Answer. The boat should be pulled easily, kept under control
with oars as long as possible, laying on oars if necessary, and
boating them only at the last minute.
What precautions are necessary in going through a
Answer. Get good way on the boat, then trail or toss the oars.
Question. What precautions are necessary in pulling across
Answer. Try to get a range on two objects in line, and steer
by these to keep from being set down by the current.
Question. Which holds her way longer, a loaded or a light
Answer. A loaded boat.
Question. What is the best thing to do when you have a long
pull against the tide?
Answer. Run inshore where the tide is slacker than it is in
midstream and where there is sometimes an eddy.
Question. What about carrying a lantern?
Answer. Always see that there is a lantern, filled and
trimmed, in the boat. If the lantern is not provided with a
shutter, it shall be fitted with a canvas screen. When lighted
and not in use the lantern shall be kept so that it will not get
adrift or capsize.
Question. What precautions must be taken regarding going
160 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
Answer. Never go alongside a vessel that has sternboard, or
wlLch is backing her engines. In going alongside in a seaway
or when a strong tide is running warn the bowmen to look out
for the boat line which should be hove from the vessel.
Question. How would you run a line with a pulling boat?
Answer. Coil most of the line in the stern sheets, but take
end enough in the bow to make fast when you reach the re-
quired place. Pull away and let the vessel pay out more line
until you are sure of having enougli in the boat to reach the
place, then pay out from the boat. If laying out with the tide,
take less line in the boat than otherwise. If against the tide,
and if practicable, take all the line in the boat, pull up and make
fast, then bring end to ship. With a long line to be laid out in
a strong current, it will usually be necessary to have several
boats, one to run away with the end, the others to underrun
the line at intervals, iloating it and pulling against the current
with the bight. If the end is to be secured to a bollard, put a
bowline in the end before starting and throw this over the bol-
lard. Bend on a heaving line and let one of the bow oarsmen
throw this, if hands are standing by to receive it, or jump ashore
with it himself if necessary.
Question. What is meant by the trim of a boat?
Answer. The way she sits in the water. She is said to trim
by the head or by the stern, according as to whether she is
deeper in the water forward or aft.
Question. What effect does the position of weights have in
sailing a boat?
Answer. If most of the weight is forward, she will trim by
the head. In this case her stern is light and not deep in the
water; consequently, the stern will tend to go off to leeward,
throwing her head up into the wind. She will need weather
tiller to keep her by the wind. Similarly, if weights are well
aft her stern will be deep in the water and her bow light. The
wind will blow the bow off, the boat will tend to fall off, and it
will require more lee tiller to keep her by the wind.
Question. What is meant by, " By the wind "?
Answer. A boat is on, or by, the wind when she is sailing as
close to the wind as she can and still keep good headway.
Question. What is meant by weather tiller and by lee tiller?
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 161
Answer. Weather tiller: When the tiller, looking forward,
points to the weather side. Lee tiller is just the opposite.
Question. What do you mean by the weather side?
Answer. Side toward the wind ; that on which the wind first
strikes. The lee side is the side away from the wind.
Question. What is the tiller?
Answer. The bar fitted fore and aft iii the rudder head, by
means of which the rudder is moved.
Question. What is tacking?
Answer. When a boat is close-hauled on one tack, by putting
the tiller down and letting go the head sheets, she is brought
up head to wind ; then by properly working the sails she is
made to fall off: on the other tack. This is tacking. The head
goes through the wind.
Question. What is the object of tacking?
Answer. To work a boat to windward.
Question. What is meant by putting a tiller down?
Answer. Putting the tiller over to the lee side.
Question. What is meant by putting the tiller up?
Answer. Putting the tiller over to the weather side.
Question. What is meant by wearing?
Answer. Getting a boat on the opposite tack by putting the
tiller up, running off from the wind and gradually bringing her
to the wind on the other tack. The head goes away from the
wind ; the stern goes through the wind.
Question. Which is the better method of working to wind-
ward, tacking or wearing?
