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Road from Kyoto : hearing before the Committee on Science, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, second session (Volume pt. 2) online

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ROAD FROM KYOTO, PART 11: KYOTO
AND THE ADMINISTRATION'S HS-
CAL YEAR 1999 BUDGET REQUEST

Y 4.SCI 2:105-7A

M Frn Hyito, Part 11: Kyoto and the

Jdiinistratioii's fiscal rear H9J Budget leqiest,

HEARING

BEFORE THE

COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

ONE HUNDRED FIFTH CONGRESS
SECOND SESSION



FEBRUARY 12, 1998



Serial No. 105-74



Printed for the use of the Committee on Science



01



4f^

Oct



1999



^^t



ROAD FROM KYOTO, PART II: KYOTO
AND THE ADMINISTRATION'S HS-
CAL YEAR 1999 BUDGET REQUEST



HEARING

BEFORE THE

COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

ONE HUNDRED FIFTH CONGRESS
SECOND SESSION



FEBRUARY 12, 1998



Serial No. 105-74



Printed for the use of the Committee on Science




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
57-716 WASHINGTON : 1999



For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office

Superintendent of DocumenLs, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, DC 20402

ISBN 0-16-058758-1



COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE



F. JAMES SENSENBRENNER, Jr., Wisconsin, Chairman



SHERWOOD L. BOEHLERT, New York
HARRIS W. FAWELL, IlUnois
CONSTANCE A. MORELLA, Maryland
CURT WELDON, Pennsylvania
DANA ROHRABACHER, CaUfornia
JOE BARTON, Texas
KEN CALVERT, California
ROSCOE G. BARTLETT, Maryland
VERNON J. EHLERS, Michigan!
DAVE WELDON, Florida
MATT SALMON, Arizona
THOMAS M. DAVIS, Virginia
GIL GUTKNECHT, Minnesota
MARK FOLEY, Florida
THOMAS W. EWING, IlUnois
CHARLES W. (CHIP) PICKERING,

Mississippi
CHRIS CANNON, Utah
KEVIN BRADY, Texas
MERRILL COOK, Utah
PHIL ENGLISH, Pennsylvania
GEORGE R. NETHERCUTT, Jr., Washington
TOM A. COBURN, Oklahoma
PETE SESSIONS, Texas
Vacancy



GEORGE E. BROWN, Jr., CaUfornia*
RALPH M. HALL, Texas
BART GORDON, Tennessee
JAMES A. TRAFICANT, Jr., Ohio
TIM ROEMER, Indiana
JAMES A. BARCIA, Michigan
EDDIE BERNICE JOHNSON, Texas
ALCEE L. HASTINGS, Florida
LYNN N. RIVERS, Michigan
ZOE LOFGREN, CaUfornia
MICHAEL F. DOYLE, Pennsylvania
SHEILA JACKSON LEE, Texas
BILL LUTHER, Minnesota
DEBBIE STABENOW, Michigan
BOB ETHERIDGE, North CaroUna
NICK LAMPSON, Texas
DARLENE HOOLEY, Oregon
LOIS CAPPS, CaUfornia
BARBARA LEE, California
BRAD SHERMAN, CaUfornia
Vacancy



Todd R. Schultz, Chief of Staff

Barry C. Beringer, Chief Counsel

Robert E. Palmer, Democratic Staff Director

Vivian A. Tessieri, Legislative Clerk



tVice Chairman.
* Ranking Minority Member.

(See "History of Appointments" for further information concerning Membership on the Com-
mittee on Science.)



