United States. Congress. House. Committee on Inter.

Fluoridation of water. Hearings before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Eighty-third Congress, second session, on H. R. 2341. A bill to protect the public health from the dangers of fluorination of water. May 25, 26, 27, 1954 online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. House. Committee on InterFluoridation of water. Hearings before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Eighty-third Congress, second session, on H. R. 2341. A bill to protect the public health from the dangers of fluorination of water. May 25, 26, 27, 1954 → online text (page 1 of 73)
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FLUORIDATION OF WATER



HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

COMMITTEE ON

INTERSTATE AND FOREIGN COMMERCE

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

EIGHTY-THIED CONGRESS

SECOND SESSION
ON

H. R. 2341

A BILL TO PROTECT THE PUBLIC HEALTH FROM THE
DANGERS OF FLUORINATION OF WATER



MAY 25, 26, AND 27, 1954



Printed for the use of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce




FLUORIDATION OF WATER



HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

c^,,^,^ ^uu - . COMMITTEE ON
INTERSTATE AND FOREIGN COMMERCE
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

EIGHTY-THIED CONGRESS

SECOND SESSION

ON

H. R. 2341

A BILL TO PROTECT THE PUBLIC HEALTH FROM THE
DANGERS OF FLUORIDATION OF WATER



MAY 25, 26, AND 27, 1954



Printed for the use of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce




Jort
Wa

Kleinfe.
Knutson,
Leone, Di
Institute




UNITED STATES

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

. WASHINGTON : 1954



■ih



I?/!



Boston Public Library
Superintendent of Documents

SEP 8 -1954



• 0^^



COMMITTEE ON INTERSTATE AND FOREIGN COMMERCE
CHARLES A. WOLVERTON, New Jersey, Chairman



CARL HINSIIAW, California
JOSEPH P. O'HARA, Minnesota
ROBERT HALE, Maine
JAMES I. DOLLIVER, Iowa
JOHN W. HESELTON, Massachusetts
JOHN B. BENNETT, Michigan
RICHARD W. HOFFMAN, Illinois
JOHN V. BEAMER, Indiana
WILLIAM L. SPRINGER, Illinois
ALVIN R. BUSH, Pennsylvania
PAUL F. SCHEXCK, Ohio
JOSEPH L. CARRIGG, Pennsylvania
HERBERT B. WARBURTON, Delaware
STEVEN B. DEROUNIAN, New York
THOMAS M. PELLY, Washington
J, ARTHUR YOUNGER, California

Elton J.



ROBERT GROSSER, Ohio
J. PERCY PRIEST, Tennessee
OREN HARRIS, Arkansas
DWIGHT L. ROGERS, Florida
ARTHUR G. KLEIN, New York
WILLIAM T. GRANAHAN, Pennsylvania
F. ERTEL CARLYLE, North Carolina
JOHN BELL WILLIAMS, Mississippi
PETER F. MACK, Jr., Illinois
HOMER THORNBERRY, Texas
LOUIS B. HELLER, New York
KENNETH A. ROBERTS, Alabama
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri
HARLEY O. STAGGERS, West Virginia



Layton, Clerk



Professional Staff

KUET BORCHAEDT ANDREW STEVENSON

Sam G. Spal A. E. Stockburgbr



CONTENTS



Page
Text of H. R. 2341 1

List of individuals who submitted communications in opposition to H. R.