Answer. Tacking, because if properly performed the boat will
lose nothing to leeward. On the contrary, she will head reach
and gain. That is, she will while in stays (while in process of
tacking) run several boats' lengths to windward. In wearing,
on the contrary, as a boat is run to leeward a part of the time,
much distance is lost. The only advantage of wearing lies in
the fact that there is always possibility of failure in tacking,
arid greater certainty about wearing.
Question. What is "leeway"?
Answer. The drift a boat makes away from the wind when
Question. What is meant by " heaving to " ?
Answer. Bringing a boat's head to the wind, and so adjusting
her sails that she will make no headway through the water.
162 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
Question. What is "gybing"?
Answer. A boat gybes when the wind shifts around the stern,
causing the main boom to fly over rapidly from one side to the
Question. Is it ever safe to gybe?
Answer. Only in moderate breezes. If the breeze is fresh,
lower the mainsail before letting the wind shift from one quar-
ter to the other.
Question. What is meant by "Idffing"?
Answer. Putting tiller down, throwing boat up into the wind.
Question. When is it time to reef?
Answer. When a boat begins to take in water over the lee
rail. Never be afraid of reefing too soon.
Question.. What is meant by " wing and wing " ?
Answer. When a beat, sailing before the wind, rigs foresail
out on opposite side from mainsail she is sailing wing and wing.
Question. Is this safe?
Answer. Yes, in moderate weather.
Question. If it is found necessary to carry ballast in a sta-
tion's boat, what should it be?
Answer. Always water in breakers. Never carry sinking
ballast; that is, ballast heavier than water. Boats fitted with
water-ballast tanks peed no other ballast when the tanks are
filled. Stow weights as low as possible.
Question. What are the general instructions regarding trim?
Answer. To do her best under sail a boat must be trimmed
according to her build and rig. If she carries much head sail
she will have to be deeper forward than would otherwise be
desirable. If she has little or no head sail she would trim by
the stern. Weights should be kept out of the ends of the boats.
Too much weather tiller can be corrected by shifting weights
aft ; too much lee tiller by shifting them forward.
Question. What precautions should be observed in handling
Answer. Never belay a sheet in any weather. In a moderate
squall the boat should be luffed sufficiently to shake without
spilling the sails, thus keeping headway enough to retain con-
trol, but with the sheets in hand (as always). If it becomes
stronger luff more decidedly and slack sheet. The sheet may,
of course, be let go, and in a sudden emergency this must be
done at once, in addition to putting the tiller down, and, if
necessary, reducing sail. But the longer you can keep the boat
ItfSTHUCTIONS FOR COAST GTTAUD STATIONS. 163
under control the better, and to let go the sheet is to give up
control. The above instructions are for use when on the iwnd.
In running free different instructions hold good. Here the sail
can not be spilled by a touch of the tiller ; consequently, slack
the sheet while luffing. The force of the wind would be re-
duced by running off, but if it becomes too strong you can do
nothing but lower the sail, and the chances are that it will bind
against the shrouds and refuse to conre down. There is also
danger that the wind will shift in a squall, causing the mainsail
to gybe with violence.,
HANDLING MOTOR BOATS.
Question. What study should an officer in charge make con-
cerning the handling of motor boats at his station?
Answer. He should make a special study of his boat with a
view of getting perfectly familiar with her. He should learn
by practice the turning circle arid the effect of the screw under
different conditions. He should inform himself of the amount
of gasoline required to run a given distance at ordinary speed
under usual conditions.
Question. What is the effect of the screw in steering?
Answer. Generally speaking, a right-handed screw when go-
ing ahead tends to throw the stern to starboard ; when backing,
to port. In other words, the stern is dragged around in the
direction the propeller is turning, and this effect is noticed
whether the boat itself has begun to answer the motion of
the propeller or not. In attempting to turn a power boat the
rudder should be shifted when the propeller is shifted instead
of waiting for the boat to lose its headway, for the rudder has
the same general effect on the steering of the boat when the
propeller is backing, whether the boat itself is moving astern
or has not yet lost its headway and is still forging ahead. This
rule is not strictly applicable to all boats, but it is a good gen-
eral rule for boats with a single, right-handed screw.
