these benefits in the cost/benefit analysis, but the Levee Districts do not.
The Midwest economy and the environment can prosper together. The Mid-
west economy will not prosper with the environmentalist setting our agenda.
The greatest threat to river transporation, fishing, and recreation is
the accumulation of sand along side the channel and in the back waters. The
Corps for the past 50 years, has not removed maintenance dredge material from
the floodway. The material has been placed along the beach, on islands, and
in deep water. On rare occasions the material has been removed from the
The Midwest's navigable rivers are continuing to fill with sand and sedi-
ment. The environmentalist are promoting two solutions which are the only
ones being discussed.
The first environmental solution is land treatment to prevent soil ero-
The Soil Conservation Service, farmers and the construction industry have
done a great job of reducing erosion. However, all the tributaries are alrea-
dy lotided with sand. Sand does not float and rolls along the bottom. If not
another grain of sand was eroded from the land, the tributaries will deliver
sand for the next 50 years-
The second environmental solution is too make sure navigation and par-
ticularly flood control, is hindered, diminished, or completley stopped:
This strategy is being accomplished now. The Navigation Study is being
delayed and so strongly and effectively opposed by the environmental interests
that the Corps makes statements in the media like one after the recent "Upper
Mississippi Environmental Summit" in Bloomington, Minnesota, " the Corps is
only studying the idea., of improving the lock & dams", (Metro State news
The environmental hype is preventing the implementation of sound policy
which could stop the degradation. All the environmental confusion, misstate-
ments, and bad ideas are creating delays while the rivers are exponentially
filling with sand, more islands are being created with natural trees and tax
dollar planted trees, the Corps is placing billions of tons of rock in the
rivers, and building structures and islands in the river. The floodway and
navigation channels are being filled in. Current actions and inactions are
increasing the risk of flooding and inefficiencies of navigation.
In the meantime, if a city, industry, or community wants to improve their
economic base by improving flood control or navigatitm the idea is declared
economically impossible by rigged economic formulas or environmentally infea-
sible because it would destroy the ecosystem. Appropriations must be with-
drawn from programs that fill the floodway with rock, sand, trees, and vegeta-
tion unless the cities and rural areas are paid mitigation and flowage ease-
ments for the potential damages.
In June of 1996, barge traffic was blocked for two weeks because of sand
in the channel in Pool 18. When traffic resumed, tows through Lock 18 in-
creased from 80 to 100 per week. Freight rates jumped from 250X of tariff to
350% and are yet to return to normal.
The area of the blockage is a chronic dredge site and is adjacent to Iowa
River Flint Creek Levee District # 16. The Corps has just completed their
Dredge Maintenance Management Plan for this area. The 30 year disposal site
chosen is "thalweg" or in common language, dump it in the river. There are 93
dredge sites on the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers that must be eval-
uated for 30 year disposal sites.
The levee district pleaded for the material to be placed on their levee
and agreed to furnish the land, right of way, and pump the dredge water back
into the river through their pumping facilities. The Corps could not choose
the levee site because their cost/benefit analysis does not allow benefits for
infrastructure improvements, reduction of future disaster cost, and future
economic development or charge cost for filling the river and pumping the same
sand again and again. The Corps must be directed to change the cost/benefit
formula to reflect the real values, (see DMMP Environmental Assessment Exhibit
Midwest farmers are being told the Golden Age of Agriculture is upon us
because of huge increases in World food needs, in the near future. These
needs will be met from production areas which are able to produce and deliver
with efficent transportation. Rumors in the trade are "China is looking for a
long term grain deal". South Korea toured Iowa this summer with the Iowa Com
Growers and asked, "Can you produce and deliver our grain needs". The import-
ing countries are also asking the same questions in South America.
South America has millions of acres of grass lands that have never been
plowed. Argentina (75 million acres), Brazil (150 million acres) waiting for
transportation infrastructure which is being quickly improved. An industry
representative recently told one of our members that they are very grateful
for the 1980 grain embargo which kick started their expansion. High U. S.
exchange rates in the early 80' s continued the expansion.