2341 490

List"of State dental associations, by States, in opposition to H. R. 2341 _. 489
List "of State health departments, by States, in opposition to H. R. 2341. _ 488
Report of —

Army Department 4

Bureau of the Budget 5

District of Cohnnbia Board of Commissioners 1

Health, Education, and Welfare Department 5

Interior Department 2

Post Office Department 5

Statement of —

j^Adams, Mrs. Vera E., president, National Conamittee Against Fluori-
dation, Inc 151

Armstrong, Dr. Wallace D., Medical School, University of Minne-
sota 306

^ Betts, Dr. Charles T., Toledo, Ohio 86, 221

Birmingham, Florence, president, Massachusetts Women's Political

Club 45

Brusch, Dr. Charles A., director, Cambridge Medical Center, Boston,

Mass 141

Dean, Dr. H. Trendley, secretary, council on dental research, Ameri-
can Dental Association 273

Doty, Dr. J. Roy, secretary, council on dental therapeutics, American

Dental Association 289

Exner, Dr. Frederick B., fellow of the American College of Radiology,

University of Washington 62

Ford, Hon. Gerald R., Jr., a Representative in Congress from the

State of Michigan 8

Franzen, Mrs. Hugo, San Francisco, Calif 95

Gale, Dr. E. Harold, chairman, council on legislation, American

Dental Association 255

Garvey, Francis J., secretary, council on legislation, American Dental

Association 24 5

Ginns, Dr. Max, senior dental consultant, Worcester City Hospital,

Worcester, Mass 190

Harris, William Leslie, superintendent, water department. Grand

Rapids, Mich 329

Hey roth, Dr. Francis F., associate professor of industrial toxicology
and assistant director, Kettering laboratory, department of pre-
ventive medicine and industrial health. College of Medicine,
University of Cinciimati 310

Hobson, Maj. Robert W., Dental Corps, Research and Development

Division, Office of the Surgeon General 403

Hunt, Hon. Lester C, a United States Senator from the State of

Wyoming I37

Jordan, Harry E., secretary and chief executive officer, American

Water Works Association (delivered by David Auld, director) 409

Kleinfeld, Vincent A., attorney, Washington, D. C 36

Knutson, Dr. John W., Chief dental officer, Public Health Service 362

Leone, Dr. Nicholas C, Chief, Medical Investigations, National

Institute of Dental Research 362

ni



IV CONTENTS

Statement of — Continued Pa««
Long, Hon. George S., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Louisiana 121

Manning, Dr. Paul, dentist, Springfield, Mass 198

Palmer, Claude N., member, board of directors, National Committee

Against Fluoridation 16

Paluev, K. K., research and development engineer, Pittsfield, Mass-_ 173
Porterfield, Dr. John D., vice president, Association of State and

Territorial Health Officers 405

Robinson, Mrs. Aileen S., Seattle, Wash 177

Schmidt, Mrs. Peder P., Minneapolis, Minn 165

Spira, Dr. Leo, New York, N. Y 185

Swift, Mrs. Harmon, associate editor, Social Spectator, New York,

N. Y 221

Van DeVere, Lillian, president, Citizens' Committee Against Fluorida-
tion, and Connecticut Pure Water Association 108

Watt, James, manager, Washington office, Christian Science Com-
mittee on Publication 58

Welsh, George W., city manager. Grand Rapids, Mich 336

Wier, Hon. Roy W., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Minnesota 6

Zipkin, Dr. Isadore, senior scientist, National Institute of Dental

Research 362

Additional information submitted for the record by —

Adams, Mrs. Vera E., some objections to fluoridation 164.

American Dental Association:

American Cancer Society, letter from Dr. Charles S. Cameron. _ 258

Chapman et al. v. City of Shreveport, brief 252

Interassociation Committee on Health, statement of 259

Letter from Francis J. Garvey, secretary, council on legislation. _ 448
McFarlane and Hoffman v. Mayor and City Council of Baltimore

City, brief '- 24.6

Pohcy of 259

Status of fluoridation in the United States, its Territories and

possessions. May 14, 1954 261

American Medical Association, letter from Dr. George F. Lull,

secretary and general manager 459

Black, A. P., head, department of chemistry, University of Florida,

letter from 461

Brett, Dr. George J., a comparative study of dentistry in natural

fluoridation and nonfluoridation areas 240

Brusch, Dr. Charles A., effect of fluorides on the human body 147

California State Board of Public Health, letter from Dr. Charles E.