(II)



CONTENTS



Witnesses



February 12, 1998: The Road from Kyoto — Part 2: Kyoto and the Administra-
tion's Fiscal Year 1999 Budget Request Page
Opening Statement by Representative F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr. (WI-

9), Chairman, Committee on Science, U.S. House of Representatives 1

Opening Statement by Representative George E. Brown, Jr. (CA-42),
Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Science, U.S. House of Rep-
resentatives 3

Opening Statement by Representative Eddie Bemice Johnson (TX-30) 7

Panel:

The Honorable John H. Gibbons, Assistant to the President for Science
and Technology, and Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy,
Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC:

Oral Testimony 9

Prepared Testimony 13

Biography 35

The Honorable Ernest J. Moniz, Under Secretary of Energy, U.S. Depart-
ment of Energy, Washington, DC:

Oral Testimony 37

Prepared Testimony 40

Biography 57

The Honorable David M. Gardiner, Assistant Administrator for Policy,
Planning and Evaluation U.S. Environmental, Protection Agency,
Washington, DC:

Oral Testimony 59

Prepared Testimony 61

Biography 73

Mr. Gary R. Bachula, Acting Under Secretary for Technology, U.S. De-
partment of Commerce, Washington, DC:

Oral Testimony 74

Prepared Testimony 77

Biography 93

Discussion 94

Relationship of Senate Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol to the FY

1999 Budget Submission 94

Dependence of Budget Initiatives on Proposed Tobacco Settlement 94

Differences Between Climate Change Technology Initiative and Cli-
mate Change Action Plan 96

Impact of Improved Automotive Technology on Emissions 96

Promotion of Alternative Vehicles 97

Effectiveness of Tax Credits 98

Potential of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles 99

Comparison of U.S. and Foreign Incentives for Automobiles 99

Efficiency of Tax Proposals 101

Existing Tax Credits for Wind and Biomass 101

Extension of Ethanol Tax Credit 102

Promotion of Carbon Sinks 102

Priority of Fossil Fuel R&D 103

Agency Lead on Carbon Sequestration 104

Impact of Proposed Program on Global Warming 105

Cost and Benefits of Proposed Program 106

U.S. Capability of Meeting Kyoto Protocol Emissions Target 108

Creation of Markets for Alternative Vehicles 109

Role of Federal Government in Automotive Industry Infrastructiu-e ... Ill

(III)



IV

Page

APPENDIX 1

Answers to Post-Hearing Questions Submitted by Members of the Committee

on Science

The Honorable John H. Gibbons, Assistant to the President for Science
and Technology, and Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy .. 113

Answers to Post-Hearing Questions Submitted by Chairman F. James
Sensenbrenner, Jr.:
"Clear and Compelling Evidence" That Human Activities Are Caus-
ing Climate Change 113

Climate Change and Extreme Events 116

Documentation of 1997 Temperature Statistics 117

"1997 Wannest Year of Century, NOAA Reports," U.S. Depart-
ment of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin-
istration (NOAA) Press Release, NOAA 98-1, January 8, 1998 118
"Global Temperature Trends," National Aeronautics and Space

Administration (NASA) Goddard Institute for Space Studies .... 121
D.E. Parker, E.B. Norton, and M. Gordon, "Global and Regional
Climate in 1997," Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and

Research, Meteorological Office, February 5, 1998 125

Rob Quayle, Tom Peterson, Catherine Godfrey, and Alan Basist
"The Climate of 1997 Global Temperatvire Index: 1997 Warm-
est Year of the Century," NOAA National Climatic Data Cen-
ter, January 12, 1998 133

Land- and Sea-Based Versus Satellite Temperatxire Measurements ... 136
David R. Easterling et al., "Maximum and Minimum Tempera-
ture Trends for the Globe," Science 277, July 18, 1997, pp.

364-367 139

Evidence for Significant Regional Ecosystem Response to Warming

Experienced During the Period 1981-1991 143

R.B. Myneni et al., "Increased plant growth in the northern
high latitudes from 1981 to 1991," Nature 386, April 17, 1997,

pp. 698-702 144

Records of Total Rainfall and Extreme Rainfall of the United States

Over the Last Century 149

Thomas R. Karl and Richard W. Knight, "Secular Trends of
Precipitation Amount, Frequency, and Intensity in the United
States," Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 79,

February, 1998, pp 231-241 150

Extreme Weather Events 162

Kevin E. Trenberth, "Conceptual Framework for Changes of Ex-
tremes of the Hydrological Cycle with Climate Change," Cli-
matic Change 36, 1998 163

IPCC "Business As Usual" Scenario 177

J. Leggett, W.J. Pepper, and R.J. Smaut, "Emissions Scenarios
for the IPCC: an Update," in Climate Change 1992: The Sup-
plementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment, Report
prepared for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) by Working Group I, J.T. Houghton, B.A. Callender
and S.K. Vamey, eds. (New York: Cambridge University Press,

1992), pp. 69-95 180

Valuation of Ecosystems 204

Robert Constanza et al., "The value of the world's ecosystem
services and natural capital," Nature 387, May 15, 1997, pp.

