
expensive and should be used economically.
" It is a fact recognized by all that a highly polished steel
surface rusts much less easily than one which is roughened;
also, that a barrel which is pitted fouls much more rapidly
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 151
than one which is smooth. Every effort, therefore, should be
made to prevent the formation of pits, which are merely en-
larged rust spots, and which not only affect the accuracy of
the arm but increase the labor of cleaning.
'The chambers of rifles are frequently neglected because
they are not readily inspected. Care should be taken to see
that they are cleaned as thoroughly as the bore. A roughened
chamber delays greatly the rapidity of fire and not infrequently
causes shells to stick.
"A cleaning rack should be provided for every barracks.
Rifles should always be cleaned from the breech, thus avoiding
possible injury to the rifling at the muzzle which would affect
the shooting adversely. If the bore for a length of 6 inches
at the muzzle is perfect, a minor injury near the chamber will
have little effect on the accuracy of the rifle. The rifle should
be cleaned as soon as the firing for the day is completed. The
fouling is easier to remove then, and if left longer it will cor-
rode the barrel.
" If gas escapes at the base of the cartridge, it will probably
enter the well of the bolt through the striker hole. In this
case the bolt mechanism must be dismounted and the parts and
well of the bolt thoroughly cleaned.
" Before assembling the bolt mechanism the firing pin, the
barrel of the sleeve, the body of striker, the well of bolt, and
all cams should be lightly oiled.
" Many of the parts can generally be cleaned with dry rags.
All parts after cleaning should be wiped with an oiled rag.
" The best method of applying oil is to rub with a piece of
cotton cloth upon which a few drops of oil have been placed,
thereby avoiding the use of an unnecessary amount of oil ; this
method will, even in the absence of the oiler, serve for the cams
and bearings, which should be kept continually oiled.
"Any part that may appear to move hard can generally be
freed by the use of a little oil.
" The stock and hand guard may be coated with raw linseed
oil and polished by rubbing with the hand.
" Sperm oil should be used only for lubricating metallic bear-
ing and contact surfaces.
" For the chamber and bore only cosmoline or cosmic should be
used. This should be applied also to all metallic surfaces, to
prevent rusting when arms are stored or when not used for an
appreciable length of time."
152 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
The solutions for cleaning and removing metal fouling and
for oiling barrels of rifles mentioned above are made in quanti-
ties for cleaning a large number of rifles. The soda solution
can be prepared at Coast Guard stations, as sal soda is readily
obtained in suitable quantities. In lieu of the " swabbing solu-
tion " and "standard metal fouling solution" the Coast Guard
has found that " 3-in-l " oil serves the purpose of these two
solutions and is more economical for cleaning a small number of
rifles, such as is found at Coast Guarl stations.
NOTES ON INFANTRY DRILL.
531. In the Landing-Force Manual, United States Navy, 1918,
infantry drill and tactics have been brought into accord with
the Infantry Drill Regulations, United States Army; and the
infantry organization has been changed to correspond with that
of the Army.
532. The following abbreviations are used for officers and
petty, officers. The corresponding officer or noncommissioned
officer in the Army organization is also given :
C. C Company commander.
pt. c Platoon commander (officer or warrant
pt. 1 Platoon leader (petty or noncommissioned
officer in charge of a platoon),
c. p. o Chief petty officer (first sergeant).
1 p. o .First petty officer (sergeant).
2 p. o__- Second petty officer (corporal).
p. o Petty officer (noncommissioned officer).
1 p. os Act as guides.
2 p. os Act as squad leaders, or as guides in ab-
sence of 1 p. os.
533. The terras chief petty officer, first petty officer, and sec-
ond petty officer as used in the infantry organization should
not be confused with those designations as used in the Coast
Guard Regulations. In the infantry formations the terms mean
as- follows :
Chief petty officer: A petty officer (normally a chief petty
officer or a petty officer, first class) who performs the
duties of a first sergeant of a company.
First petty officer: A petty officer (normally a petty
officer, first or second class) who performs the duties
of a sergeant.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST QTTARD STATIONS. 153
Second petty officer: A petty officer (normally a petty
officer, second or third class) who performs the duties
of a corporal.
In the absence of petty officers, nonrated men may act as first
petty officer or second petty officer in the infantry organization.
534. (1) The distance between ranks is 40 inches in both
line and column. Distance is measured from the back of the
man in front to the breast of the man in rear.
(2) The interval between men in ranks is 4 inches and is
measured from elbow to elbow.
(3) Pace: Thirty inches; the length of the full step in quick
Question. Of what does a squad consist?
Answer. A 2 p. o. and 7 men. When the squad is in ranks
the 2 p. o. is posted as the left man in the front rank of the
Question. How many squads in a platoon?
Answer. Not less than 2 nor more than 4 squads.
Question. What is meant by the expression "a platoon in
Answer. A platoon formed in two ranks.
Question. What are the positions of the platoon commander
and the petty officers, platoon in line?