Smith, president 4 85

California State Department of Public Health, letter from Dr. Malcolm

H. Merrill, director 485

Carpenter, Dr. C. H., letter from, transmitting other material 320

Central District Dental Society, Little Rock, Ark.:

Letter from Dr. R. L. Smith, Jr., secretary-treasurer 328

Resolution of 328

Citizens' Committee Against Fluoridation, resolution of 115

Citizens Medical Reference Bureau, Inc., letter from Pierrepont E.

Twitchell, president 239

Congress of Industrial Organizations, letter from Katharine Pollak

Ellickson, executive secretary, social-security committee 4 60

Connecticut Pure Water Association, resolution of 115

Crane, Mrs. Robert H., letter from 244

Deubel, Charles C, Jr., letter from 233

Dummett, Dr. Clifton O., letter from, transmitting articles 413

Fanale, Dr. S. J., letter from 484

Ferguson, Anna M., letter from 240

Gould, Dr. A. R., letter from 243

Grand Rapids (Mich.) Chamber of Commerce, letter from Alex T.

McFayden, executive secretary 9

Harris, William Leslie: Fluoride application, Grand Rapids, Mich.,

January 1954, table. 333



CONTENTS V

Additional information submitted for tlie record by — Continued Pase

Health, Education, and Welfare Department:
Biography of —

Knutson, John William 392

Leone, Nicholas Charles 392

Zipkin, Izadore 392

Communities using fluoridated water, 1945-53, chart 377

Deaths from (charts) —

Cancer, United States, Grand Rapids, and Muskegon,

1943-50 375

Five causes in fluoride and nonfluoride cities, 1949-50 374

Heart disease, United States, Grand Rapids, and Muskegon,

1943-50 376

Intracranial lesions. United States, Grand Rapids, and

Muskegon, 1943-50 376

Nephritis, United States, Grand Rapids, and Muskegon,

1943-50 375

Decayed, missing, and filled teeth per adult, fluoride and non-
fluoride communities, chart 365

Decayed, missing, and filled teeth per child (charts) —

Fluoride and nonfluoride communities 363

Nine years after fluoridation (Grand Rapids, Mich.) 364

Distribution of bone fracture experience (charts) —

Number per 100 boys 381

Number per 100 men 381

Estimated fluorine ingested in food and in drinking water contain-
ing 1 part per million fluorine, table 380

Fluorine content of urine in relation to fluorine in drinking water
in (charts) —

Grand Rapids, Mich 384

Montgomery County, Md 383

Fluorine reported in dry substance of food, table 380

Fluorine reported in food as consumed, table 380

Incidence of abnormal clinical findings, 1943-53, table 386

Mean carpal ossification ratio, chart 382

Missing teeth per adult, fluoride and nonfluoride communities,

ciiart 365

Percent fluorine in ash, charts 38-^, 385

Prevalence of abnormal laboratory and dental findings, 1943 and

1953, table 386

Rate of longitudinal growth at proximal and distal end of tibial

diaphysis, chart 385

Towns using naturally fluoridated water, chart 366

Hodge, Harold C, professor of pharmacolog}' and toxicology. Uni-
versity of Rochester, letter from 4 70

Hoffman, Hon. Richard W., letter from 387

MacVriiiimie, Dr. Arthur B., letter from, transmitting statement 222

Maxcy, Dr. Kenneth M., professor of epidemiology, the Johns Hop-
kins University, letter from 462

McCormack, Hon. John W., letter from, transmitting telegram from

a number of doctors 412

McQueen, Mrs. Josephine, statement of 224

Mick, Dr. Robert J. H., letter from, transmitting information against

fluoridation 124

Nassau County (N. Y.) Medical Society, telegram from Dr. Joseph G.