If export estimates are correct and the channel blockage this summer is
an indication of our systems inability to perform, our transportation cost
will go up, South America will accelerate their infrastructure and win a large
portion of our export market, will environmentalist blocking navigation
improvements be the next grain embargo? Will American agriculture become the
supplier of last resort because of high priced freight? Will the current U.S.
trade surplus benefits be lost as a result of our inaction?
In the current schedule, the first lock will not be completed until 2010.
One lock improvement will do very little to increase traffic. It will be 2020
before enough locks are completed to significantly relieve congestion.
An increase in the number of barges will help to a point, but will add to
the congestion and continue to increase the price of freight. The answer is
not merely more barges, but more speed, efficiency, and capacity which will
reduce the freight price and hold off our competition.
The channel is being narrowed by encroachment of sand. In the 1970' s the
channel bouys were set as wide as possible, generally 400 to 600 feet wide.
The channel is being narrowed by sand encroachment to 300 feet and less in
many areas causing one way traffic. Two tows passing is 220 feet of steel. A
little tight in a 300 foot chjmnel with wind and current to contend with.
In the navigation pools huge islands are growing that were not there in
1988. In the 70's the trip from Lock 18 to Lock 17 was 5 hours. Today that
trip is 7 hours because of one way traffic areas. In times of high traffic,
the up bound tow locks through Lock 18, 45 minutes to break apart and reassem-
ble, and 45 minutes to lock through, and parks iramediatley above the lock for
2 hours and waits to meet the down bound tow who is coming down river through
8 miles of one way traffic. All pools on the Lower Illinois and on the Mis-
sissippi between Pool 26 and 15 have one way traffic delays which increase
with more traffic.
All along the navigable rivers the land elevation between the levees is
rising as the floodway fills with sand and sediment. It is particularly bad
along the Lower Illinois River where the elevation is 3 to 10 feet higher
inside the floodway than outside the levee.
The Navigation Study schedule is slipping. The funding must be made
available to the maximum Corps capability to insure several lock and dams are
completed by 2010. The major rehabilitation of Lock and Dams 25 and 24
should begin as soon as possible. All one way areas must be deepened and wi-
dened to decrease traffic delays during the next 15 years. Floodway disposal
of maintenance dredge material musc be immediately prohibited. The building
of channel training and habitat structures must be prohibited unless absolute-
ly essential to protect navigation, prevent bank erosion, and proper mitiga-
tion is arranged with affected property owners.
The latest solution proposed by the environmental industry is a draw down
of water levels, (see exhibit A). A draw down will be devastating to naviga-
tion with a 9 foot channel and especially with increased exports. A 12 foot
channel can be accomplished by cleaning material out of the rivers to avoid
seepwater damage to adjacent property. A 12 foot channel will be needed to
support a doubling of exports over the next 15 years. A 12 foot barge hauls
40Â« more freight than a 9 footer for nearly the same money.
A 3 foot draw down of a 12 foot channel would not devastate navigation
and would accomodate the biological interest, if the environmental interest
find a way to mitigate filling the floodway with more vegatation. The materi-
al removed for the 12 foot channel would help to clean the river and if placed
upon the levee system would reduce disaster cost and promote a tremendous
economic development of good paying jobs like our trading partners are devel-
oping along their waterways. A classical win win situation.
In order for America to remain competitive in the 21st century. Congress
needs to do everything in its power to improve productivity and efficiency in
terms of industrial and agricultural output and improvements in infrastruc-
ture. It is imperative that we look upon such resources as the Mississippi
and other rivers on the inland navigation system as the nations "other" coest.
It is essential to develop a comprehensive or "system wide " approach of
flood control for the Upper Mississippi Valley. A system approach, complete
with improved forecasting would provide superior flood daoage reduction for
urban areas, economic developoent, agriculture, navigation, and habitat pro-
tection. The basin states of Illinois, Missouri, and Iowa have called for a
comprehensive system approach.