253-260 205

Objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate

Change 213

Impacts on Global Agricultural Activity 215

Cynthia Rosenzweig, Martin L. Perry, and Gunther Fischer,
"World Food Supply," in As Climate Change: International Im-
pacts and Implications, Kenneth M. Strzepek and Joel B.
Smith, eds. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995),
pp. 27-64 217



V

Page

Answers to Post-Hearing Questions Submitted by Members of the Committee
on Science — Continued
Answers to Post-Hearing Questions Submitted by Chairman F. James
Sensenbrenner, Jr. — Continued
Impacts on Global Agricultural Activity — Continued

John Reilly et al., "Agriculture in a Changing Climate: Impacts
and Implications," in Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adapta-
tions and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical
Analyses, Contribution of Working Group II to the Second As-
sessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change, Robert T. Watson, Marufu Z. Zinyowera, and Richard
H. Moss, eds. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996),

pp. 427-467 256

Letters Signed by Thousands of Scientists Urging Action 298

"Scientists' Statement on Global Climatic Disruption," Ozone Ac-
tion, June 1997 299

"Ecologists' Statement on the Consequences of Rapid Climatic

Change," May 21, 1997 389

Similar Letters Urging Action from the Economic Community 396

"Economists' Statement on Climate Change 397

Regional Vulnerabilities 398

Health Effects 405

Anthony J. McMichael et al., "Human Population Health," in
Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation
of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses, Contribution
of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Robert T. Wat-
son, Marufii C. Zinyowera, and Richard H. Moss, eds. (New

York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 561-584 406

Laurence S. Kalkstein and J. Scott Greene, "An Evaluation of
Climate/Mortality Relationships in Large U.S. Cities and the
Possible Impacts of a Climate Change," Environmental Health

Perspectives 105, January, 1997, pp. 84-93 432

Impacts on Water Resources 443

Zdzislaw Kaczmarek et al., "Water Resources Management," in
Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation
of Climate Change: Scientific -Technical Analyses, Contribution
of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Robert T. Wat-,
son, Marufu C. Zinyowera, and Richard H. Moss, eds. (New

York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 469-486 445

Impacts on Forests 464

Miko U.F. Kirschbaum et al., "CUmate Change Impacts on For-
ests," in Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Miti-
gation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses, Con-
tribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Re-
port of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Rob-
ert T. Watson, Marufu C. Zinyowera, and Richard H. Moss,
eds. (New York: Cambridge Univerity Press, 1996), pp. 95-

486 465

Impacts on^ Other Natural Areas 501

M.G. Oquist et al., "Non-Tidal Wetlands," in Climate Change
1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change:
Scientific-Technical Analyses, Contribution of Working Group
II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental
Panel on CUmate Change, Robert T. Watson, Marufu C.
Zinyowera, and Richard H. Moss, eds. (New York: Cambridge

University Press, 1996), pp. 215-239 502

Luitzun Bijlsma et al., "Coastal Zones and Small Islands," in Climate
Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate
Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses, Contribution of Working
Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovern-
mental Panel on Climate Change, Robert T. Watson, Marufu C.
Zinyowera, and Richard H. Moss, eds. (New York: Cambridge Uni-
versity Press, 1996), pp. 289-324 527

Impacts on Coastal Areas 563

Impacts on Agriculture and Food Supply 564



VI

Page
Answers to Post-Hearing Questions Submitted by Members of the Committee
on Science — Continued
Answers to Post-Hearing Questions Submitted by Chairman F. James
Sensenbrenner, Jr. — Continued
Unresolved Scientific Issues Relating to the Modeling of the Impact
of Future Potential Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Global Tempera-
ture 565

