as the first method leaves cylinder charged with an explosive
mixture ready for the next start.
(if) Power boats left with no one on board should have gaso-
line shut oft! at tank and circulating water shut off at sea cock.
(#) Too rich mixture results in overheating, loss of power,
and waste of gasoline. It also causes black exhaust smoke.
(h) Too lean mixture causes back firing.
(t) Too much oil causes excessive carbon deposit in cylinders.
It is usually indicated by white or light blue exhaust smoke.
(j) Too great advance of spark causes pounding.
(fc) Insufficient advance of spark causes loss of power and
(/) Only good gasoline engine cylinder oil should be used, and
the grade should be as heavy as the type of engine and season
will permit (heavier oil can be used in summer than in winter).
USE OF ETHER.
186. Danger, as well as expense, attends the use of ether for
priming gasoline motors to facilitate starting. As serious delay
is sometimes experienced in starting motors in cold weather
with the low grades of gasoline now furnished, the use of ether
will not be entirely prohibited, but shall be restricted as
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 37
(a) It shall never be used except in case of emergency when
the boat is needed to answer an actual call for assistance, and
then only after attempts to start the motor in the usual manner
(b) The ether is to be mixed with at least four times its
quantity of gasoline, and, thus diluted, introduced into cylin-
ders through priming cups by means of a suitable small squirt
can. It shall not, under any circumstances, be placed in gaso-
(c) The officer in charge shall have personal charge of ether
furnished to a station, shall see that it is safely kept in tightly
closed bottles or cans, plainly labeled, and that extreme precau-
tion, because of its highly volatile and inflammable properties, is
exercised in handling. He shall be responsible for its proper
187. When laying up for winter. When laying up an engine
all bright parts should be covered with heavy oil or grease.
Vaseline is excellent for this purpose. Half a pint of heavy
lubricating oil should be poured in each cylinder on top of the
piston, and the engine should be turned over a few times so as
to spread it.
191. (1) Drills shall be held at all Coast Guard stations in
commission as follows:
Fire drill. One each week, sometimes at night.
Boat drill. Two each week.
Signal drill. Five each week.
Resuscitation drill. One each week (one-half hour).
Beach apparatus drill. One each week.
(2) The crews of Coast Guard stations shall be proficient
in the following subjects : Motor-boat laws, pilot rules ( regula-
tions for preventing collision), Coast Guard Regulations, com-
pass. At least once each week the officer in charge shall deter-
mine the proficiency of each member of the crew in these sub-
jects by means of the questions and answers in the appendix
of this book.
192. No drills shall be held on Saturday, which shall be de-
voted to general cleaning about the station. When circum-
stances permit, Saturday afternoon shall be regarded as a half
194. Drill shall be held between 8 a. m. and noon when prac-
ticable. Boat drills and signal drills shall each consume not
38 INSTRUCTIONS FOE COAST GUARD STATIONS.
less than one hour. Resuscitation drill, and instructions (in
motor-boat laws, pilot rules, Coast Guard Regulations and com-
pass) shall each consume not less than one-half hour. The
number designating the person engaged in a drill shall be the
number shown in the watch and patrol bill.
195. If the weather on any day be unsuitable for any of the
prescribed drills, the officer in charge may substitute others on
the schedule, but the required number of each kind of drill
must be held each week unless prevented by wreck work, foggy
or stormy weather, or, in the case of boat drills, by high surf.
When drills are substituted for others, when they are omitted,
or w r hen less than the prescribed time is devoted to boat, signal,
or resuscitation drill, an entry of the fact and the cause thereof
shall be made in the log.
196. Drills omitted on account of wreck duty need not be
made up, but all other drills omitted shall be made up in the
afternoon in the week in which the omission occurred, if pos-
197. In general, the afternoons of drill days shall be devoted
to the work of upkeep about the station premises.
201. At fire drill each member of the crew shall at once re-
pair to his station and quietly and rapidly perform his allotted
duties. All unnecessary noise, singing out, and confusion shall
202. The signal for fire drill shall be the verbal alarm EIRE!
This alarm will be given by the officer in charge, who shall
designate the scene of the supposed fire immediately after giving
the alarm. (In case of actual fire, the person discovering it
shall at once give the alarm, designating its actual location.)