Zimring, chairman, legislation committee 360

New Jersey State Dental Society, letter from Dr. Francis Lehr, chair-
man council on fluoridation 432

New Jersey State Department of Health:

Bacon, John E., statement of 438

Ludlam, Dr. Earl G., chief, Bureau of Dental Health, letter from. 433

Wisan, Dr. J. M., statements of 434, 440

New York State Dental Society, letter. from Dr. Charles A. Wilkie,

secretary 361

New York State Society of Dentistry for Children, letter from Dr.

Solomon N. Rosenstein, president 361



VI CONTENTS

Additional information submitted for the record by — Continued Tae«

Parran, Dr. Thomas, letter from, transmitting information 444

Plainfield (N. J.) Dental Society, letter from 455

Prestholdt, H. L., statement of 228

Pure Water Association of America:

Letter from Mrs. Herman J. Kuppers, State chairman, Florida

statewide committee 486

Statement of Anthony J. Romeo, president, New York statewide

committee 24 1

St. Louis Medical Society, report of, reprint from Missouri Medicine,

February 1954 338

Suffolk County (N. Y.) Dental Society, letter from Dr. S. A. Medvin,

secretary 360

Waldbott, Dr. George L., medical evidence against fluoridation of

public water supplies 234



FLUOEIDATION OF WATEE



TUESDAY, MAY 25, 1954

House of Representatives,
Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce,

Washington, D. C.

The committee met, pursuant to notice, at 10 a. m., in the committee
room, 1334 New House Office Building, the Honorable Charles A.
Wolverton (chairman) presiding.

(H. R. 2341 and the reports thereon are as follows :)

[H. R. 2341, 83d Cong., 1st sess.]

A BILL To protect the public health from the dangers of fluorination of water

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States
of America in Congress assembled, That no agency of the Government of the
United States (including the government of the_District of Columbia, and of
each Territory and passession of the United States), and no agency of any State,
or of any municipality or other political subdivision of a State, shall treat any
public water supply with any fluoride compound, or make any water so treated
available for general use in any hospital, post oflSce, military Installation, or
other installation or institution owned or operated by or on behalf of any such
agency.

govebnment of the district of columbia,

Executive Offices,
Washington 4, D. C, April 29, 195^.
Hon. Charles A. Wolverton,

Chairman, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce,
United States House of Representatives,

Washington, D. C.
My Dear Mb. Wolverton : The Commissioners have for report H. R. 2341,
83d Congress, a bill to protect the public health from the dangers of fluorination
of water.

The bill would prohibit the United States Government, the Government of
the District of Columbia, every State, and every municipality or other political
subdivision of a State, from treating any public-water supply with any fluoride
compound, or from making any water so treated available for general use in
any hospital, post office, military Installation, or other installation or institution
owned or operated by the United States Government, the government of the
District of Columbia, and State, and any municipality or other political subdivi-
sion of a State.

This report is directed to the harm which, in the light of scientific opinion,
would result to the residents of the District of Columbia if the use of sodium
fluoride in the water supply of the District were prohibited. It should particu-
larly be noted that while H. R. 2341 purports to be a bill to protect the public
health from the dangers of fluorination of water, such dangers appear to be
imaginary. The real danger lies in the elimination of flouride from the Dis-
trict's water supply, since it has been estimated by the Director of Public Health
of the District that should such action be taken, after a period of 10 years
there would be 65 percent more caries in the teeth of the children of the District,
and that by the time such children were 40 years of age, 95 percent of them
would have lost the majority of their teeth. The loss to the public would be



2 FLUORIDATION OF WATER

twofold : the cost of increased dental work, and a deterioration of the public
health arising from the increase in defective and missing teeth.

The May 1953 Journal of the American Dental Association discusses the
fluoridation of water in an editorial reading as follows :

"Evidence favoring fluoridation continues to mount.

