United States. Congress. House. Committee on Inter.

Congratulating the people of Mongolia on the 5th anniversary of the first democratic multiparty elections held in Mongolia on July 29, 1990 ... : markup before the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, online

. (page 1 of 2)
Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. House. Committee on InterCongratulating the people of Mongolia on the 5th anniversary of the first democratic multiparty elections held in Mongolia on July 29, 1990 ... : markup before the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, → online text (page 1 of 2)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


\0



^ Y 4. IN 8/16: M 74



CONGRATULATING THE PEOPLE OF MONGOUA ON THE 5TH AN-
NIVERSARY OF THE FIRST DEMOCRATIC MULTIPARTY ELEC-
TIONS HELD IN MONGOLIA ON JULY 29, 1990; ENCOURAGING
THE PEACE PROCESS IN SRI LANKA; AND EXPRESSING THE
SENSE OF THE CONGRESS THAT THE UNITED STATES SHOULD
RECOGNIZE THE CONCERNS OF THE PEOPLES OF OCEANIA AND
CALL UPON THE GOVERNMENT OF FRANCE TO CEASE ALL NU-
CLEAR TESTING AT THE MORUROA AND FANGATAUFA ATOLLS



MARKUP

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON
ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

ONE HUNDRED FOURTH CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION
ON

H. RES. 158, H. RES. 181, AND
H. CON. RES. 80



JULY 13, 1995



Printed for the use of the Committee on International Relations




NAR



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1995



For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office. Washington, DC 20402
ISBN 0-16-047716-6



Y4.INB/16;M74



CONGRATULATING THE PEOPLE OF MONGOUA ON THE 5TH AN-
NIVERSARY OF THE FIRST DEMOCRATIC MULTIPARTY ELEC-
TIONS HELD IN MONGOLIA ON JULY 29, 1990; ENCOURAGING
THE PEACE PROCESS IN SRI LANKA; AND EXPRESSING THE
SENSE OF THE CONGRESS THAT THE UNITED STATES SHOULD
RECOGNIZE THE CONCERNS OF THE PEOPLES OF OCEANL\ AND
CALL UPON THE GOVERNMENT OF FRANCE TO CEASE ALL NU-
CLEAR TESTING AT THE MORUROA AND FANGATAUFA ATOLLS



MARKUP

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON
ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

ONE HUNDRED FOURTH CONGRESS

FffiST SESSION
ON

H. RES. 158, H. RES. 181, AND
H. CON. RES. 80



JULY 13, 1995



Printed for the use of the Committee on International Relatioris " '"^ -




I^Aff 3 mi



J5ija



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1995



For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Supenntendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office. Washington, DC 20402
ISBN 0-16-047716-6



COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

BENJAMIN A. OILMAN, New York, Chairman



WILLIAM F. GOODLING, Pennsylvania

JAMES A. LEACH, Iowa

TOBY ROTH, Wisconsin

HENRY J. HYDE, Illinois

DOUG BEREUTER, Nebraska

CHRISTOPHER H. SMITH, New Jersey

DAN BURTON, Indiana

JAN MEYERS, Kansas

ELTON GALLEGLY, California

ILEANA ROS-LEHTINEN, Florida

CASS BALLENGER, North Carolina

DANA ROHRABACHER, California

DONALD A. MANZULLO, Illinois

EDWARD R. ROYCE, California

PETER T. KING, New York

JAY KIM, California

SAM BROWNBACK, Kansas

DAVID FUNDERBURK, North Carolina

STEVEN J. CHABOT, Ohio

MARSHALL "MARK" SANFORD, South

Carolina
MATT SALMON, Arizona
AMO HOUGHTON, New York



LEE H. HAMILTON, Indiana

SAM GEJDENSON, Connecticut

TOM LANTOS, California

ROBERT G. TORRICELLI, New Jersey

HOWARD L. BERMAN, California

GARY L. ACKERMAN, New York

HARRY JOHNSTON, Florida

ELIOT L. ENGEL, New York

ENI F.H. FALEOMAVAEGA, American

Samoa
MATTHEW G. MARTINEZ, California
DONALD M. PAYNE, New Jersey
ROBERT E. ANDREWS, New Jersey
ROBERT MENENDEZ, New Jersey
SHERROD BROWN, Ohio
CYNTHL\ A. McKINNEY, Georgia
ALCEE L. HASTINGS, Florida
ALBERT RUSSELL WYNN, Maryland
MICHAEL R. McNULTY, New York
JAMES P. MORAN, Virginia
VICTOR O. FRAZER, Virgin Islands (Ind.)