Ipo ox x x o Ipo
m m= File closers
FIG. 1. Platoon in line.
(The above platoon consists of three squads.)
(1) Platoon commander three paces in front of the center
of the platoon.
(2) A first petty officer is in the front rank on the right of
the platoon. He is the right guide of the platoon.
(3) A first petty officer is in the front rank on the left of
the platoon. He is the left guide of the platoon (this 1 p. o.
is dispensed with when the platoon is acting as a part of a
(4) Men in the position two paces in rear of the platoon are
known as file closers. Musicians, signalmen, and odd men are
placed with the file closers.
154 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
In the above case the platoon is considered as a unit acting
singly, in which case it has two 1 p. os., one to act as right guide
and one to act as left guide. When platoons are acting together
as a part of a company only one 1 p. o. normally is assigned to
Question. What is meant by the expression "a platoon in
column of squads " ?
Answer. A platoon with the squads placed one behind the
Question. What are the stations of the platoon commander
and the petty officers in platoon in column of squads?
pt. c. l p o o
m File closers.
1 p o o
FIG. 2. Platoon in column of squads.
(The above platoon consists of three squads.)
(1) Platoon commander alongside and outside the first petty
(2) A 1. p. o. normally 40 inches ahead of the left man of the
(3) A 1. p. o. normally 40 inches behind the left man of the
third squad (this 1. p. o. is dispensed with when the platoon is
acting as a part of a company).
(4) Men in position to the right of the platoon are known as
file closers. Musicians, signalmen, and odd men are placed in
the file closers.
NOTE. In this formation the first petty officer is known as
the guide. In the normal formation, the guide is left. The
men in the left file are responsible for the proper distance from
the men ahead of them and all other men keep their positions
with reference to men on their left. The guide may be right,
in which case the platoon commander, the guides, and the file
closers cross over to the opposite side to those shown in the
diagram. (In column of squads each rank preserves the align-
ment toward the side of the guide.)
Question. What is meant by a company in line?
Answer. A company formed in two ranks.
Question. What are the positions of the company commander,
platoon commanders, and petty officers in a company in line?
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
(1) The post of the company commander is three paces in
front of the center of the company.
(2) The posts of the platoon commanders of the right and the
left platoons are two paces in rear of the company, one on each
flank. The posts of the leaders of the center platoons are two
paces in rear of their platoons.
(3) The first petty officer of the first platoon is the right
guide of the company.
The first petty officer of the left platoon is the left guide of
The first petty officers of the center platoons are two paces in
rear of their platoons to the left of the platoon leaders.
Question. What are the positions of the company commander,
platoon commanders, and petty officers in company in column of
FIG. 4. Company in column of squads.
(The above company consists of four platoons of four squads each.)
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 157
Question. What is the Infantry organization?
Answer. (1) A squad consists of seven men and a second
(2) A platoon consists of two, three, or four squads.
(3) A company consists of two, three, or four platoons.
(4) A battalion consists of two or more, not exceeding six,
(5) A regiment consists of two, three, or four battalions.
(6) A brigade consists of two or more regiments.
Washington, February 15, 1921.
The questions and answers contained in the appendix are
for the purpose of assisting the district superintendents and
officers in charge in the instruction of the crews of Coast Guard
J. H. MOYLE,
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.
BOATS UNDER OARS.
Question. What general rules govern a good oarsman?
Answer. A good oarsman in a well-drilled crew sits erect on
his thwart, feet together on his stretcher, hands together on
handle, with backs up, oar level with rail, blade trimmed with
blade of stroke oar.
At " Give way together " the first motion is to lean well for-
ward, keep back straight, shove both arms out perfectly straight
in front, point blade forward and down, and turn it so that as
it is about to enter the water the flat part of the blade is per-
pendicular. The second motion: With feet on stretcher, eyes
looking straight aft (not watching blade), keep arms perfectly
rigid, and lean back beyond the vertical. Always lay back on
your oar and pull it through the water. Do not attempt to pull
with the arms alone, but always bring the muscles of the back
into play. The third motion is known as the " recovery."
When leaning back beyond the vertical, by bending the arms
quickly, the blade is pulled through the water and a sudden
force is applied to the oar ; this is the most efficient part of the
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 159
stroke. The oar is withdrawn from the water, and the wrists
are dropped until the blade is parallel to the water. Take the
next stroke without stopping.
Question. What are the general rules for boats' crews?
Answer. (1) When the boat is called away move on the run,
and man the boat as soon as possible. (2) Always pull a good
strong stroke and pay strict attention to orders. Paddling and
siouchiness in a station boat shall not be permitted. (3)
Never stand up in a boat if it can be avoided. (4) The crew of
a boat shall always be in uniform and clean. (5) Never engage
in conversation in a boat during drills or in performance of
duty. (6) Always get into a boat ahead of an officer, and leave
it after him unless he gives orders to the contrary. If you are
a passenger, always rise and salute when an officer enters or
leaves a boat in which you are seated.
Question. What precautions should be taken in going into a