203. At fire drill and in case of actual fire the following duties
shall be performed by the members of the crew, who are desig-
nated by their watch and patrol numbers :
Officer in charge. Shall have general supervision at the scene
of the fire ; direct operations ; see that each member of the crew-
performs his allotted duties ; maintain order ; and do everything
in his power to extinguish the fire. He shall be provided with
No. 1. Shall provide and attach nozzle to hose and tend
nozzle; assist in leading out hose.
No. 2. Lead out hose and attach to pump or hydrant ; keep
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 39
No. 8. Provide fire extinguisher at scene of fire.
No. 4. Lead out and attach suction hose ; man brakes.
No. 5. Remove powder from station ; man brakes.
No. 6. Place pump in position; assist to lead out and at-
tach suction hose ; man brakes.
No. 7. Place pump in position ; man brakes.
No. 8.' Provide blanket and fire extinguisher at scene of fire.
No. 9. Assist 'to lead out and connect hose; provide lire ex-
tinguisher at scene of fire.
204. Where stationary pumps are installed it will not be neces-
sary to provide and attach the suction hose or place the pump
in position, but the men assigned those duties shall at once man
205. Where fire hydrants connected with city water mains are
installed Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 7 shall perform the following duties:
No. 4- Assist to lead out and connect hose ; keep hose clear.
No. 5. Remove powder from station ; assist keeper..
No. 6. Provide bucket of water at scene of fire.
No. 7. Provide bucket of water at scene of fire.
206. When the drill is over or the fire extinguished the officer
in charge shall give the command SECURE! when each man
shall return what he provided to its proper place. The crew
shall then be mustered by the officer in charge and each man
required to recite his duties at fire drill, after which the crew
shall be dismissed.
211. Boat drills shall consist in launching and landing
through the surf and in at least one -half hour of sustained ex-
ercise of the men in handling their oars, as directed in the pre-
scribed beat drill. The drill shall include sailing, when prac-
ticable. Drills shall be held with both the pulling and motor
suriboats and with the motor lifeboat when any or all of these
types of boats are furnished at a station., Preference shall be
given to drills with the pulling surf boats, in order that the crew
shall always be proficient with the oars. When the motor surf-
boat is used the crew shall be exercised, in pulling with the
oars. Drill with the pulling boat shall be held, when possible,
in the surfboat which would be used for dangerous work.
Whenever practicable, exercise shall be had in the use of the
Drills with boats convenient to the beach or elsewhere, to
avoid hauling the service boat from the boat room, will be per-
40 INSTRUCTIONS FOE COAST GUARD STATIONS.
mltted only as may be authorized by Headquarters, and then
only when the drill boat conforms in the arrangement of oars,
height of seats above platform', etc., to the pulling surfboat.
212. No boat drill which is not in accordance with these in-
structions, and which does not include all the crew present for
duty at the time, shall be recorded as a boat drill.
213. At boat drills, after the officer in charge has exercised
the crew sufficiently, he shall surrender the steering oar on al-
ternate boat-drill days to No. 1 and to No. 2, respectively, who
shall, under his instruction, exercise the crew in the drill, includ-
ing launching and landing through surf. At such times the
officer in charge shall, when practicable, take the oar of No. 1 or
No. 2, as the case may be.
214. The crew of each station supplied with a self-bailing
surfboat shall be exercised once each month, when the water
is not too cold or the surf too high, in capsizing and righting the
boat, leaving all movable equipment on shore.
215. During the months of December, January, February, and
March one boat drill in each week may be omitted at stations
on the Atlantic coast north of Cape Henlopen and at stations
on the Great Lakes, but the time assigned to them shall be
employed in other drills. (See art. 191-1.)
DRILL WITH SELF-BAILING SURFBOAT ON BOAT WAGON.
218. Before unloading the boat from the wagon the officer in
charge shall see that the valve to the water-ballast tank, the
ventilators to the side air cases, and the hatches are securely
219. Water ballast, if needed, should not be let into the tank
of a self-bailing boat until the boat is afloat and under control.
When the tank is full the valve shall be closed. The tank may
be emptied of water with the pump or by opening the valve:-
after the boat is landed.