Question. How would you make a landing with a motor boat?
Answer. Make landings Avith slow speed. In making a land-
ing it is a common mistake to keep too much headway on and to
rely upon backing the engine full speed to stop the boat. This
is poor seamanship, as the engines may fail to back promptly,
causing a collision or smash up, and if they do back hard it
throws unnecessary strain on them.
Question. How would you make a landing alongside of a
ship in a strong current?
164 INSTRUCTIONS FOB, COAST GUARD STATIONS.
Answer. Do not let the current catch the boat on the outward
bow, as this might sweep her with force against the ship's side
or gangway. The painter or a line from the ship may be used,
the boat being kept off a little from the side until it is fast, and
then sheered in by the rudder. A boat may lie alongside safely
in a strong current with a line from the inner bow and the
rudder slightly over for sheering out.
Question. How should a motor boat be trimmed for towing?
Answer. In towing the stern oi the towing boat should be
kept well down by shifting weights aft if necessary. This keeps
the propeller well immersed and gives it a good hold on the
Question. What precautions should be taken when running
in a seaway?
Answer. When running in a seaway speed should be reduced
somewhat, not only to avoid shipping seas but to reduce the
strain on the machinery due to the racing of the screw. In
running into a sea it is possible by careful nursing to make fair
speed, watching the seas and slowing or even stopping for a
moment as heavy seas are seen bearing clown on the boat. If
the man who is running the engine has sufficient experience to
regulate the speed in this manner it is convenient to leave this
to him if he can see ahead. If running more or less across the
sea it is well to head up momentarily for a heavy wave.
Question. Towing an unladen boat in a smooth sea, what pre-
cautions should be taken by the towing boat and tow?
Answer. Towing boat passes clear of oars of the tow, places
herself in line ahead, receives painter from tow, secures it to
ringbolt in sternpost, and starts slo\vly ahead as soon as she has
hold of the painter. Bowman in the tow does not give towing
boat his painter until she is about ahead. He then takes in
slack towline, keeping a strain on it, and gradually pays it out,
thus getting way on the tow gradually and avoiding too sudden
a strain on the towline or stem of the boat.
Question. What precautions are taken in case the tow is
heavily laden or the sea rough?
Answer. Toggle the painter to a stretcher bet\veen the two
after thwarts of the towing boat and to the forward thwart
of the tow. To. steer, bear towline over on the quarter toward
which you want to turn, for the rudder will be of little use.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 165
Question. Give precautions when carrying stores.
Answer. Be careful of the oars, as they may easily be injured
by letting stores fall on them. Keep all casks hung up and
have tarpaulins for covering articles that might be injured by
water. While loading bear in mind any rough water that you
may encounter. Do not overload a boat ; you may capsize or be
responsible for loss of life. When carrying treasure always
attach a buoy with a drift of the line at least equal to the
greatest depth of water on the way back to the station.
Question. How would you tow astern of a large vessel?
Answer. When being towed astern of a large vessel, use
a short scope, so as to remain close under the counter, with the
bow partly out of water. In casting oft", when there are other
boats towing astern, be careful before letting go either to drop
clear of them all with your towline or be handy with your oars
to avoid getting athwart the hawse of any of them. When tow-
ing astern the towline should never be made fast, but should
always be tended.
Question. How would you tow alongside of a vessel?
Answer. If towing alongside, have the towline from as far
forward on the towing vessel as possible; either toggle it to
the forward thwart (steadying it over the stem with a bight
of the painter), or pass it through the forward rowlock on the
side nearest the towing vessel. Pay particular attention to the
Question. What precautions must be taken for the manage-
ment of a boat in tow?
