tightly upon the pins, it should not be forced off the pins by
the bottom board, which is liable to split, but the frame should
be raised and a few of the bottom fakes removed with the hand
when the remainder will fall off into its place in the box.
(4) Officer in charge loads with cartridges, No. 1 provides the
shot, wipes and holds it while No. 2 wets a fathom of the shot
line and bends it into the shank with three half hitches. No. 1
then inserts the shot into the bore from side of gun, forcing it
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
gently but firmly down upon the C'hJii^e jy^bout disturbing the
fakes and without any slack line ociuc<.n flic (tun and'the shot-
line box. > % ' ' Y
> ~^L- - ~^'- "^ " ~~ > " *'>>.
t} for Sand Anchor.
FIG. 3. Halt.
(5) Nos. 1 and 2 take position on their knees on the left and
right side of the gun, respectively, and train the muzzle to the
right or left by the rear handles, as directed by the officer in
charge, who pricks the cartridge, leaving the priming wire in
the vent, steps 2 or 3 yards to the rear, sights over the gun, and
INSTRUCTIONS FOE COAST GUARD STATIONS. 103
commands " Right," " Left," or " Well," as required, giving his
orders in a sharp, distinct tone.
(6) The lateral training obtained, due allowance being made
for the wind, the officer in charge gives the gun the necessary
elevation with the combination level, withdraws the priming
wire, inserts the primer, bending the loop at a right angle to the
tube, hooks the lanyard into the loop, stands off on the weather
side, gives the cautionary word " Ready," and fires.
(7) When firing the gun, the officer in charge reeves the lan-
yard through the rear handle of the carriage and gives a sharp,
FIG. 5. Manner in which shot line is bent to whip and tail.
strong pull in a direction below the level of the vent, to avoid
disturbing the elevation.
(8) In the meanwhile No. 4 unloads and carries the crotch
to a point on a line between the sand anchor and wreck, at a
suitable distance from the water, on the bluff of the bank, if
possible, and opens it wide, span on the left, the legs forming
a straight line parallel with the beach, and then carries the
breeches buoy and end of hawser to a point in front of the
crotch, and as near the water as possible. If the wooden buoy
block is used, he reeves the end of the hawser through it and
attaches the tally board.
104 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
(9) Nos. 3 and 4 stretch the tackle from the sand anchor
toward the crotch (3 at outer block, 4 at inner or white block),
remove the straps, leaving it clear and ready to be placed upon
(10) If a threefold tackle is used, No. 4 hooks the inner
(white) block into the sand-anchor pennant.
(11) Communication being made with the wreck, No. 1
takes a round turn and two half hitches with the shot line
around both parts of the whip immediately behind the block,
while 2 makes a half hitch over the end of the tail of whip
block with the bight of the shot line. ( See fig. 5. )
Fig. 6 shows the position of the men and apparatus at this
(12) The officer in charge makes a signal to the wreck to haul
on board ; No. 1 tends to the left and No. 2 the right part of the
whip, separating them a distance of 50 or more yards; Nos. 3
and 4 haul the whip from the reel as fast as it is needed, No. 3
standing on the left, No. 4 on the right. (See fig. 7.)
(13) When the tail block has been made fast on board the
wreck, the lee man (No. 1 or No. 2) bends the bight of the lee
part of the whip to the hawser just inside the tally board, with
a round turn around the hawser and a half hitch around the
standing part of the whip, the end of the hawser hanging
loose. Fig. 8 shows the method of bending the lee part of the
whip to the hawser.
(14) The men man the weather part of the whip, excepting
the lee man (No. 1 or No. 2), who tends the lee part of the
whip, keeping it clear of the hawser, which will drift to lee-
ward of it, and the lee man (No. 3 or No. 4), who hauls the
whip from the reel. The officer in charge hauls the hawser
from the cart and lights it to the surf. ( See fig. 9. )
(15) The hawser having reached the wreck, the lee man
(No. 1 or No. 2) holds the breeches-buoy block while the officer
in charge throws over it a clove hitch with the bight of the
weather part of the whip, and hauls it snug around the neck.
The block is then snapped on the hawser by the holder, and
the officer in charge bends the buoy bridle into the whip, inshore
of the buoy, with a bowline knot.