Unresolved Scientific Issues Involved in Projecting Future Tempera-
ture Increases and the Impacts Thereof 565

Process of Preparing and Reviewing the U.S. Global Change Re-
search Program Budgets and Projects 568

Answers to Post-Hearing Questions Submitted by Representative Mike
Doyle (PA18):

Carbon Sequestration 572

The Honorable Ernest J. Moniz, Under Secretary of Energy, U.S. Department
of Energy 578

Answers to Post-Hearing Questions Submitted by Chairman F. James
Sensenbrenner, Jr.:
"Enhanced Energy R&D Investments Provided for in DOE's FY 1999
Budget Request Will Indeed Result in Lower Greenhosue Gas

Emissions" 578

1997 R&D 100 Awards 581

U.S. Energy Expenditures 584

U.S. Energy Use Per Dollar of GNP 584

Global Market for Energy Supply Equipment 585

Projections for Global Energy Use and Implications for Global Carbon

Emissions 586

Projection of DOE's Current Oil and Gas Program to Stimulate Addi-
tional Liquids Projection 586

Revolutionary Ceramic Membrane 587

FY 1999 Budget Request for Building Technologies 588

FY 1999 Budget Request for Industrial Technologies 589

FY 1999 Budget Request for Transportation Technologies 589

FY 1999 Budget Request for Renewable Energy Technologies 591

Appropriate Government Role 591

Consistency with the PCAST Recommendations 592

DOE R&D Council 592

Competing the M&O Contract for the National Renewable Energy

Laboratory 593

Updating the Way DOE Selects R&D Performers 593

Science and Technology "Roadmaps" 594

FY 1999 Budget Request for the MiUion Solar Roofs Initiative 595

FY 1999 Budget Request for Fundamental Solar Photovoltaic Re-
search 595

FY 1999 Budget Request for PV Manufacturing 596

FY 1999 Budget Request for for Biomass 597

FY 1999 Budget Request for Wind 598

FY 1999 Budget Request for Solar Market Promotion Activities 599

FY 1999 Budget Request for Nuclear 600

FY 1999 Budget Request for the Climate Change Technology Initia-
tive 602

Answers to Post-Hearing Questions Submitted by Representative Mike
Doyle (PA-18):

Carbon Sequestration 611

Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program 613

The Kyoto Accord and Electricity Deregulation 614

Ratio of Funding Between DOE's Climate Change-Related R&D Ef-
forts Reared Towards Energy Production and Energy End-Use 615

Nuclear Power 624

The Honorable David M. Gardiner Assistant Administrator for Policy, Plan-
ning and Evaluation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 626

Answers to Post-Hearing Questions Submitted by Chairman F. James
Sensenbrenner, Jr.:

Global Warming and Americans' Health 626

Global Warming and Americans' Environment 630



VII

Page

The Honorable David M. Gardiner Assistant Administrator for Policy, Plan-
ning and Evaluation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Continued
Answers to Post-Hearing Questions Submitted by Chairman F. James
Sensenbrenner, Jr. — Continued
New "Energy Star" Partnership with Major TV and VCR Manufac-
turers 632

EPA's Existing Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) Programs, Re-
ductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Reduction in Annual

U.S. Energy Expenditures 636

Aluminum Industry Partnership 690

Metal Finishers Agreement 691

Green Lights and Energy Star Buildings 693

Climate Wise 716

Climate Change Technology Initiative Tax Credits 832

Industry Initiatives 833

Transportation Initiatives 834

Buildings Initiatives 836

Carbon Removal 838

Crosscutting Analysis and Approaches 839

The Lancet Study on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts of

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation 842

Other Benefits of Reducing Greenhouse Gases 853

Reduction of NOx Emissions Due to CCTI Programs 853

Continuation of EPA's Existing CUmate Change Program 855

Clean Air Act Emission Allowances 855

Fine Particulate Standard and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions 855