220. Unloading the boat from the wagon shall be practiced,
so that it can be done quickly and easily, and the crew shall be
timed in this evolution from the command Unload! until the
oars are crossed and the boat is ready to be taken down to the
surf. One-half minute is ample time in which to unload when
the crew is properly drilled. The crew will .not be drilled in
loading the boat on the wagon quickly.
INSTRUCTIONS FOE COAST GUARD STATIONS. 41
221. When conditions are not suitable for launching, the
crew should be exercised in unloading, but this must be in addi-
tion to the regular boat drill.
(Crew of officer and 8 men.)
222. (1) Leaving the station for drill or service.
1. Man the surf boat.
3. Halt unload.
4. Take life preservers.
5. Take oars.
7. In bows.
8. Way enough.
Ian the surf boat-.
_.Nos. 5 and open and secure the boat-
room doors. If the wagon pole be
detached, Nos. 1 and 2 adjust it, No.
1 holding it in position while No. 2
inserts the bolt; the men fall into
place with the drag ropes over their
shoulders, as shown in the following
NOTE. If a horse is used, the man who has the care of it shall
at once proceed to harness and lead it to where the boat is.
42 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
Forward The wagon is run out of the house to
the most desirable place for launch-
ing, as near the water as possible,
the boat's bow toward the surf. (If
a horse is to be used, the snrfman
who has the care of the horse, as-
sisted by one man on each side,
hitches *the horse to the boat
Unit unload The drag ropes are dropped (or the
horse unhitched, as the case may be,
and secured at a safe place) ; Nos.
3 and 4 cast off the side lashings;
Nos. 1, 3, 5, and 7 on the starboard
side and Nos. 2, 4, 6, and 8 on the
port side run the boat back over the
rear axle as far as the wheels will
allow ; No. 7 takes a turn with the
check rope around the bilge keel or
grip streak, and tends it ; No. 1
swings out starboard lifting bar ; No.
2 follows with the port lifting bar,
which he hooks; Nos. 1, 3, and 5 on
the starboard side and Nos. 2, 4, 6,
and 8 on the port side man the
bars ; the officer removes the king
bolt, the reach is lifted, the officer
removes the forward wheels, and the
reach is then carefully lowered to
the ground ; No. 7 slacks the check
rope and the boat is slid down and
off the reach ; Nos. 3, 4, and 5 then
run the forward wheels and Nos. 6,
7, and 8 the rear wheels up the
beach out of the reach of the tide.
Bach man then takes his place on
his proper side of the boat and
abreast his thwart.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 43
Take life preservers __At the command Take, each man lays
hold of his own life preserver. At
the command LIFE PRESERVERS,
which is given shortly after the
command Take, the life preservers
are taken simultaneously, the men
put them on and proceed to adjust
Take oars At the command Take each man lays
hold of his oar. At the word OARS,
which is given after a short interval,
the oars are raised simultaneously
on end, blade up, and the men, gov-
erned by No. 1, drop them together
into the rowlocks on their respective
sides, the handles resting against the
opposite air case. The oars will be
kept on end long enough to insure
uniform action, and will be dropped
without orders. The officer at the
same time secures the steering oar
in its rowlock or becket, its handle
resting under the after thwart.
The boat is launched into the water;
the two bowmen jump into the boat
when it is water borne, take their
oars and assist to keep the boat head
to the sea ; No. 1 at the stern assists
Go ,At this command, which the officer
gives at his discretion, the men give
the boat all the headway possible,
then, as it becomes water borne, the
bow oarsmen, the men amidships,
and the stroke oarsmen, in the order
named, jump in, take their oars, and
give way briskly together, the bow
oarsrnen steadying the boat as long
as the depth of the water or surf
will permit, and the officer jumping
in when he deems it best to do so.
44 INSTRUCTIONS FOE COAST GUARD STATIONS.
In bows Given when the boat has sufficient
way and while the blades are in the
water. Bowmen complete the stroke,
toss oars simultaneously to an angle
of 45, boat them together, and
stand erect in the bow facing for-
ward. If a landing is to be made,
the bowman next to the .landing
shall use his boat hook as needed,
or stand by painter or heaving stick
and line, or stand ready to catch a
line as directed by the officer.