Richard J. Garon, Chief of Staff
Michael H. Van Dusen, Minority Chief of Staff



Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific

DOUG BEREUTER. Nebraska, Chairman



EDWARD R. ROYCE, California

DANA ROHRABACHER, California

JAMES A. LEACH, Iowa

JAY KIM, California

MARSHALL "MARK" SANFORD, South

Carolina
DAN BURTON, Indiana
DONALD A. MANZULLO, Illinois



HOWARD L. BERMAN, Cahfornia
ENI F.H. FALEOMAVAEGA, American

Samoa
SHERROD BROWN, Ohio
ROBERT E. ANDREWS, New Jersey
SAM GEJDENSON, Connecticut
GARY L. ACKERMAN, New York



Michael P. ENNIS, Subcommittee Staff Director

Richard J. Kessler, Democratic Professional Staff Member

Dan Maktz, Professional Staff Member

Jon J. Peterson, Staff Associate



(II)



CONTENTS



Page

Markup (no witnesses) 1

APPENDIX

Text of H. Res. 158, Congratulating the people of Mongolia on the 5th anni-
versary of the first democratic multiparty elections held in Mongolia on

July 29, 1990 11

Text of H. Res. 181, Encouraging the peace process in Sri Lanka 14

Text of H. Con. Res. 80, Expressing the sense of the Congress that the
United States should recognize the concerns of the peoples of Oceania
and call upon the Government of France to cease all nuclear testing at
the Moruroa and Fangataufa atolls 18

(III)



MARKUP SESSION: H. RES. 158, H. RES. 181
AND H. CON. RES. 80



THURSDAY, JULY 13, 1995

House of Representatives,
Committee on International Relations,

Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific,

Washington, DC.

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 9:31 a.m. in room
2255, Raybum House Office Building, the Hon. Doug Bereuter
(chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Mr. Bereuter. The subcommittee will now come to order. I ask
unanimous consent that we may proceed with the markup of three
resolutions as indicated on the notice notwithstanding the absence
of a quorum. Is there objection?

Hearing none, we will proceed. Today I thank my colleagues in
attendance for their participation. We meet in open session to con-
sider three legislative resolutions: H. Res. 158, a resolution con-
gratulating the people of Mongolia on the fifth anniversary of the
democratic multiparty elections; H. Res. 181, a resolution encourag-
ing the resumption of the peace process in Sri Lanka; and, H. Con.
Res. 80, the concurrent resolution expressing the sense of the Con-
gress that the United States should recognize the concerns of the
people of the South Pacific, and expressing a call upon the Govern-
ment of France to cancel its proposed nuclear testing program.

The first order of business then will be H. Res. 158 relating to
the democratic transition in Mongolia, which the clerk will report.

The Clerk. H. Res. 158, congratulating the people of Mongolia
on the fifth anniversary of the first democratic multiparty elections
held in Mongoha on July 29, 1990.

Mr. Bereuter. Without objection, further reading of the resolu-
tion will be dispensed with, printed in the record, and open for
amendment. This resolution was introduced on May 25, 1995, by
myself, the subcommittees ranking member Mr. Berman, the chair-
man and the ranking member of the full committee, as well as Mr.
Leach and Mr. Rohrabacher.

[H. Con. Res. 158 appears in the appendix.]

Mr. Bereuter. Before we begin the formal process of considering
the resolution I would like to make a few comments and then I will
recognize a ranking member, or another member of the subcommit-
tee for comments that they might wish to make.