(16) If the wooden buoy block is used, the buoy is passed
down through the loops of the clove hitch and the hitch hauled
very snug around the neck of the block. ( See fig. 10. )
(17) When a threefold purchase is used the pennant block is
dispensed with, and as soon as the hawser is made fast to
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
the wreck the men who have been manning the weather part
of the whip haul in the slack of the hawser. No. 5 holding the
turn around the sand-anchor pennant or pennant cleat, No, 3
adjusting the strap or chain tail around the hawser, and No. 4
hooking the outer block of the tackle into the strap. The proper
manner of adjusting the strap is shown in figure 11.
(18) The hawser is then hauled moderately taut by the officer
in charge and Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. No. 5 takes a turn
..-w^&. - x. u
/;;, ' ' " V- "V
FIG. 8. Manner in which bight of whip is bent to hawser.
with the fall, while Nos. 3 arid 1 at the heel of the left leg of
the crotch and Nos. 2 and 4 at the heel of the right leg, with
the officer in charge and Nos. 6 and 7 in the center, raise the
crotch by raising the center, bringing the heels as near together
as necessary, No. 3 passing and securing the span. ( See fig. 12. )
(19) The crotch is inclined outward sufficiently to allow the
hawser to be hauled well taut upon its gaining a perpendicular
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
(20) The tackle is again manned and the hawser hauled taut
when the fall is belayed by No. 5 around the neck of the inner
block or pennant cleat (being careful not to choke the luff)
and the whip is manned* If it becomes necessary to fleet the
threefold tackle when the pennant block is not used, No. 5
takes a turn with the hawser around the sand-anchor pennant
FIG. 10. Manner in which whip is attached to breeches buoy.
or pennant cleat, No. 3 fleets the strap, and No. 4, with the
necessary assistance, overhauls and hooks the outer block of
(21) To fleet tackle when pennant block is used, the officer in
charge with a strap and heaver, racks both parts of hawser
together near pennant block, and the tackle is then overhauled
and hooked by the men assigned to those duties.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
(22) When a twofold purchase and a pennant block are used,
No. 6, as soon as the hawser is attached to the wreck snatches
the bight into the pennant block and locks it, and the men
on the weather part of the whip haul in the slack of the hawser,
when Nos. 3, 4, 5, and 6 put the tackle on Nos. 3 and 4 at the
outer block, No. 3 with the strap, Nos. 5 and 6 at thj inner
block, No. 6 making a cat's-paw in the hauling part of the
hawser, into which Nos. 5 and 6 hook the inner block.
FIG. 11. Manner of adjusting strap to hawser.
381. Man lee whip Haul off. Nos. 1 and 2 have charge of
the left and the right side of the whip, respectively. Nos.
3, 4, 5. 6, and 7 are shifting men, man the lee part, and haul
the buoy off to the wreck. (See fig. 13.)
382. (1) Man weather whip Haul ashore. Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6,
and 7 shift to the weather part of the whip and haul ashore,
the officer in charge superintending and assisting when neces-
sary. (See fig. 14.)
(2) The officer in charge and No. 7 assist the rescued persons
out of the buoy when they reach the shore.
114 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
383. Odd numbers are on the left, even numbers are on the
right when stationed at the beach cart; and throughout the
exercise, when two numbers work in company, as in training
the gun, tending the whip, hauling the whip from the reel,
etc., the odd number is on the left, the even number on the right.
384. The exercise must be considered as a whole, and when a
man has performed one duty he will proceed to execute the
next assigned him. All must work together. While the officer
in charge and Nos. 1 and 2 are opening communication with the
gun and shot line, Nos. 3, 4, 5, and 6 will have the hawser and
its connections ready for sending off and hauling taut.
385. When practicing, No. 6 or No. 7 will go to the wreck
pole as soon as the gun is discharged, and haul off and make
fast the whip and hawser.
386. When the individuals of the crew have become expert in
the performance of their several special duties, they are, in
drill, to be successively transferred, temporarily, to the per-
formance of the duties of each of the other members, until
every man becomes proficient in the particular duties of every
position. This change is effected by making each man, except
the officer in charge, shift his station at the beach cart one
place, proceeding in the same direction as the hands of a watch
move. Thus, in the first change, No. 7 acts as No. 1, No. 1 as
No. 3, No. 3 as No. 5, No. 5 as No. 6, No. 6 as No. 4, No. 4 as
No. 2, and No. 2 as No. 7. (See Fig. 1.)