Legislative/Regulatory Initiatives to Reduce Greenhouse Gases 855

FY 1999 Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI) Funding De-
tails 856

Mr. Gary R. Bachula, Acting Under Secretary for Technology, U.S. Depart-
ment of Commerce 857

Answers to Post-Hearing Questions Submitted by Chairman F. James
Sensenbrenner, Jr.:

U.S. Environmental Industry Revenues and Employment 857

Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles ( PNG V) 858

APPENDK 2

Additional Materials for the Record '.. 860

Kyoto Protocol and the United Nations Framework Convention on Cli-
mate Change 861

FCCC/CP/1997/7, "Report of the Conference of the Parties on its
Third Session, held at Kyoto from 1 to 11 December 1997, Part
One: Proceedings," March 18, 1998 862

FCCC/CP/1997/7/Corr. 1, "Report of the Conference of the Parties
on its Third Session, held at Kyoto from 1 to 11 December 1997,
Corrigendum," June 9, 1988 919

FCCC/CP/1997/7/Add. 1, "Report of the Conference of the Parties
on its Third Session, held at Kyoto from 1 to 11 December 1997,
Part Two: Actions Taken by the Conference of the Parties at its
Third Session," March 18, 1998 (The Kyoto Protocol is part of
this document. The Protocol should be read together with decisions
iyCP.3, 2/CP.3 and 3/CP.3 which are also contained herein.) 920

Text of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change, as amended by the Conference of the Parties at its Third

Session 980

Congressional Research Service Documents , 1028

Salvatore Lazzari, Global Climate Change: The Energy Tax Incentives
in the President's FY 1999 Budget, Congressionail Research Service,
Library of Congress, CRS Report 98-193 E, March 4, 1998 1029

Michael M. Simpson, Global Climate Change: Research and Develop-
ment Provisions in the President's Climate Change Technology Ini-
tiative, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, CRS
Report 98-^08 STM, April 27, 1998 1035

Susan R. Fletcher, Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Pro-
tocol, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, CRS
Report 98-2 ENR, July 31, 1998 1040



VIII

Page

Additional Materials for the Record — Continued

General Accounting Office (GAO) Documents 1045

Global Warming: Information on the Results of Four of EPA's Vol-
untary Climate Change Programs, U.S. General Accounting Office,
(GAO/RCED-97-163, June 30, 1997) 1046

Department of Energy: Proposed Budget in Support of the President's
Climate Change Technology Initiative, U.S. General Accounting Of-
fice (GAO/RCED-98-147, April 10, 1998) 1073

Climate Change: Information on the U.S. Initiative on Joint Imple-
mentation, U.S. General Accounting Office, (GAO/RCED-98-154,
June 29, 1998) 1131

Climate Change: Information on Limitations and Assumptions of
DOE'S Five-Lab Study, U.S. General Accounting Office, (GAO/

RCED-98-239, September 8, 1998) 1159

Other Relevant Documents 1189

Climate Change and the Federal Budget, Congressional Budget Of-
fice, CBO Memorandum, August 1998 1190

"The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change," Fact Sheet released by
the Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Sci-
entific Affairs, January 15, 1998 1230



ROAD FROM KYOTO— PART 2: KYOTO AND
THE ADMINISTRATION'S FISCAL YEAR 1999
BUDGET REQUEST



THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 12, 1998

House of Representatives,

Committee on Science,

Washington, DC.

The Committee met, pursuant to notice, at 9:58 a.m., in room
2318, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. F. James Sensen-
brenner, Jr., Chairman of the Committee, presiding.

Chairman Sensenbrenner. The Committee will come to order.

Today we continue with our hearings on the Kyoto Protocol, the
U.N. treaty that would mandate the United States to cut its green-
house gas emissions by 7 percent below 1990 levels by 2008 to
2012. As I said in opening the hearing held by the Science Com-
mittee on February 4th, I believe this treaty to be seriously
flawed — so flawed, in fact, that it cannot be salvaged. In short, the
treaty is based on immature science, costs too much, leaves too
many procedural questions unanswered, is grossly unfair because
developing countries are not required to participate, and will do
nothing to solve the speculative problem it is intended to solve.