"Resolutions passed last month by two of dentistry's leading scientific agen-
cies, decisions made by 2 of the country's larger cities and reports presented by
2 different groups of researchers strengthen the already sound position of pro-
ponents of vpater fluoridation. The Council on Dental Research, April 10, after a
reevaluation of evidence, reaffirmed its support of fluoridation as a dental health
measure and commended departments of public health for their scientific con-
tributions to the problem of caries control through fluoridation. The Council
on Dental Health on April 14 restated its support of fluoridation as a safe anti-
cariogenic measure, pointing out that the volume of accumulated scientific data
has established beyond any reasonable doubt both its safety and eflSiciency. Mil-
waukee citizens on April 7 by referendum overwhelmingly approved fluoridation,
and Cincinnati by an 8 to 1 vote of its city council on April 1 decided similarly.
Three researchers from the University of Rochester reported on April 7 that
'if all fluoride in drinking water containing one part per million fluorine were
to be deposited in the skeleton, the situation would be perfectly safe.' And
lastly, a Yale University School of Medicine scientist again scotched the rumor
that fluoridation of water increases the incidence of cancer by reporting to the
International Association for Dental Research, March 20, that tumors trans-
planted into mice developed more slowly if the mice received fluoride. Thus the
scientific evidence mounts monthly in favor of fluoridation, leaving to opponents
of the process only vapid arguments based either on emotionalism or misinfor-
mation."

The Commissioners have been informed that the American Medical Association,
the American Dental Association, the American Public Health Association, the
State and Territorial Health Oflicers Association, the United States Public
Health Service, the National Research Council, and other leading professional
and scientific organizations have fully endorsed controlled water fluoridation
as an outstanding public health measure.

The Commissioners are therefore of the view that the controlled fluoridation
of the water supply of the District of Columbia is of beneflt to the citizens of the
District, and they strongly recommend that the bill not be enacted.

The Commissioners have been advised by the Bureau of the Budget that there
is no objection on the part of that office to submission of this report to the
Congress.

Very sincerely yours,

Samuel Spencee,
President, Board of Commissioners, D. C.



United States Department of the Interior,

Office of the Secret art,
Washinffton 25, D. C, September IS, 1953.
Hon. Charles A. Wolverton,

Chamnan, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce,
House of Representatives, Washington 25, D. C.
My Dear Mr. Wolverton : This is in response to your request for a report from
this Department on H. R. 2341, a bill to protect the public health from the dan-
gers of fluorination of water.

I recommend that the bill be not enacted.

H. R. 2341 would prohibit the treatment of any public water supply with any
fluoride compound by any agency of the United States, including the District of
Columbia and the Territories and possessions of the United States, or by any
agency of any State, including any municipality or other political subdivision
thereof. It would prohibit these agencies also from making available any water
treated with fluorides for general use in any hospital, post office, military installa-
tion, or other installations or institutions owned or operated by or on behalf
of any such agency.

In connection with the operation of a program for prevention and treatment
of dental disease among American Indians, this Department has had occasion
to give considerable study to the effect of fluorine in drinking water. It is the



FLUORIDATION OF WATER 6

opinion of our specialists in this field that the addition of 1.0-1.5 parts per mil-
lion of fluorine to water supplies produces a beneficial effect upon the oral health
of individuals consuming such reconstituted waters. Furthermore, we have
been unable to find any scientific evidence which shows that the ingestion of
water containing 1.0-1.5 parts per million of available fiuorine ions has any
deleterious toxicological effect upon the human body. We are much opposed to
any action which would deprive the American Indian of the health benefits to
be derived from the carefully controlled usage of fluorides in their drinking
water.

Several of the Territories under the jurisdiction of this Department are con-
sidering fluorinating their water supplies, and some have begun the process.
The Alaska Board of Health has recognized the benefits of fluorinating drinking
water, and has established procedures which must be followed by Alaskan com-
munities which choose to utilize this process. At the present time, there are
three communities considering fluorination in Alaska, and completed plans have
been received by the board of health for the installation of fluorination equip-
ment at Anchorage, which is the largest city in Alaska.