387. In many instances, after communication is made with a
wreck, as many as two or three hundred yards of shot line
will be left in the box. The officer in charge must be governed
by circumstances as to the best method of handling the surplus
line. If there is no danger of the wreck going to pieces, the
spare line may be hauled on board the wreck, the shore end
being bent around the whip ; but where great haste is necessary
it must be cut.
388. In service at a wreck the bight of the shot line should
not be bent around the whip, as the portion inshore is liable to
foul the whip.
389. Instances may occur when a wreck is breaking up
rapidly, and there is not sufficient time to send off the whip
and hawser, or the crew are too much exhausted to haul the
gear off. In such cases, after communication is made by means
of the shot line, that line should be cut, and the shore end bent
to a single part of the whip; when the end of the whip has
reached the wreck, the bight of the whip should be bent into the
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 115
slings of the buoy (block removed) so that the buoy may be
pulled off through the surf by the people on the wreck.
390. Work can be facilitated if, after the gear is set up and
in working order, a good man from one of the adjacent crews
be sent off to the wreck in the breeches buoy to superintend the
work at that end, assist the people into the buoy, etc.
391. When more crews than one are present the adjacent
crews will assist in hauling off and setting up the hawser,
hauling the buoy off and on, and assisting the people from it.
392. Officers in charge are particularly directed to allow no
interference in the management of the apparatus from outside
parties, but may accept their assistance in hauling on ropes, etc.
393. (1) When the life car is to be used in drill, where the
drill ground is over water, it should be substituted for the
breeches buoy, and be hauled to and from the wreck pole upon
the hawser in the same manner as the buoy, the hawser being
rove through the eye of each bail and the whip line made fast to
the bails as follows: Take two half hitches with a bight of
the whip around the outer bail under the eye, carry the whip
to the inner bail and make it fast with a bight as before, hav-
ing the bail upright, and the whip between them taut, for a
(2) In addition to the above, the practice at a drill should
include the hauling of the car back and forth through the
water as follows : The shot line having fallen over the wreck
pole, bend the whip line into the rings at the ends of the life
car in the same manner as described above, except that the line
between the rings should be left sufficiently slack not to ob-
struct the hatch of the car. The car should then be hauled
back and forth over the water. This maneuver should be
repeated two or three times. Where this can not be done on
account of the absence of water at the drill ground, two men
will go out in the surfboat and anchor it at the usual prac-
tice distance from the shore. The line will then be fired across
the boat, and the drill will be carried out as last above directetl.
To LOAD THE BEACH CAET.
401. The crews are not to be exercised in loading the carts
expeditiously, but rather in compactly stowing the apparatus,
following the instructions herein contained.
116 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
402. The apparatus must be placed upon the cart in the fol-
(a) The reel is to be unshipped. One man lights along the
hawser while four men, one at each corner of the cart, proceed
to coil it down, right-handed and from the outside toward the
center, in a Flemish coil. Having completed the first layer,
carry the bight to the outside of the coil and coil toward the
center again. This is done in order that the hawser, when in
use, may run from the center of the coil.
(&) Tally board No. 2 is to be spliced or bent on the top end
of the hawser and stowed away in the center of the coil.
(c) Ship the reel. Reeve the whip through the tail block,
make each end of the whip fast with a slight stop at each side
of the reel, and reel up, working toward the middle of the
spindle; when both parts meet, work back to the end, and so on
until the whip is on the reel, when the tail block will hang in
the middle of the whip over the front of the reel.
(d) Tally board No. 1 is to be spliced permanently into Ihe
tail of the whip block just above the splice.
(e) The inner block, or that next the sand anchor, should be
painted white, the outer one left bright. The tackle is to be
overhauled its full length, and a strap placed around all parts
of the fall, under each block. The outer block is to be placed
under the reel, on the left side, and all parts of the fall, coiled
right-handed around upon the hawser, laying them down flat,
finishing with the inner block under the reel, opposite the outer
(/) The gun is to be placed athwart the hawser, immediately
over the axle, muzzle to the right. Stops, 3 feet long, are
spliced into the top of the sides of the cart body, and are made
fast through the front and rear handles of the right side of the
(g) Shot-line box A, containing No. 9 line, is to be placed
across the cart in the rear of the gun, rilling the space between
the gun and the tailboard. Stops, 3 feet in length, are spliced
into the top of the sides of the cart body and are made fast
into the handles of the shot-line box, and No. 7 and No. 4 lines
in their respective boxes are secured on top of all.