With respect to H. Res. 158, the resolution before us today has
one simple objective. To commend the people of Mongolia for the
remarkable progress the country has made since 1990. Mongolia
has made great strides from a one party Soviet dominated Com-

(1)



munist country, to an independent multiparty free market democ-
racy.

Within a year from the fall of the Berlin Wall, the popularly
elected Mongolian legislature whose election we are commemorat-
ing in this resolution, enacted a new constitution which declared
Mongolia an independent, sovereign republic with guaranteed civil
rights and freedoms.

These changes were not only dramatic in scope and speed, they
were also accomplished without firing a shot and with little con-
crete support from the outside. These accomplishments are worthy
of congressional commendation. That is why we are pursuing this
resolution.

The political changes of the 1990-91 period also mark the begin-
ning of Mongolia's efforts to develop a market economy. Mongolia
continues to press ahead with economic reform, including privatiza-
tion of the economy, price deregulation, and the establishment of
a single exchange rate.

Much needs to be done to consolidate these reforms. The best
hope for accelerated growth in Mongolia is to attract foreign invest-
ment. Further, liberalize the economy and expand trade with non-
traditional partners.

The United States has sought in modest ways to assist Mongo-
lia's movement toward democracy and a market oriented reform.
We accorded Mongolia Most-Favored-Nation trading status. We
have concluded a bilateral tax treaty and overseas private invest-
ment corporation agreement.

We have supported Mongolia's entry into the IMF, the World
Bank and the Asian Development Bank. We have provided $35 mil-
lion in assistance, largely in the area of technical assistance and
training. In short, Mongolia represents a good example of uni-
versality of civil and political rights and provides evidence that po-
litical freedom and economic development are not mutually exclu-
sive.

I might also add the preparation of this resolution received the
encouragement of the State Department. I would now call upon any
other member who might wish to comment upon the resolution be-
fore us.

Mr. Burton. Mr. Chairman.

Mr. Bereuter. Yes. Mr. Burton.

Mr. Burton. I agree with everything you said. I think it is a fine
resolution. Mr. Kim had an amendment, which I think would add
to the resolution. I do not know if there are any objections to it,
but if there are not, in the absence of Mr. Kim I would propose this
amendment for him.

Mr. Bereuter. I certainly have no objections to it. I would ask
the staff if it is your understanding that Mr. Kim is still away? If
so, let Mr. Burton proceed with it?

Mr. Burton I would think it would be appropriate for you to offer
it then.

Mr. Burton. Mr. Chairman, I will be happy to then offer the
amendment which was preoffered by Mr. Kim which says that on
page 3, line 3, after 'Tiuman rights", insert "including the full pro-
tection of religious freedom and other civil liberties." I will make
that motion.



Mr. Bereuter. Without objection the amendment will be consid-
ered as read, and printed in the record. Are there any further com-
ments upon the proposed amendment of Mr. Kim offered by Mr.
Burton?

[The amendment follows:]

Amendment to H. Res. iss Offered by Mr. Kim

Page 3, line 3, after "human rights" insert ", including the full protection of reli-
gious freedom and other civil liberties,".

Mr. Faleomavaega. Mr. Chairman.

Mr. Bereuter. Mr. Faleomavaega.

Mr. Faleomavaega. I would like to commend you and the rank-
ing member for proposing this resolution. And I want to express
my strongest support of the resolution and congratulate the people
and the Government of Mongolia in their efforts for more democra-
tization of that country. I commend you and the members of this
subcommittee for bringing this resolution for consideration.

Mr. Bereuter. I thank you very much. Are there further com-
ments? I would just say I fully support the amendment of the gen-
tleman from California, offered by the gentleman from Indiana.
The question is then on the amendment offered by the gentleman
from Indiana, Mr. Burton. All those in favor say aye.

[Chorus of ayes.]

Mr. Bereuter. All those opposed say no. The amendment is
agreed to. Are there further amendments to the resolution? If there
are no further amendments the question occurs on agreeing to the
amendment to the resolution as amended. As many as are in favor
say aye.