The World is investing SlOO's of billions in infrastructure, of which a
large portion is waterway improvements. Something must be done to stop Ameri-
ca's rapid decline in our infrastructue advantage. It is almost impossible
for the Corps to fully value waterway improvements because of the strong
environmental bias in cost/benefit analysis imposed by various Administrations
and the Corps. There is a need for another view using the values currently
being used by our World trading partners to invest in waterway infrastructure
and associated development.
The Association has been working with Delft Hydraulics of The Netherlands
in the development of a conceptual plan for flood, control, navigation, eco-
nomic development, and habitat protection for the Upper Mississippi Valley.
Delft Hydraulics has been very successful in implementing balanced plans
because of fairly valued benefits for all disciplines.
Although the cost of this preliminary study will be very inexpensive as
compared to government implemented studies, the funding is beyond our associa-
tion's capability. Since this work could be the tool that can bring all the
different factions together and benefit the entire Midwest, we are requesting
that the Committee find a way to authorize and provide funding to the Associa-
tion for this study.
It is imperative that we revisit the hydrologic and hydraulic character-
istics of the Midwest Rivers. If a farmer or developer near Hannibal, Mis -
souri, is told conflicting stories by different agencies that the flooding he
has experienced during the past 30 years, was a "100 year" flood, a "200 year
flood", and over a "500 year flood" he has reason to doubt the governments
technologj- in estimating these probabilities.
The White House Inter-Agency Floodplain Review Committee recomended in
1994 that the method for flow frequency determinations be reviewed. In addi-
tion, the "Floodplain Management Assessment of the Upper Mississippi and Lower
Missouri Rivers and Tributaries report conducted by the Corps in June 1995
also recommended that the profiles should be revisited.
Nothing has been accomplished to date regarding these recomendations. It
is time the government restored the public faith in flood profiles. The
committee should direct the Corps to re-examine the flood profiles for the
Upper Mississippi Valley.
The flood of 1993 was very costly to Quincy, Illinois a city of more than
50,000 residents and the place of employment of several thousand nonresidents.
The Mississippi River bridge with daily traffic of more than 12,000 vehicles
was closed for more than 3 months, leaving several thousand people cut off
from their jobs. Flood control improvements would protect critical in-
frastructure and promote continued economic expansion in the Quincy area.
A General Investigations Reconaissance Study should be funded to look at
ways to protect critical infrastructure around the Quincy area and assure that
interstate commerce is not disrupted in the future.
The direction given to the Corps by this Committee to consolidate Divi-
sions is very much appreciated by our Association. The proposal by the Corps
to form a new Upper Mississippi Missouri River Division which will have the
five Districts in the Upper Valley under one Division instead of the present
three divisons will be a great benefit to the people served.
However, the Corps is planning to establish the Division Office in the
existing Missouri River Division office in, Omaha, Nebraska. The center of
division work load, of engneering, contruction, flood control, navigation, and
maintenance will by at the confluence of the three great rivers served, at St.
Louis Missouri. The Oaaha. site would have to be considered a remote location.
The move to Omaha is being touted as a cost saving measure, but is very
short sited. The savings of the initial move will soon evaporate in lost time
and travel expense by Corps personnel, federal and state agencies, citizens,
customers, and contractors. The Association is requesting that this Committee
give a directive and provide the funding, if actually necessary, to centrally
locate the new Division Office in St. Louis, Missouri.
We support an addition or continuation of funds for the following studies
and projects at whatever level is needed to proceed to project implementation
as quickly as possible.
- Nutwood Drainage and Levee District Levee Raise, Jersey and Green
City of Ste. Genevieve Levee Construction, Ste. Genevieve County,
We strongly support the Corp's Continuing Authority Program which encom-
passes both flood control and navigation. We view this program as being
especially vital because more than any other single program, it has the abili-
ty to respond quickly to a variety of needs experienced by communities, coun-
ties, and drainge and levee districts. The need for small flood control
projects is especially great, and these authorities need to be funded at or
near their authorized levels to ensure that these needs are met.