Way enough Given when the boat has sufficient
headway and while the blades are
in the water at the beginning of the
stroke. The men finish the stroke
and, as the oars leave the water,
toss them simultaneously to an angle
of 45 and boat them quickly and
quietly, placing the blades entirely
inside the gunwale. The stroke
oarsman next to the landing place,
if one, takes up his boat hook ; each
man unships his rowlock ; bowman
and stroke oarsman on side next the
landing place check headway, keep
boat clear, etc., as necessary.
NOTE. When there are six or seven men in the crew, the drill
prescribed for 8 men will be followed as far as practicable. In
actual service, as at wrecks or in rough waters, the officer shall
use his discretion about unshipping rowlocks.
(2) Leaving a vessel for the beach.
1. Stand by the oars.
2. Shove off.
3. Out oars.
4. Give way together.
5. Way enough (or "In oars").
INSTRUCTIONS FOE COAST GUARD STATIONS. 45
Stand by the oars Every man, except the inboard bow-
man, ships his rowlock, seizes his
oar by its handle, and sees the blade
clear of the other oars. The oars
should be shoved forward over the
gunwale far enough to bring the
handle in the proper position, and
should be kept fore and aft.
Shove off Inboard bowman shoves the bow
smoothly off from the ship's side
with boat hook, at the same time
shoving her a little ahead if pos-
sible; the officer sheers off with rud-
der or steering oar, assisted if nec-
essary by the inboard stroke oar,
who hauls ahead by any available
means. Bowman places boat hook
fore and aft amidships, seats him-
self, ships his rowlock, and gets his
Out oars ^Given when the boat is clear of the
ship's side. The crew throw the
blades of the oars horizontally out-
ward, allowing the leathers to fall
into the rowlocks, place both hands
on handle, and quickly trim blades
flat and directly abeam. This is the
position of Oars. Bowmen throw
their oars out at the same time as
the rest of the crew, if they are
ready ; otherwise they swing their
oars out together, touching their
blades forward to insure making the
movement in unison, and bring them
to the position of Oars or take up
the stroke with the remainder of the
crew, as the case may be.
46 INSTRUCTIONS FOE COAST GUARD STATIONS.
Give way together All the oarsmen take the full stroke.
keeping accurate stroke with the
starboard stroke oar and feathering
the blades. The crew will pull a
strong, steady stroke, always using
their backs, and maintain silence.
Way enough ( or " In
oars") When landing in smooth water and
sufficiently near the beach, the com-
mand, Way enough may be given, in
which case the oars are tossed to-
gether to an angle of 45 and laid
entirely within the boat, blades for-
ward, between the men and the rail,
with as little noise as possible. At
the command In oars, the oars are
hauled inboard, their looms resting
on the opposite rail, the men jump
overboard on their respective sides
and run the boat up on the beach.
The life preservers are removed, the
oars are laid in, blades forward, and
the boat is loaded on the wagon in
the reverse order of unloading.
(3) Going alongside a vessel, official occasion.
Stand by to toss. (Given
instead of command
"Way enough") Stand by to toss, the preparatory com-
mand, is given as a warning to the
crew. The command Toss is given
as the blades enter the water, and
when the boat has sufficient head-
way to reach the gangway. The
oarsmen complete the stroke and
then toss the oars to a vertical posi-
tion by pressing smartly on the
handle with the inboard hand, rais-
ing the oar with the outboard hand
under the loom. Lower handle of
oar to bottom boards and hold the
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 47
oars in a vertical position with the
blades fore and aft. The inboard
stroke and the inboard bow oarsmen
lay their oars in the boat quickly,
after assuming the vertical position,
seize their boat hooks, assist to
check headway and fend off and
haul the boat alongside the gang-
way. The crew will remain at a
toss until officers leave the boat; if
it is then desirable to lay the oars
in the boat it will be done by the
command Boat the oars, at which
each man lays his oar quickly and
quietly in the boat, blades forward.
(This command should not be given
when there are overhanging obstruc-
tions from the ship which would be
likely to foul the oars when they are
in a vertical position.)
(4) Leaving a vessel after official visit, oars boated.
1. Stand by the oars.
2. Up oars.
3. Shove off.
4. Let fall.
5. Give way together.
6. Way enough (or "In oars").
Stand by the oars Same as explained in paragraph 2 of
Up oars The oars, except the two bow and the
inboard stroke oars, are tossed
quickly to a vertical position, blades
fore arid aft and in line with that
of the stroke oar, handles of oars
on bottom boards, outboard hand
grasping loom of oar at height of
chin, wrist of inboard arm resting
on inboard thigh, and steadying oar.
