way together should be given.
Purpose. To turn.
Back starboard, give
way port (or vice
versa) .Explanation. Given from the position
of Oars or Hold water.
Purpose. To turn quickly when boat
has little or no headway.
Stand by to toss. Toss Explanation. Same as in paragraph
3 of article 222.
Purpose. (1) To salute. (2) In go-
ing alongside upon official visits to
Boat the oars Explanation. Given from the position
of Toss, OARS, or Trail. Place the
oars quietly and, quickly fore and
aft in the boat. This command may
be given from any position.
Purpose. To get the oars into the
52 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
COMMANDS. EXPLANATIONS AND PURPOSES.
Point the oars Explanation. Stand facing aft, point
the blades of the oars forward and
downward to the beach at an angle
of 30, ready to shvjve off at the
command. If the waves lift the
stern of the boat, the united effort
to shove off should be made just as
her stern lifts.
Purpose. To shove off a grounded or
Stand by to Purpose. When for any reason it may
be desirable, the preparatory com-
mand Stand by to may pre-
cede any command of execution
given in a boat. The preparatory
for Oars is Stand by to lay on the
CAPSIZING AND RIGHTING DRILL.
Being under oars, the officer in charge commands :
Capsize drill .__ Given as a warning.
In oars The oars are boated and placed amid;
ships, blades forward.
Lash oars All pulling oars are lashed to the
thwarts amidships, and the handle
of the steering oar under the after
Man starboard (or port)
righting lines The righting lines are led across the
boat to the opposite side, the men on
each thwart manning the line be-
longing to their respective thwarts.
Capsize The men stand erect on the rail, haul
back on the righting lines, and cap-
size the boat. After the boat is
capsized the men Immediately climb
_up^ on the bottom, carrying the
righting lines with thorn, stand
erect, and brace their feet against
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 53
COMMANDS. EXPLANATIONS AND PURPOSES.
Right boat The men haul on the righting lines
and right the boat, all climbing in
as soon as possible, and taking their
places on their proper thwarts.
Unhisli ours The oars are unlashed and placed on
the outward sides of thwarts. The
officer shoves steering oar into
Out oars Executed as prescribed in article 222,
NOTE. At each capsizing and righting drill the boat shall be
capsized and righted several times.
DRILL FOB BOATS UNDER SAIL.
226. The principles of boat sailing are the same for all rigs.
The use of the lee oars is dangerous when under sail ; a slight
gust of wind lowers the gunwale so as to prevent the oars being
lifted from the water, thus " catching a crab," and the headway
of the boat will cause the oars to fly violently fore and aft.
227. The officer in charge shall never permit anyone to climb
the masts of a boat., If halyards, etc., are unrove unstep the
mast. No person shall be permitted to stand in a boat under
sail ; this does not apply to the helmsman of a motor lifeboat
228. Going alongside under sail requires care, judgment, and
experience. In the first place it should not be attempted if a
boat, or other obstruction which the masts could touch, over-
hangs the gangway, nor in rough weather when the rolling mo-
tion of the boat would cause the masts to strike the ship. In
such cases the masts should be unstepped and the boat brought
alongside under oars.
229. If the ship is riding to a windward tide, approach the
gangway from abaft the beam, tend all gear and shorten sail
when the boat has sufficient way to reach the gangway. The
bow and stroke oarsmen tend boat hooks, and the other men
perform their duties in shortening sail.
230. If the ship is riding to the wind, approach the gangway
from about abeam, tend all gear, bow and stroke oarsmen stand
by the boat hooks ; when there is sufficient way to make the
' gangway, command: Stand by to shorten sail, Shorten sail (if
but one mast). If two masts, command: In jib and foresail.
The jib tack and sheet are let go, the jib is smothered into the
54 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
foremast ; lower the foresail, at the same time putting the
tiller hard down, haul main sheet amidships .or a little on the
weather quarter. This throws the boat's head into the wind,
and hauling the main sheet to windward deadens her headway
when desirable. When alongside, command : In mainsail. Stow
sails and unstop if" desirable. The above is the surest and safest
method, but with skillful handling all sails may be taken in
together, the tiller put hard down, and the boat rounded up to
the gangway. This requires more skill and judgment and
should not ordinarily be attempted.