Last week. Dr. Jay Hakes, the Administrator of the Energy In-
formation Administration, testified that the EIA projects the Pro-
tocol would require the United States to cut carbon emissions by
550 million metric tons, or 31 percent below the levels expected in
2008 to 2012. Dr. Hakes said that, "It is unlikely the adjustments
can be achieved without a significant price mechanism," and that,
"Under most scenarios the price mechanism selected would slow
somewhat the rate of economic growth."

In plain English, what Dr. Hakes was saying was that the only
way we can meet the emissions reduction mandated in the treaty
is through a significant increase in energy prices and that this will
hurt the economy. Such candor is refreshing, and I hope to hear
some more of it today.

There are basically three ways of increasing our energy prices —
all harmful to American consumers and the American economy.
One is through a carbon or BTU tax, which the Administration has
correctly rejected as political poison. The second is through an
international trading and joint implementation scheme — outlined
in the Protocol, with details to be worked out in Buenos Aires in
November — that would require the users of carbon-rich fuels to
purchase credits to offset their emissions. And the third is through
regulatory fiat. No matter which option is selected, the net result

(1)



will be the same — the U.S. consumer will get stuck picking up the
tab.

In addition to raising U.S. energy prices, the U.N. treaty imposes
the burden of emissions limits solely on the United States and
other developed countries, placing Americans at a competitive dis-
advantage against foreign competition. Higher energy costs and
cumbersome regulations will encourage American industries, agri-
culture, and jobs to move overseas to countries like China, India,
and Mexico that are under no such obligations.

Whether or not the Kyoto Protocol's fundamental flaws can be
worked out in the diplomatic arena remains to be seen and will be
the subject of further hearings. In the interim, we will examine the
Administration's Fiscal Year 1999 budget requests that are directly
related to the Kyoto process. In particular, we will consider the Ad-
ministration's proposals for the U.S. Global Change Research Pro-
gram and the Climate Change Technology Initiative.

The Climate Change Technology Initiative is a 5-year package of
research and tax credits. It includes $2.7 billion research and tech-
nology initiative, and a $3,635 billion package of tax credits to re-
duce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. The Administration has pro-
posed a significant spending increase in Fiscal Year 1999 for the
Initiative — some $473 million, or nearly 58 percent, for all agen-
cies — with the bulk of that increase going to the Department of En-
ergy and Environmental Protection Agency. There is also a large
increase, some $50 million, or 22 percent, for the Partnership for
a New Generation of Vehicles, which is coordinated by the Com-
merce Department's Under Secretary for Technology.

We know that advances in technology can provide us with a bet-
ter, cleaner, and more prosperous world for future generations.
However, we also know that advances in technology cannot and
will not work to a U.N. schedule. Furthermore, we have to be sure
that we do not repeat the mistakes of the 1970's by throwing large
amounts of money at dubious programs that won't get results.

At this point, I have an open mind with respect to the Adminis-
tration's Fiscal Year 1999 proposals. But I must say, that a cursory
examination indicates that there are a number of retreads — with
some reminiscent of the Carter Administration — and several ap-
pear to be, "unwarranted corporate subsidies," to use a phrase from
President Clinton's October 17, 1997, statement on line item vetoes
in the 1998 Energy and Water Development Act. In addition, I find
it curious that the EPA is requesting a $5.4 million increase for do-
mestic and international implementation efforts related to the Pro-
tocol, including, "securing meaningful participation from developing
countries," when the treaty has neither been signed by the Admin-
istration nor submitted to and ratified by the Senate. I hope that
we're not starting on the road toward a constitutional crisis here.

It seems to me that these programs should be judged on their
merits regardless of their fealty to the Kyoto pact. When consid-
ering these budget proposals, therefore, I intend to adhere to the
guiding principles I put forth when I took over as Chairman of this
Committee. First, federal R&D must focus on essential programs



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