Projects of special importance to the Association include Section 205
project.s for the following:
Bois Brule Drainage District,
Degonia Fountain Creek and Grand Tower Drainage and Levee Districts,
Prairie du Rocher Drainage and Levee District,
St. Peters. Missouri.
The foregoing items of current activity are needed now. We believe these
projects are an important portion of a comprehensive plan that supports im-
proved flood control, navigation, economic development, and habitat protec-
It is essential to actively develop the economic potential of this system
to maintain environmental integrity in the World, assure America's economic
position in the World, and provide good paying jobs for the Midwest.
The Association appreciates the opportunity to testify before the commit-
tee and thank you for your consideration of these requests.
I would like to leave you with these final thoughts.
Please, do not make the theme of this campaign or your efforts in Con-
gress, Medicare, Retirement, and the Environment. The theme must be good
paying jobs. Infrastructure provided by the government and utilized by pri-
vate interprise will produce good jobs which will provide for medicare, re-
tirement, and the environment. A strong economy must lead the parade or we
will all rape the environment and retire in the poor house. Thank you very
DREDGED MATERIAL THALWEG PLACEMENT SITE
MISSISSIPPI RIVER MILES 417^ - 418.7
BENTON ISLAND, POOL 18
us Army Corps
Ak No Artian/r<g Chnnp. The No Action aitcnutive would preclude Federal
involvanent in the project As a result, no dredging will occur. However, if this area is
not diedged, it is possible that shoaling could close the channel to commercial navigation.
This would present an unacceptable risk lo human lire, and significant economic hardship
if collective action is not taken within a much shorter period of time than what is rwjuired
under standard procedures. The No Action alternative is not Â« feasible allcmwive, being
contrary to the congressional mandate to maintain a commctciol navigation channel.
The No Change alternative (no change from pncviota course of action) may potentially
result in environmental degradation of aquatic and teiicsirial habitat adjacent to hi.Motie
placement sites. Continued long-term placement of material &om the Demon Island
dredge ctit along the bisiorically used beaches, ai the freqittncy thai has occurred in the
past, could lead to unacceptable natiiial rcsoutce impacts.
A B. BciKficill.UK. The beneficial use of dredged uiateriol is always pursued ;iinl
iias to date eonsistcd of beach nourishtneni on (he main channel side of Ucnton. Jacoby.
and Camp Islands.
Two potential sites were identified for confined placement behind the lovm Rivcr^rUni
Cteek Levee and Drainage District. These two sites are located ai RM 419.45 - 420.05R
and 419.20 - 419.45R. At dw present lime, both sites are considered to be operaiiotwlly
infeasible, based on cost and logistical problems associated with accommodating ivtum
water from dredging operations. Time constraints, nssociated with anticipatad potential
dredging requirements early in the 1 996 dredging season, also prevent Uiese sites from
being considered feasible to meet short-term needs. For these reasons, the bebiod-levce
placement sites are not evaluated in deuil in this CA.
llK behind*Ievee placement sites, with the tlialweg site, are cunently being evaluated for
cost effectiveness, operational fca.^ibility. environmental acceptability, and other criteria, in
ihc District's Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) process lor long-icnn dredged
material placement. The DMMl' final report is scheduled for completion in KV 1997 using
the agteed-upon evaluation matrix.
C T^pytH'' Plageinen*- Except for the recreational beach nourishment
mentioned above, no acceptable teoestrial placement sites have been ideotified.
D. TtiÂ»lwgy PlafenipnL This is the preferred oltemative. It has been identified n&
tbe least costly alternative that is both environmentally acceptable and operationally
feasible. Under appropriate conditions, thalweg placement avoids impacts lo more
biologically sensitive and/or productive areas sueb as upland. wcUand, or slullow water
habitats, or main ctuutncl borders.
Wednesday, February 28, 1996.
NEW JERSEY PROJECTS
HON. MARGE ROUKEMA, A REPRESENTATIVE IN CONGRESS FROM
THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY
Mr. Frelinghuysen [presiding]. The meeting will come to order.
Good morning. Thank you for being here.