[Chorus of ayes.]

Mr. Bereuter. As many as are opposed say no. The ayes appear
to have it. The ayes do have it. The resolution as amended is
agreed to. The next order of business will be H. Res. 181, on the
Sri Lanka peace process. The clerk will read H. Res. 181.

The Clerk. H. Res. 181, encouraging the peace process in Sri
Lanka. Whereas the United States has enjoyed a long, cordial
friendship with Sri Lanka

Mr. Bereuter. Without objection further reading of the resolu-
tion will be dispensed with, printed in the record, and open for
amendment. H. Res. 181 was introduced by the distinguished rank-
ing Democrat on the full committee, Mr. Hamilton, together with
this member and the subcommittees ranking Democrat, Mr. Ber-
man.

[H. Res. 181 appears in the appendix.]

I will recognize myself for a statement with respect to H. Res.
181. Located at the southern tip of the South Asia subcontinent,
the small Indian Ocean island nation of Sri Lanka has for the last
decade and a half been the site of one of the bloodiest ethnic wars.

The conflict has pitted the separatists Liberation Tigers of Tamil
Eelam, or Tamil Tigers, against the democratically elected Govern-
ment of Columbo, with at least 30,000 and possibly as many as
50,000 Sri Lankans of all ethnic persuasions perishing in this
bloody conflict.

With both sides weary of the unrelenting bloodshed, the ces-
sation of hostilities went into effect at the beginning of 1995, and



the government and the Tamil rebels entered into a series of peace
talks. ReCTettably this peace was short lived and the Tamil Tigers
unilaterally resumed their attacks on April 19.

The recent attacks have been particularly brutal, with a pair of
transport aircraft being shot down and a fishing village burned to
the ground with massive loss of life. In retaliation the government
has launched its inevitable offensive against the Tiger-held terri-
tory.

Just this week government forces cut a broad swath through po-
sitions long controlled by the rebels, causing hundreds of casualties
and displacing thousands of noncombatants. This pattern of rebel
offensives and government counter-offensives is all too familiar.
Over the past dozen years this cycle has been repeated time and
time again.

H. Res. 181 calls on the parties to break out of this vicious cycle
of death and destruction. The resolution recognizes the good faith
efforts of the Sri Lanka Government to work for peace and com-
mends the dramatic improvements in the governments human
rights practices.

It also denounces all acts of violence and terrorism regardless of
the perpetrators. H. Res. 181 calls on the parties to negotiate in
good faith with a view to ending the conflict and finding a just and
lasting peaceful settlement to the ethnic divisions which — while as-
suring the territorial integrity of Sri Lanka.

The resolution also encourages the United States to lend its good
offices to help in resolving the conflict if so desired by the combat-
ing parties. The Chair congratulates the ranking Democrat of the
full committee, Mr. Hamilton, for his initiative in drafting the reso-
lution.

First, it recognizes the real efforts made by the ruling govern-
ment to respect human rights and achieve a just peace. As H. Res.
181 notes, the resolution recognizes improvements have indeed oc-
curred. Second, the resolution places the House squarely on the
side of peace in a conflict that has been every bit as brutal as the
war in Bosnia.

I am pleased to cosponsor Mr. Hamilton's resolution and I would
urge its passage. Are there any members who would like to speak
on the resolution before us?

Mr. Faleomavaega. Mr. Chairman.

Mr. Bereuter. Mr. Faleomavaega.

Mr. Faleomavaega. On behalf of the ranking member of the full
Committee on International Relations, I too would like to commend
Mr. Hamilton for his initiative in introducing this resolution, and
commend you as well as an original cosponsor of the resolution con-
cerning the people of Sri Lanka.

I fully support the terms and provisions of the resolution, and
urge the committee for its passage.

Mr. Bereuter. I thank you Mr. Faleomavaega.

Mr. Burton. Mr. Chairman.

Mr. Bereuter. Mr. Burton.

Mr. Burton. I will make that unanimous. I think it is a good
resolution and I congratulate you and Mr. Hamilton on the spon-
sorship.