(h) The shot lines must be faked as shown in the diagram
(fig. 15), and hauled as closely around the pins as can be done
without springing them.
(i) The rammer is to be placed between the gun and the shot-
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
(j) The tailboard is cut away sufficiently on the top under
the rails to admit of its being raised to drive under the tail-
board and hawser two pieces of wood, one-half inch thick, 2
inches wide, and 3 feet long, one on each side, leaving 4 inches
projecting. The sand anchor is to be placed across the rear end
of the cart, upon its edge, resting upon these projecting pieces,
the pennant hooked into it and moused.
(k) The stops spliced into the eyes of the tailboard rods are
to be passed down outside of the anchor, around the horns of
the cross frame of the cart body, back, up outside the anchor,
and made fast in the eye again.
(I) The pennant is to be kept up in place by the same stops.
The sharp point of the pickax is to be stuck between the sand
FIG. 15. Method of faking the shot line.
anchor and the tailboard, on the left side, the handle to the
right, the point of the pick resting upon the sand-anchor sup-
(m) The loops of the shovel handles are to be placed over the
upper horn of the pick, blades of the shovels to the right, and
kept in place by a stop spliced around the right rear brace of
the cart body and brought up over and around the shovel han-
(n) A f-inch hole is bored through both legs of the crotch, at
a distance from the bolt equal to the extreme length of the cart.
A span of 1^-inch rope, 3 fathoms long, is spliced into one of
these holes. The crotch is to be secured under the cart on the
left side by taking a half hitch around both legs with this span,
making the span fast around the horn of the after crosspiece
118 INSTRUCTIONS FOE COAST GUARD STATIONS.
of the cart body, the liead of the crotch being made fast at the
breast piece with a two-legged stop spliced there for that pur-
(o) Three shots and a heaving stick and line are to be placed
upon the hawser in front of the gun, a piece of bagging being
put under them.
(p) Upon the gun there is to be placed a haversack contain-
ing the lanyard, priming wires, combination level, red flannel,
three 6-ounce, three 5-ounce, and three 4-ounce cartridges, filled
and marked, and 24 primers.
(q) The breeches buoy is to be laid flat, resting upon the
reel and gun. The hawser cutter will be placed under the
afterpart of the reel. The speaking trumpet is to be hung
over the left headboard rod.
(r) The gun worm and ax are to be hung in leather beckets
on the left and right sides of the cart body, respectively.
(s) The tarpaulin, stopped at the corners and sides 3 is to be
spread over all.
(t) A water light shall always be carried, suspended from
the underside of the cart. A life preserver also shall be car-
ried on the cart for use in case a man must be sent into the
surf with the lines. Signal flag's shall be becketed underneath
(u) Two torches shall be secured to the headboard by the
fixtures supplied with them.
(v) Two lanterns (unlighted till required for signaling) shall
be carried, one on each side, attached to the uprights.
403. Loaded .as above, the reel stanchions placed 6 inches
from the headboard, the cart should exactly balance. If,
through difference in size and weight of crotch and sand anchor
the cart does not balance, it can be adjusted by moving the gun
a few inches forward or aft.
404. While standing in the house the cart should have a sup-
port under the center of the axle.
411. (1) After the crew is landed from a stranded vessel, it
may be necessary to detach the hawser from the wreck, either
for the purpose of using it elsewhere or because the wreck is
rapidly breaking up. In either case the hawser cutter should be
used. To do this, the breeches buoy is first removed, and then,
facing the wreck and standing on the left of the hawser, the
cutter is placed upon it by grasping it, as shown in figure 16,
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 119
FIG. 16. Applying hawser cutter.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
the white end of the cutter being inshore, the eyes of the knives
inclined toward the wreck. The cutter is then closed and the
clasp secured, head of pin to seaward.
FIG. 17. Hawser c alter arranged for hauling off.