Let me say that I am substituting for Chairman John Myers,
who could not be here this morning, but on the dais with me is the
former Chairman of this committee, Â£ind in many ways is still re-
ferred to as Mr. Chairman and always will be, Congressman Tom
Bevill of Alabama, who has given distinguished service to this Con-
gress and to this committee, and I would like to enter into the
record special thanks on behalf of all Members of the New Jersey
congressional delegation. Republicans and Democrats, our thanks
to Tom Bevill, and to John Myers. Actually the Chairman has ar-
rived, Joe Knollenberg from Michigan. If you don't mind yielding
for a second, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. Knollenberg. You are doing a great job.
Mr. Frelinghuysen. I wanted to pay tribute to both Chairman
Bevill and Chairman Myers. They have been extremely courteous
and of great assistance to all Members of Congress from the State
of New Jersey long before my arrival down here. They work very
closely with our former colleague and friend, the late Dean Gallo,
both Chairman Bevill and Mr. Myers worked very closely with him.
And there has been on this committee a real spirit of bipartisan-
ship and congeniality that I think has worked to everybody's bene-
Let me just make a few comments before introducing my col-
leagues from the New Jersey congressional delegation that are
good enough to be here. One particular concern I have, again, this
year and on best word is that the President may again be planning
to include in his budget submittal language that would diminish
the Federal Government's role in ensuring flood protection in small
navigation projects. I think, Members of Congress from New Jer-
sey, last year we expressed our concern about this policy. We hope
that it will not be included in the President's budget submission for
1996 and 1997. As the Members will say. New Jersey is highly de-
pendent on tourism to bolster and to keep our economy strong and
that is something which we work on as a delegation.
And today I will be circulating a letter which I will share with
my colleagues which will urge the President to continue to support
what is important to New Jersey in terms of flooding and shore
protection, and I will be circulating that to my colleagues and ask-
ing for their assistance in co-signing it.
It is my pleasure to recognize, right off the bat, the chairman â€”
the dean of the New Jersey delegation, Congresswoman Marge
Roukema, for a statement.
Mrs. Roukema. Thank you very much. I would like to be chair-
man, but I am just the dean.
I appreciate your introduction, Congressman Frelinghuysen, and
Chairman Knollenberg, and Mr. Bevill, we appreciate being here,
and not only speaking on behalf of the delegation, but also speak-
ing on behalf of my own constituency, I want to assert that I be-
lieve the mantra in New Jersey as you have already alluded to in
one form or another, and I certainly think my colleagues here are
in agreement. New Jersey is the most highly intensively populated
State and densely populated State in the Nation, and our mantra
is and has to be and continues to be: Health and safety first. And
I think what you are going to hear today is consistent with that,
and I certainly want to thank the Chairman for having the delega-
tion testify here on the very important issues regarding energy and
water on this subcommittee.
I welcome the opportunity today to bring to your attention and
support my colleagues here who are speaking on issues important
to the whole State and specifically to their districts, and bring to
your attention the importance of a project in my own district in
Oakland, NJ. As a long-time supporter of the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers' Oakland Flood Protection Project, I am committed to
seeing that this project becomes a reality, and indeed, this commit-
tee has long supported the project.
Flooding along the Ramapo River has occurred 15 times in the
past 24 years, and the people who live along its banks cannot con-
tinue to endure the repeated economic hardships, personal turmoil,
and threat to life, property, and health that it brings. For this rea-
son, I would like to request that this subcommittee include ade-
quate funding for the Ramapo River at the Oakland, New Jersey
Flood Protection Project.
This project would provide flood protection for about 330 families
along a 3.3-mile stretch. The principal problems along the river are
flooding caused by the backwater effect produced by the Pompton
Lake Dam, the hydraulic restrictions, and I am sure you have the
other technical data before you, and we will be sure that you have
all that technical data.
As previously stated, flooding has occurred 15 times in the last
24 years, and the most recent was on January 20th and 25th of
this year. It was a combination of the blizzard, the great blizzard
of 1996 that struck New Jersey, as well as some subsequent heavy