Mr. Bereuter. Thank you very much Mr. Burton and Mr.
Faleomavaega. Are there further amendments or further debate?
Hearing none, the question occurs on agreeing to the resolution. As
many as are in favor say aye.

[Chorus of ayes.]

Mr. Bereuter. As many as are opposed say no. The ayes appear
to have it, the ayes do have it and the resolution is agreed to. The
next and final order of business of the day is H. Con. Res. 80, the
French nuclear testing. The clerk will read H. Con. Res. 80.

The Clerk. H. Con. Res. 80, expressing the sense of Congress
that the United States should recognize the concerns of the peoples
of Oceania, and call upon the Government of France to cease all
nuclear testing at the Moruroa and Fangataufa Atolls.

Mr. Bereuter. Without objection further reading of the resolu-
tion will be dispensed with, printed in the record and open for
amendment. I wanted to make sure the clerk had a chance to read
those names. The Chair would ask the resolutions author, Mr.
Faleomavaega, to explain his initiative.

[H. Con. Res. 80 appears in the appendix.]

Mr. Faleomavaega. Thank you Mr. Chairman. I just want to ex-
press my gratitude to you and the ranking member Mr. Berman for
joining me as original cosponsors of this resolution which recog-
nizes the environmental concerns of some 28 million men, women
and children who live in the Pacific region.

I am calling upon the Government of France not to resume nu-
clear testing on French Polynesias Moruroa and Fangataufa Atolls.
This measure has broad bipartisan support. I too would like to
thank the members of the subcommittee. Congressman Jim Leach,
Congressman Rohrabacher, Congressman Ackerman, and Con-
gressman Kim who have also joined as original cosponsors.

Mr. Chairman, just weeks ago. President Chirac of France an-
nounced that France will abandon the global moratorium on nu-
clear testing, and intends to explode eight more nuclear bombs in
the South Pacific beginning in September of this year.

The President of France has said that eight nuclear explosions,
each up to 10 times greater than the Hiroshima bomb, will have
no ecological consequences, and describes his decision as irrev-
ocable. Mr. Chairman, after detonating at least 187 nuclear bombs
in the heart of the South Pacific, France's intent to resume fiirther
nuclear poisoning of the South Pacific environment has resulted in
a fire storm of outrage among the countries of the region, as well
as with the world community.

Mr. Chairman, it is interesting to note that although France has
detonated over 200 nuclear bombs in the past 35 years, not one of
these bombs has been exploded on, above or beneath French soil.
In the truest form of colonial aggression, France has instead ex-
ploded almost all of its nuclear bombs in its South Pacific colony
after being driven out of Algeria, a former colony also used as a nu-
clear testing dump.

Mr. Chairman, if the Government of France must conduct nu-
clear detonations that undermine the nuclear nonproliferation trea-
ty, and impede good faith negotiation of a comprehensive test ban
treaty, then let it detonate these bombs in its rural areas and



6

farms there on French soil and see how the citizens of France feel
about it.

I urge the members of the committee to adopt this resolution. I
just wanted to share with the members and my colleagues what a
nuclear explosion in the Moruroa Atoll looks like. It is a very pretty
sight Mr. Chairman, but a very deadly sight. And knowing that
this atoll has been subjected to radiation and contamination, we
have no idea what the health records on Tahitian workers have
been.

The French have been very secretive about it. We have no idea
how they have been treated. This is how it looks like in the South
Pacific. A very pretty picture Mr. Chairman, but a very lousy result
because nuclear bombs do not kill people. They vaporize people.

And I think it is just utterly ridiculous to resume testing when
70 percent of the people of France object to nuclear testing. And yet
this guy, Chirac, they call him sometimes the "Bulldozer", as he
was described by former President Pompadieu, just goes ahead and
does not give due consideration to the concerns of the 28 million
people that live in this region.

Now as small as it may seem, that is almost half of the popu-
lation of France itself This is so ridiculous that the President of
France wants to reverse the moratorium that was initiated by
former President Mitterand. For all our good faith efforts to stop
this madness, the President of France wants to do the opposite.