By House Concurrent Resolution No. 64 of the 26th Legislature of the Terri-
tory of Hawaii, the matter of fluorination of the water supply of Honolulu and
Hilo was placed before the board of health of the Territory, the board of water
supply in the city and County of Honolulu, and the board of water supply of
the County of Hawaii, for their study and report back to the legislature. Com-
prehensive compilations of source materials, flndiugs, and conclusions have been
prepared by these boards, and have been submitted to the Legislature of Hawaii
for consideration.

In the Virgin Islands, fluorination of water supplies is in the planning stage.
At present no fluoride compounds are added to the public or semipublic water
supplies in that territory. American Samoa has done nothing about the fluorina-
tion of its water supplies, but plans to give the matter consideration because
of the high percentage of tooth decay among Samoan children.

The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has taken steps toward the fluorination
of its water supply, based on the evidence contained in various scientific litera-
ture, and especially on the i-esolutiou approved by the Association of State and
Territorial Health Officers at its annual meeting held in December 1952. By
Act No. 376 of 1952, the Puerto Rican Legislature appropriated to the aqueduct
and sewer authority the sum of $96,000 for the purchase of equipment and ma-
terials necessary for the fluorination of the water serviced by the metropolitan
aqueduct system. An appropriation in the sum of $165,000 is being requested
from the legislature this year for the purchase of equipment and supplies for
the fluorination of water in other public water systems. The 6-year economic
plan for 1953-54 to 1958-59 calls for appropriations in the sums of $145,000,
$169,000, $195,000, $222,000, and $183,000 in successive years for the purchase
of equipment and materials for broadening the fluorination program. It is
expected that by the year 1958-59, all major public water systems in Puerto
Rico will be supplying fluorinated water to consumers.

In the administration of the Territories of the United States, a steady policy
has been followed of placing the responsibilities of local self-government in the
control of the territorial peoples as their political, economic, and social devel-
opment has warranted. The beneficial result of this policy has been recognized
generally. Enactment of H. R. 2341 would be a reversal of this beneficial policy
as far as local public health is concerned. All of the Territories have the human
resources with the accumulated wisdom, intelligence, and judgment sufficient
to enable them to determine matters of local public health. We believe this
opinion is substantiated by the manner in which the several Territories are now
studying the matter of fluorinating their water supply.

It would appear also that to the extent H. R. 2341 purports to control State
action concerning local health matters it would be subject to constitutional
objections. Such objections are not, of course, within the purview of this
Department.

Therefore, I recommend that H. R. 2341 be not enacted.

The Bureau of the Budget has advised that there is no objection to the sub-
mission of this report to your committee.
Sincerely yours,

Okme Lewis,
Acting Secretary of the Interior.



4 FLUORIDATION OF WATER

DEPARTMENT OF THE AbMT,

Washington, D. C, May 13, 1953.

Hou. Charles A. Wolvb:eton,

Chairman, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce,
House of Representatives.

Dear Mr. Chairman : Reference is made to your request to the Secretary of
Defense for the views of the Department of Defense with respect to H. R,
2341, 83d Congress, a bill to protect the public health from the dangers of
fluorination of water. The Secretary of Defense has delegated to the Depart-
ment of the Army the responsibility for expressing the views of the Department
of Defense thereon.

The Department of the Army, on behalf of the Department of Defense, is
opposed to the enactment of H. R. 2341 for the reasons set forth below.

The bill, H. R. 2841, would prohibit all agencies of the Government of the
United States, and all agencies of any State or municipality or other political
subdivision of a State, from treating any public water supply with any fluoride
compound. Further, it would prohibit the use of such treated water by any
hospital, post oflSce, military installation, or other installation or institution
owned or operated by or on behalf of any of the aforesaid agencies.

The principle of fluorination of certain potable water supplies as a means of
preventing dental caries in children has been accepted by the house of delegates



Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. House. Committee on InterFluoridation of water. Hearings before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Eighty-third Congress, second session, on H. R. 2341. A bill to protect the public health from the dangers of fluorination of water. May 25, 26, 27, 1954 → online text (page 1 of 73)