231. If there is any current, make allowance for it by head-
ing for a point farther forward or aft, as the case may be.
MOTOR LIFEBOAT UNDER SAIL.
235. The boat being under oars or power, to make sail :
Way enough Oars are boated or engine stopped.
Stand by to step ^he starboard oarsmen launch the
main mast forward until heel of
mast is even with step ; raise mast
head. Similarly port oarsmen
launch foremast to position and
raise rnast head. All crew remain
seated whenever their duties will
Step the masts Stroke oars guide heel of main mast
into step. Bow oars guide heel of
foremast into step. Starboard oars-
men stand on deck and raise main
mast. Port oarsmen stand on deck
and raise foremast. Bow and stroke
oarsmen secure mast clamps and
cast off shrouds and set them up.
Loose sail No. 1 stroke oarsman casts oil" sheet
from mainsail and takes place in
stern sheets with main sheet in
hand. No. 2 stroke oarsman mans
the mainsail halyards. No. 1 re-
ports when all is ready aft. No. 7
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 55
casts adrift fore sheet and passes
it aft to No. 3. No. 5 mans the fore-
sail halyards. No. 8 casts adrift
jib halyards, hauls head of jib down
to deck, hooks and mans jib hal-
yards. No. 7 sets np jib tack and
passes sheets aft on each side to
No. 4. No. 7 reports when all is
With starboard (or port)
sheet. Make sail Jib, foresail, and mainsail are hoisted
chock up. The men convenient to the
sheets haul them aft on designated
side and tend them. Bowmen keep
bright lookout ahead, fully inform-
ing the officer of the proximity of
obstructions or approaching vessels.
23G. To Tack.
Ready about Given as a warning for the crew to pre-
pare for the evolution. The officer
gives the boat a good full, waits
for a smooth time, then eases down
the tiller. At the same time the
man tending the main sheet hauls
it amidships slowly. (Do not haul
it across the amidship line, for it
then acts as a back sail.)
Ease off the jib sheet Given when jib begins to shiver.
Let go fore sheet Given when foresail ceases to draw.
If boat seems inclined to stop head
to wind, haul jib sheet to windward;
the jib will be taken aback and pay
her head around. If the boat gath-
ers sternboard, shift the tiller.
Shift over main sheet When wind is ahead, shift over the
main sheet and stand by to haul it
aft when well around on the new
56 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
Haul aft fore and jib
sheets As soon as the bow of the boat has
passed the wind, haul aft fore and
jib sheets, leaving the main sheet
slack until boat is well around,
then trim by the wind. If the boat
falls off too far from the wind, haul
aft main sheet and keep jib sheet
flying until she is brought up by the
foresail and the mainsail and the
tiller. When nearly high enough,
haul aft the jib sheet and trim her
by the wind.
237. To Wear. v
Stand by to wear Given as a warning for the crew to
prepare for the evolution. Officer
puts the tiller up when ready.
Ease off main sheet Given as the boat's head pays off, in
order to get the maximum effect of
the mainsail in increasing her head-
way. Keep fast the fore and jib
sheets until wind is abeam, as they
help pay her head off.
Ease off fore and jib
sheets Given when wind is a little abaft the
beam. Slack the sheets off grad-
In mainsail Given when wind comes nearly aft.
Haul down the mainsail.
Shift over sheets Given when wind is aft. Stand by to
haul all sheets aft on the other side.
Set mainsail Given when wind is slightly on new
weather quarter. Set mainsail and
haul it flat aft. Leave other sheets
flying, or smothered in to mast, so
she will come up rapidly.
Haul aft fore and jib
sheets .Given as the boat comes by the wind
on new tack. Haul both sheets flat
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 57
NOTE. If wearing in a light to gentle breeze, it is unnecessary
to take in the mainsail, but in a moderate breeze, or anything
stronger, it should always be done on account of danger from
With a sprit rig, put tiller up and ease off sheets. When the
wind is nearly aft, trim in main sheet to avoid danger from
gybing violently. In anything stronger than a gentle breeze,
sprit-rigged boats should always be tacked to avoid this danger.