Answer. A boat should never be towed without the crew
being in her, or at least a sufficient number of men to manage
her in the event of her breaking adrift or being compelled to
cast oft* from the towing vessel.
Question. When would you use a drogue in being towed?
Answer. A drogue is found of great advantage when being
towed before a heavy sea, as it prevents the boat running ahead
in front of a sea at risk of damage against the towing vessel and
keeps a more equable strain on the towline.
Question. What is a compass?
Answer. An instrument by which a ship or boat may be
steered on a given course or by which bearings of an object
may be taken.
166 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GTTARD STATIONS,
Question. Describe the wet or liquid compass.
Answer. Briefly, it is a magnetic needle or several parallel
magnetic needles attached to a compass card, so fitted as to
turn easily on a pivot in the compass bowl. The bowl is filled
with liquid to keep the card from wabbling or moving too
quickly. The liquid contains 55 per cent distilled water and
45 per cent denatured alcohol to prevent freezing. The whole
is held in a composition case called the binnacle.
Question. How is the compass card graduated?
Answer. In points, half points, quarter points, and degrees.
Question. How many points are there in each quadrant or
quarter of the compass card?
Question. How many points are there in the whole compass
Question. Name the cardinal points of the compass.
Answer. North, south, east, and west.
Question. Name the semicardinal points of the compass.
Answer. Northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest.
These are halfway between the cardinal points.
Question. What are the eight principal points of the com-
Answer. The four cardinal points and the four semicardinal
Question. How are the points halfway between the cardinal
and semicardinal points named?
Answer. The point halfway between north and northeast is
named north-northeast; the point halfway between north and
northwest is named north-northwest; halfway between east
and northeast is named east-northeast ; halfway between east
and southeast is named east-southeast, and so on.
Question. What is meant by "boxing the compass"?
Answer. By calling oft: the points of the compass in order.
Question. Box the compass.
North by east.
Northeast by north.
Northeast by east.
East by north.
East by south.
Southeast by east.
Southeast by south.
INSTRUCTIONS EOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 167
South by east.
South by west.
Southwest by south.
Southwest by west.
West by south.
W T est.
West by north.
Northwest by west.
Northwest by north.
North by west.
Question. Into how many degrees is a compass card divided?
Answer. Three hundred and sixty.
Question. How many degrees are there in a quadrant or
quarter of a circle?
Answer. One-fourth of 360, or 90.
Question. How many points are there in 90 of the compass
Question. How many degrees are there in one point of the
Answer. One-eighth of 90, or 114.
Question. What point of the compass corresponds with ISO ?
Question. What point corresponds with 45?
Question. What point corresponds with 135?
Question. What point corresponds with 225?
Question. How many points is it from northeast to east by
Question. How many points is it from northwest by west to
southwest by south?
Question. What point of the compass is 5 points east of north?
Answer. Northeast by east.
Question. What point is 6 points to the west of south?
Question. What is the opposite bearing to east by north?
Answer. West by south.
Question. What is the opposite bearing to west-northwest?
168 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
(Questions similar to the above should be continued until
perfect familiarity is obtained; there is no better way.)
Question. Does the north point of the compass always point
to the true north ; and if not, why ?
Answer. It does not always point to the true north, because
the compass needle is deflected by forces called variation and
Question. What is meant by the compass bearing of an
Answer. Its direction by compass without correction for varia-
tion or deviation.
Question. What is the lubber's point of a compass?
Answer. The vertical line on the inside of a compass bowl
corresponding with the fore-and-aft line of the ship or boat.
Question. For what is it used?
Answer. In steering this line is made to coincide as nearly
as possible with the given course.
Question. Where should a compass be placed in a station
boat to secure the best results? Why?
Answer. As near the amidships fore-and-aft line and as far
u way from movable or iixed iron or steel as practicable. The
iron or steel deflects the compass needle and may increase its
error, so that it would be unreliable.
Question. What is a dumb compass?
Answer.* A circle marked with the graduations of the com-
pass card, but without a needle. It is used for taking bearings.