(2) The becket in the outer end of the cutter should have two
eyes formed in the bight by passing a seizing around both parts
2 inches from the bight, and a second seizing 2 inches from the
INSTRUCTIONS FOE COAST GUARD STATIONS. 121
first. The method of bending the whip to the hawser cutter is
as follows (see fig. 17) :
(3) Bond a bight of the weather part of the whip into the
outer eye of the becket, leading from the outer end of the cut-
ter, with a sheet bend, as at A, and the tail of the knife lan-
yards into another bight of the same part of the whip with a
bowline knot, B, allowing' sufficient slack line, G (say, 2
fathoms), to permit the knives to work.
(4) About 2 feet inshore of the last knot, take up another
bight, D, of the whip, and pass it up through the second eye in
the outer becket, toggling it with another bight, E. This trans-
fers the weight of the whip from the knives to the becket, thus
relieving the hawser from their pressure while the cutter is
being hauled off to the wreck.
(5) Haul the cutter out as close as possible to the spar to
which the hawser is secured, letting the part of the whip, F,
fast to the knives, hang as loosely as possible.
(6) When the cutter reaches the spar hold fast to the haul-
ing-out part, haul on the hauling-in part, F, attached to the
knives, which will remove the toggle bight E, freeing bight D
from the eye, allowing the strain to come on the knives, which
will cut the hawser.
(7) Haul the hawser in as quickly as possible, to prevent its
unlaying. Haul back, and unbend the whip 'from the cutter.
Unreeve the whip. Keep the knives sharp, and all ironwork of
the cutter oiled.
MUSTER AT A STATION BY AN INSPECTING
421. (1) The muster shall be held in the most suitable place
at the station, as directed by the inspecting officer. The uni-
form shall be clean blue.
(2) The officer in charge shall form the line, giving the com-
mands, Pall in, Right dress, and Front, and when the line is
dressed, he shall take position as near as possible in front of the
center of it and shall command, Hand, SALUTE. The officer in
charge then faces about, salutes, and reports to the inspecting
officer, " Sir, the crew is mustered." The inspecting officer re-
turns the salute and commands, *' Call the roll, sir." The officer
in charge faces about and commands, Two, at which the men
122 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS.
drop their hands. He then calls the roll. Each man as his name
is called answers with his watch number, the senior answering
for each absentee by stating that he is " On lookout," " In hos-
pital," "Absent without leave," etc., as the case may be. After
the roll is called the officer in charge takes position to the right
of the line.
(3) The inspecting officer inspects the uniforms, obtains re-
quired data, and asks the usual questions as to complaints, and
when lie finishes commands Dismiss.
(4) The officer in charge salutes, steps 2 paces to the front,
faces left, inarches to the center of the line, faces left again,
and commands DISMISSED.
SCHOOL OF THE RECRUIT.
422. For preliminary instruction a number of recruits, usually
not exceeding three or four, are formed as a squad in single
POSITION OF ATTENTION.
423. Heels on the same line and as near each other as the
conformation of the man permits.
Feet turned out equally and forming an angle of about 45.
Knees straight without stiffness.
Hips level and drawn back slightly ; body erect and resting
equally on hips; chest lifted and arched; shoulders square and
Arms and hands hanging naturally, thumb along the seam of
Head erect and squarely to the front, chin drawn in so that
the axis of the head and neck is vertical; eyes straight to the
Weight of the body resting equally upon the heels and balls
of the feet.
424. Being at halt, the commands are: FALL OUT; REST; AT
EASE; and (1) Parade, (2) REST.
At the command fall out, the men may leave the ranks, but
are required to remain in the immediate vicinity. They resume
their former places, at attention, at the command Fall in.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COAST GUARD STATIONS. 123
At the command rest each man keeps one foot in place, but
is not required to preserve silence or immobility.
At the command at ease each man keeps one foot in place and
is required to preserve silence but not immobility.
425. (1) Parade, (2) REST. Carry the right foot 6 inches
straight to the rear, left knee slightly bent ; clasp the hands,
without constraint, in front of the center of the body, fingers
joined, left hand uppermost, left thumb clasped by the thumb
and forefinger of the right hand; preserve silence and steadi-
ness of position.
426. To resume the attention: (1) Squad, (2) ATTENTION.
The men take the position of attention.
EYES BIGHT OR LEFT.
427. (1) Eyes, (2) RIGHT (LEPT), (3) FRONT. At the com-
mand right, turn the head to the right oblique, eyes fixed on
the line of eyes of the men in, or supposed to be in, the same