If absolutely necessary to gybe a sprit-rigged boat in a fresh
breeze, the peak should be dropped in addition to hauling in the
238. To Heave to.
Stnnd by to heave to Given as a warning for the crew to
prepare for the evolution. Officer
brings boat by the wind and keeps
Haul main sheet flat aft. i
HauT aft weather jib
sheet. In foresail These commands are given simultane-
ously, and are obeyed by the men
at their various stations. In heavy
weather the foresail shall be .taken
in ; in light . breezes the fore sheet
may be simply slacked off. If the
bow falls off, slack away jib sheet.
The boat in this condition should
lie dead in the water, wind about
239. To Get Under Way from Heave to.
Make sail Haul aft fore and jib sheets and set
foresail, ease the tiller, and case off
the main sheet.
58 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
240. To Reef Sail.
Stand by to reef Given as a warning for the crew to
prepare for the evolution. Tend fore
and main halyards. Officer brings
boat by the wind.
Slack down fore and
main halyards Officer luffs slightly, but not enough
to cause boat to lose headway. Pore
and main halyards are slacked down
about 18 inches.
Reef sail .Pass the reef earings from the reef
cringles to the tack bands. The
earings in the leeches should be
tightly bound around the foot of the
sails. Pass reef points around foot
of sail. No. 7 reports "All ready for-
Hoist away Given when sails are reefed and all is
ready. Men at halyards hoist sails
and officer lays boat on desired
course. Always keep boat under
control, if possible, while reefing.
Reef whenever boat begins to take
in water over lee rail. Never be
afraid of reefing too soon.
241. To Douse Sail.
Stand by to shorten sail-Given as a warning for the crew to
stand by their stations. Tend all
Shorten sail Slack away all halyards until sails
are lowered into boat. Men sit on
thwarts awaiting next command.
Furl sails Bowmen and stroke oarsmen, assisted
by Nos. 5 and 6, and 3 mid 4, re-
spectively, unhook yard from trav-
eler and tack from tack band, and
then furl sails on foot, making
smooth skin and rolling sails up to
yards, which should be left out and
clear. Use sheets for furling lines.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR, COAST GUARD STATIONS. 59
The jib should be rolled up with the
foresail, having unhooked halyards
and tack. Secure traveler bands to
tack bands, and lower jib halyard
block to tack band on foremast.
Prepare to unstep .Come up shroud tackles, and secure
shrouds and tackles around masts.
Nos. 1 and 7 report when all is ready
Stand by ; unstep .Make a slight pause between these
commands. The starboard oarsmen
seize the mainmast, and the port
oarsmen the foremast. The stroke
and bow oarsmen unclamp the main-
mast and the foremast, respectively.
The masts are lifted vertically (in-
clining each in the direction it is to
be lowered) until heels are clear of
the tenons and then lowered into
boat, the foremast on port side, and
mainmast on starboard side. Men
quickly take seats on thwarts.
242. General Rules for Boats Under Sail:
1. Never be afraid to reef in good time.
2. Always see sails well set, and trimmed according to
the direction of the wind.
3. See that sheets are never belayed.
4. See that crew is properly stationed for making and
shortening sail, reefing, and tacking.
5. Trim boat by shifting crew or ballast as required.
6. .Make the crew sit on the thwarts. In stepping and
unstepping masts and making sail, no one will stand
up, except when absolutely necessary, and even
then only on bottom boards or deck of the boat.
7. Remember that a loaded boat carries more way than
an empty one.
8. In going alongside, allow plenty of room for rounding
to. Unstep the masts as soon as sail is lowered.
If you are not likely to go alongside in a seaman-
like fashion, tack or wear and try again.
60 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
MANAGEMENT OF BOATS IN A SURF, BEACHING THEM, ETC.
243. The following rules are published by the Royal National
Lifeboat Institution of Great Britain :
I. Rowing to seaward. (1) As a general rule, speed must be
given to a boat rowing against a heavy surf. Indeed, under
some circumstances, her safety will depend upon the utmost
possible speed being attained on meeting a. sea. For if the sea
be really heavy and the wind blowing a hard, onshore gale, an
approaching heavy sea may carry the boat away on its front
and turn it broadside on or upend it. A boat's only chance in
such a case is to obtain such a way as shall enable her to pass
end on through the crest of a sea and leave it as soon as possible
behind her. If there be a rather heavy surf, but no wind, or if
the wind is offshore and opposed to the surf, as is often the
case, a boat may be propelled so rapidly through it that her
bow would fall more suddenly and heavily after topping the
sea than if her way had been checked; it may, therefore, be
only when the sea is of such magnitude and the boat of such
character that there may be chance of the former carrying her
back before it that full speed should be given to her.