We have even offered our own technology — because what they
are really trying to develop Mr. Chairman is computer simulation
to make sure that the nuclear trigger works. Chirac says he wants
to do it the French way, yet we have the technology and are willing
to share with the Government of France. They refuse to take it.

This is utterly ridiculous and I urge my colleagues to accept this
resolution.

Mr. Burton. Would the gentleman yield?

Mr. Faleomavaega. I yield to the gentleman.

Mr. Burton. I am not familiar with that part of the South Pa-
cific. I know that there are some beautiful islands down there, in-
cluding American Samoa, your territory.

What I was wondering is the proximity of the other islands down
there, and how far the radioactive fallout — these are all above
ground tests, right?

Mr. Faleomavaega. From what I understand, the atoll is basi-
cally a coral reef, which is on top of an undersea volcanic moun-
tain. Now what the French have done is they just put a hole down
there in this mountain, detonate their bombs in it and say well it
is no problem.

The vitrification pressure from the explosion is supposed to con-
tain the contamination in this mountain. Well there is no way of
telling. Scientists admit that they do not know whether radioactive
leakage is going to come out in 10 years, 100 years, or a 1,000
years. And the poor people in the Pacific get caught holding the
bag on this whole thing.

Mr. Burton. I understand they are going to run the test inside
an existing or dead volcano?

Mr. Faleomavaega. That is the problem. We do not know if it
is a dead volcano.



Mr. Burton. I understand, and if it erupts it could cause big
problems. But what I am wondering is whether it is above or below
ground testing?

Mr. Faleomavaega. It is supposed to be underground.

Mr. Burton. Do you have any figures on how far the contamina-
tion goes with this underground testing?

Mr. Faleomavaega. The problem we have had is that the French
Government a couple of years ago when they were conducting their
tests, they invited their oceanographer Jacques Cousteau to look in
to the situation and see if there is any sign of contamination.

Well the problem was, Cousteau went only half the distance of
the depth to where the detonations occur. And he comes back and
says there is no problem. Well because he never really went down
there where the real heart of the problem was in terms of what is
going to happen down there in this mountain, his findings are in-
conclusive.

So the concern here is that even the French scientists are incon-
clusive as to what is going to happen as a result of past nuclear
testing, and the threat of having eight more nuclear explosions. We
do not know what is going to happen here.

And you are talking about millions of fish and marine life that
are going to be killed in the process. There is going to be one bomb
a month for the next 8 months. It is utterly ridiculous.

Mr. Burton. I thank the gentleman for yielding.

Mr. Oilman. Would the gentleman yield? Are those eight bombs
going to be tested in the same site?

Mr. Faleomavaega. In the same site Mr. Chairman.

Mr. Oilman. You may have a good volcano by then.

Mr. Bereuter. Has the gentleman completed his remarks?

Mr. Faleomavaega. Yes, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. Bereuter. Thank you, very much. I would recognize myself
for a few remarks. As the gentleman from American Samoa men-
tioned, one of the first acts of the newly elected French President
Jacques Chirac has been to end its 3-year moratorium and resume
nuclear testing in French Polynesia.

The first such test is to be conducted in September. Not surpris-
ingly this decision has resulted in a torrent of opposition with dip-
lomatic protests being lodged by virtually every nation in the South
Pacific. Indeed the leaders of the French Polynesian islands where
the tests are to be conducted are among the most vocal of the crit-
ics of President Chirac's decision.

Those who live in Oceania are understandably concerned about
the environmental impact of the series of eight nuclear tests that
have been scheduled. And they are deeply offended by the lack of
consultation with the peoples of the region.

The issue surrounding nuclear testing issues are complicated and
are not easily resolvable. It is a question that we in the United


1

Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. House. Committee on InterCongratulating the people of Mongolia on the 5th anniversary of the first democratic multiparty elections held in Mongolia on July 29, 1990 ... : markup before the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, → online text (page 1 of 2)