48 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
Shove off This command is executed as described
in paragraph 2 of this article. As
soon as possible the inboard stroke
oar lays aside his boat hook and
gets up his oar without further
command. If time permits, the bow-
men get up their oars and await the
command Let fall. If the command
Let fall is given before their oars
are up, they point their oars for-
ward over the gunwale, lightly
touch the blades, swing them out,
and take up the stroke.
Let fall Given when the boat is clear of the
ship's side. At the command Let
fall all the oarsmen raise their oars
vertically, and drop the blades out-
board into the rowlocks smartly and
together, slipping the inboard hand
to the handle of the oar, and come
to the position Oars with both hands
on the handle. Under no circum-
stances should the blades be allowed
to touch the water in letting fall.
Give way together Same as described in paragraph 2 of
Way enough (or "In
oars") Same as described in paragraph 2 of
224. Self-bailing snrfboat on boat carriage at station provided
with inclined launching ways.
1. Man the surfboat.
2. Take life preservers.
3. Let go.
4. Up oars.
5. Let fall.
6. Give way.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 49
an the surfboat The crew climb into the boat; each
man standing by his thwart.
Take life preservers Each man quickly and quietly puts on
and adjusts his life preserver, and
- then takes his seat in the boat. The
officer grasps the steering oar.
I Let go The starboard bowman lets go the se-
curing line and takes his seat on
his thwart. At stations where the
boat is kept on the carriage bow
out, the officer will let. go the secur-
Up oars : Given as soon as the boat is clear
of the boatroom doors. Each man
grasps his oar and raises it to the
position of toss, and the officer rigs
out steering oar and bears down on
Let fall Given as soon as the boat is clear
of the boat carriage. Each man
drops his oar smartly into the row-
lock without noise, and takes the
position of Oars.
Give way The crew give way as directed, the
officer sheering the boat as he de-
sires with the steering oar.
225. Explanations and purposes of special commands.
COMMANDS. EXPLANATIONS AND PURPOSES.
Oars__ Explanation. Given when the blades
are in the water. Finish that stroke
and assume the position Oars, as de-
scribed under Out oars, in paragraph
2, article 222.
Purpose. (I) To stop pulling, keep-
ing the oars out. (2) To salute,
50 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
COMMANDS. EXPLANATIONS AND PURPOSES.
Trail Explanation. Given when blades are
in the water. Finish the stroke, re-
lease the handle of the oar. allow-
ing it to draw fore ai.J aft and trail
alongside. If no trailing lines are
fitted, retain the handle of the oar
in the hand.
Purpose. (1) To salute. (2) To pass
obstructions. For the latter, the
oars of either side naay be trailed
Face about hold Explanation. The men face about,
passing around the end of their oars,
and take seats on the next thwart
aft, drop the blades of their oars
into the water, and hold hard. The
men on the after thwart kneel and
hold hard. To get headway in the
opposite direction, give the order
Purpose. (1) To exert full power in
checking headway and stopping
boat. (2) To exert full power in
drawing away from an object. (3)
To avoid a dangerous breaker when
it is impossible or inadvisable to
turn the boat.
Hold water Explanation. Given when blades are
in the water. Cease pulling, drop
the oars in the water, and hold the
blades perpendicular to the keel line.
With considerable way on, espe-
cially in a 'loaded boat, care in hold-
ing water is required to prevent
carrying away the rowlock or the
oar. Under these conditions drop
the oars in the water with the upper
edges of the blades inclined forward
and gradually bring the blades ver-
tical as way is lost. The oars on
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 51
COMMANDS. EXPLANATIONS AND PURPOSES.
either side may hold water inde-
Purpose. To check or -stop headway
Stern all Explanation. Given from position of
Oars or Hold water. The oars are
backed, keeping stroke and feather-
ing as when pulling ahead. Should
not be given when the boat has much
headway. When the boat has head-
way the con i maud Stern all should
be preceded by Oars or Hold water.
Purpose. To acquire sternboard.
Back starboard ( or port ) _ Explanation. Designated oars are
backed as at Stern all. Should Hold
water before backing if boat has
much headway. If quicker action in
turning is desired, the command
Face about port (or starboard), Give