(2) It may also happen that by careful management a boat
may be made to avoid the sea, so that each wave may break
ahead of her, which may be the only chance of safety in a small
boat, but if the shore be flat and the broken water extend to a
great distance from it this will often be impossible.
The following general rules for rowing to seaward may be
relied upon :
(a) If sufficient command can be kept over a boat by the
skill of those on board her, avoid the sea if possible, so as not
to meet it at the moment of its breaking or curling over.
(I)) Against a head gale and a heavy surf, get all possible
speed on a boat on the approach of every sea which can not
(c) If more speed can be given to a boat than is sufficient
to prevent her from being carried back by a surf, her way may
be checked on its approach, which will give her an easier pas-
sage over it.
II. Running before a broken sea, or surf, to the shore (flat
beach). (1) The one great danger when running before a
broken sea is that of " broaching to." To that peculiar effect
of the sea, so frequently destructive of human life, the utmost
attention must be directed. The cause of a boat's broaching to
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 61
when running before a broken sea or surf is that her own motion
being in the same direction as that of the sea she opposes no
resistance to it, but is carried before it. (Thus, if a boat
be running bow on to the shore and her stern to the sea, the
first effect of the surf or roller on its overtaking her is to throw
up her stern, and, as a consequence, to depress the bow; if she
then have sufficient inertia (which will be proportional to
weight) to allow the sea to pass her, she will in succession pass
Through the descending, the horizontal, and the ascending posi-
tions as the crest of the wave passes successively her stern,
her midships, and her bow, in the reverse order in which the
same positions occur in a boat propelled to seaward against
the surf. This may be defined as the safe mode of running
before a broken sea.
(2) But if a boat, on being overtaken by a heavy surf, has
not suflicient inertia to allow it to pass her the first of the
three positions alone occurs her stern is raised high in the air
and the wave carries the boat before it, on its front or unsafe
side, the bow deeply immersed in the hollow of the sea, where
the water, being stationary, or comparatively so, offers a
resistance; while the crest of the sea, having the actual motion
which causes it to break forces onward the rear end of the
boat. A boat in this position will sometimes, aided by careful
oar steerage, run a considerable distance until the wave has
broken and expended itself. But it will often happen that,
if the bow be low, it will be driven under water, when the
buoyancy being lost forward, while the sea presses on the
stern, the boat will be thrown end over end; or, if the bow be
high or protected by a bow air chamber, so that it does not
become submerged the resistance forward acting on one bow
will slightly turn the boat's head, and the force of the surf
being transferred to the opposite quarter she will in a moment
be turned broadside to the sea and be thrown by it on her beam
ends, or altogether capsized. It is in this manner that mosc
boats are upset in a surf, especially on fiat coasts.
(3) Hence it follows that the management of a boat, when
landing through a heavy surf, must, as far as possible, be
assimilated to that when proceeding to seaward against one,
at least so far as to stop her progress shoreward at a moment
of being overtaken by a heavy sea and thus enabling it to pass
her. There are different ways of effecting this object :
a. By turning a boat's head to the sea before entering the
broken water and then backing in, stern foremost, pulling a
62 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
few strokes ahead to meet each heavy sea, and then again
backing astern. If a sea be really heavy and a boat small this
plan will be generally safest, as a boat can be kept more under
command when the full force of the oars is used against a
heavy surf than by backing them only.
/>. If rowing to shore with the stern to seaward by back-
ing all the oars on the approach of a heavy sea and rowing
ahead again as soon as it has passed to the bow of the boat,
thus rowing in on the back of the wave ; or, as is practiced
in some lifeboats, placing the after oarsmen with their faces
forward and making them row back at each sea on its approach.
c. If rowed in bow foremost by towing astern a pig of ballast
or a large stone, or a large basket, or a canvas bag termed
a " drogue," or drag, made for the purpose, the object of each
being to hold the boat's stern back and prevent her being turned
broadside to the sea or broaching to.
d. Heavy weights should be kept out of the extreme ends of
the boat, but when rowing before a heavy sea the best trim
is deepest by the stern, which prevents the stern being readily
driven off by the sea.
e. When running before a sea, a boat should be steered by
an oar over the stern or on one quarter.