Question. How should it be fixed in a station?
Answer. It should be permanently fixed so that its north and
south points coincide with the north and south points of the
Question. How is a dumb compass fitted for taking bearings?
Answer. It is fitted with a movable sighting bar pivoted at
the center of the compass card.
RULES OF THE ROAD FOR BOATS.
Question. What lights are required to be carried by row-
Answer. Rowboats, whether under oars or sail, shall have
ready at hand a lantern showing a white light, which shall
be temporarily exhibited in time to prevent collision.
Question. What fog signals are required for a power boat
underway on the inland waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 169
Answer. If under way and not towing or being towed it shall
sound, at intervals of not more than one minute, on the whistle
a prolonged blast. When towing other vessels it shall sound
at intervals of not more than one minute three blasts in suc-
cession, namely, one prolonged blast followed by two short
blasts. A boat towed may give, at intervals of not more than
one minute, on the fog horn a signal of three blasts in suc-
cession, namely, one prolonged blast followed by two short
blasts, and she shall not give any other. A boat when at
anchor shall, at intervals of not more than one minute, -ring
the bell rapidly for about five seconds.
Question. When is a power boat under way within the mean-
ing of the rules of the road?
Answer. When she is not anchored or made fast to the shore
or to a ship or aground.
Question. Wliat is the definition of a steam vessel by the
rules of the road?
Answer. The words " steam vessel " shall include any vessel
propelled by machinery.
Question. At what speed should vessels proceed in a fog, mist,
falling snow, or a heavy rain squall?
Answer. They shall go at a moderate speed, having careful
regard to the existing circumstances and conditions.
Question. What are the sailing rules when one boat is running
free and another is close-hauled?
Answer. A boat which is running free shall keep out of the
way of a boat which is close-hauled.
Question. Two boats are close-hauled on opposite tacks.
Which shall keep out of the way of the other?
Answer. A boat which is close-hauled on the port tack shall
keep out of the way of a boat which is close-hauled on the
starboard tack. -
Question. Two boats are running free with the wind on oppo-
sites sides. Which shall keep out of the way of the other?
Answer. The boat which has the wind on the port side shall
keep out of the way of the other.
Question. Two boats are running free with the wind on the
same side. Which shall keep out of the way of the other?
Answer. The boat which is to windward shall keep out of the
way of the boat which is to leeward.
Question. Which has the right of way a boat under sail with
the wind aft, or any other boat?
170 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
Answer. A boat under sail which has the wind aft shall keep
out of the way of any other boat under sail.
Question. What is the rule of the road about power boats or
boats under oars meeting end-on or nearly end-on so as to in-
volve risk of collision?
Answer. Each shall alter her course to starboard so that
each may pass on the port side of the other.
Question. In the preceding question, suppose the course of
each power boat is so far to starboard of the other that they
are not to be considered as meeting end-on ; what shall each do?
Answer. Either boat should immediately give two short blasts,
which the other boat should answer promptly by two similar
blasts, and they shall pass on the starboard side of each other.
Question. What is the rule for power boats or boats under
oars crossing so as to involve risk of collision?
Answer. The boat which has the other on its own starboard
side shall keep out of the way of the other.
Question. What is the rule for a power boat or a boat under
oars meeting or crossing a boat under sail?
Answer. The boat under power or oars shall keep out of the
way of the boat under sail.
Question. When, under the rules, one boat must keep out of
the way, what shall the other do?
Answer. The other shall keep her course and speed.
Question. If a boat, whether under oars, sail, or power, is
overtaking another boat, what shall the overtaking boat do?
Answer. The overtaking boat shall keep out of the way of
the overtaken boat.
Question. What sound signals are used by power boats on
approaching each other?
Answer. Any power boat approaching another shall indicate
what course she intends to take by the following signals on
(a) One short blast to mean, " I am directing my course to
( & ) Two short blasts to mean, " I am directing my course to
(c) Three short blasts to mean, "My engines are going full