(4) General rules for running before, or attempting to land
through, a heavy surf or broken water:
a. As far as possible avoid each sea by placing the boat
where the sea will break ahead of her.
b. If the sea be very heavy, or if the boat be small, and
especially if she has a square stern, bring her bow round to
seaward and back her in, rowing ahead against each heavy
surf sufficiently to allow it to pass the boat.
c. If it be considered safe to proceed to the shore bow fore-
most, back the oars against each sea on its approach, so as to
stop the boat's way through the water as far as possible, and
if there is a drag, or any other appliance in the boat which may
be used as one, tow it astern to aid in. keeping the boat stern-on
to the sea, which is the chief object in view.
d. Bring the principal weight in the boat toward the end that
is to seaward, but not to the extreme end.
e. If a boat worked by both sails and oars be running under
sail for the land through a heavy sea, her crew should, unless
the beach be quite steep, take down her sails and masts before
entering the broken water, and take her to land under oars
alone, as above described. If she have sails only, her sails
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 63
should be much reduced, a half-lowered foresail or other small
head sa i 1 bei 1 1 g sufiicien I .
III. Rc-'icliiny or landuifi thro-mjli a surf. (1) The running
bo [ore a sari: or broken sea, and the beaching or landing of a
boat, are two distinct operations; the management of boats, as
;ih-.\o recommended, lias exclusive reference to running before
a surf where the shore is so flat that the broken water extends
to some distance from the beach. On a very steep beach the
first heavy fall of broken water will be on the beach itself,
while on some very Hat shores there will be broken water ex-
tending 4 or 5 miles from the land. The outermost line of
broken water, on a flat shore, where the waves break in 3 or
4 fathoms of water, is the. heaviest, arid therefore the most
dangerous; and when it has been passed through in safety the
danger lessens as the water shoals, until on nearing the land its
force is spent and its power is harmless. As the character of
the sea is quite different on steep and flat shores, so is the
customary management of boats on landing different in the two
(2) On the flat shore, whether a boat be run or backed in, she
is kept straight before or end-on to the sea until she is fairly
aground, when each surf takes her farther in as it overtakes
her, aided by the crew, who will then generally jump out to
lighten her arid drag her in by her sides. As above stated,
sail will, in this case, have been previously taken in, if set, and
the boat will have been rowed or backed in by the oars alone.
(3) On a steep beach, it is the general practice, in a boat
of any size, to sail right onto the beach, and in the act of
landing, whether under oars or sail, to turn the boat's bow
half around toward the direction in which the surf is running,
so that she may be thrown on her broadside up $he beach,
where help is usually at hand to haul her as quickly as possible
out of the reach of the sea. In such situations, we believe it
is nowhere the practice to back a boat in stern foremost under
oars, but to row in under full speed, as above described.
LANDING IN A HEAVY SURF IN A MOTOR SURFBOAT.
244. The following general rules may be relied on :
(a) That a motor surfboat should enter the surf at a mod-
orate speed with the rudder unshipped, steering oar in place,
and an oar out on each quarter to assist in steering. It is
safest to stop the engine and land under oars, particularly if
64 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
the surf is dangerous and is breaking close to the beach. Care
should be taken to keep the boat's stern to the sea. If the sea
gets on the quarter, there will be a tendency to broach to.
(b) That the drogue should be used in landing in a heavy
surf, and that a long drogue rope is preferable f o a short one,
except when working through broken water, as when on a
shoal. The drogue should be tended by a surlinan with a
hatchet, ready to cut the tripping line, and the drogue rope
also, if circumstances warrant and the drogue rope is not long
enough, if slacked off, to permit the boat to reach the beach.
It sometimes happens, when a boat is running true, that the
drogue, even when tripped, will hold the boat back at a time
when she should go as fast as possible on the sea selected for
landing. A strain should be kept on the drogue rope, as a
slack rope is likely to foul the propeller.
(c) Backing the engine in a surf is dangerous, as it will
cause the stern to deviate from a right angle to the surf.
(d) Weights should be so distributed as to trim the boat by
the stern, so that it will drag.
(c) Oil will be found to be of great assistance in landing-
through a heavy surf. Fish oil is best for this purpose. Oakurn