United States. Congress. House. Committee on the J.

Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1994 : hearing before the Subcommittee on Intellectual Property and Judicial Administration of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, on H.R. 4357 ... June 30, 1994 online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. House. Committee on the JFederal Courts Improvement Act of 1994 : hearing before the Subcommittee on Intellectual Property and Judicial Administration of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, on H.R. 4357 ... June 30, 1994 → online text (page 1 of 17)
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HEARING

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
AND JUDICAL ADMINISTRATION

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIAKY
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS

SECOND SESSION
ON



H.R 4357

FEDRAL COURTS IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 1994



JUNE 30, 1994



No. 54




^AMpi

LIBRARY

Fiiiih 11 liii (]iii 11 ^ of the Committee on the Judiciary



8a-759 cc



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1994



For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Surerintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, EKT 20402
ISBN 0-16-046192-8



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HEARING

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
AND JUDICAL ADMINISTRATION

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIAKY
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS

SECOND SESSION
ON



H.R 4357

FEDRAL COURTS IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 1994



JUNE 30, 1994






1 No. 54



f/HM



9



,u.



1



Hampo



Printei



LIBRARY

e of the ComAittee on the Judiciary



83-759 cc



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASraNGTON : 1994



For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, DC 20402
ISBN 0-16-046192-8



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY



JACK BROOKS,



DON EDWARDS, California
JOHN CONYERS, JR., Michigan
ROMANO L. MAZZOLI, Kentucky
WILLIAM J. HUGHES, New Jersey
MIKE SYNAR, Oklahoma
PATRICIA SCHROEDER, Colorado
DAN GLICKMAN, Kansas
BARNEY FRANK, Massachusetts
CHARLES E. SCHUMER, New York
HOWARD L. BERMAN, California
RICK BOUCHER, Virginia
JOHN BRYANT, Texas
GEORGE E. SANGMEISTER, Illinois
CRAIG A. WASHINGTON, Texas
JACK REED, Rhode Island
JERROLD NADLER, New York
ROBERT C. SCOTT, Virginia
DAVID MANN, Ohio
MELVIN L. WATT, North Carolina
XAVIER BECERRA, California



Texas, Chairman

HAMILTON FISH, JR., New York
CARLOS J. MOORHEAD, California
HENRY J. HYDE, Illinois
F. JAMES SENSENBRENNER, JR.,

Wisconsin
BILL McCOLLUM, Florida
GEORGE W. GEKAS, Pennsylvania
HOWARD COBLE. North Carolina
LAMAR S. SMITH, Texas
STEVEN SCHIFF, New Mexico
JIM RAMSTAD, Minnesota
ELTON GALLEGLY, California
CHARLES T. CANADY, Florida
BOB INGLIS, South Carolina
BOB GOODLATTE, Virginia



Jonathan R. Yakowsky, General Counsel

Robert A. LembO, Counsel /Administrator

ALAN F. Coffey, Jr., Minority Chief Counsel



Subcommittee on Intellectual Property and Judicial Administration



WILLIAM J
DON EDWARDS, California
JOHN CONYERS, Jr., Michigan
RAMANO L. MAZZOLI, Kentucky
MIKE SYNAR, Oklahoma
BARNEY FRANK, Massachusetts
HOWARD L. BERMAN, California
JACK REED, Rhode Island
XAVIER BECERRA, California



HUGHES, New Jersey, Chairman

CARLOS J. MOORHEAD. California
HOWARD COBLE, North Carolina
HAMILTON FISH, Jr., New York
F. JAMES SENSENBRENNER, Jr.,

Wisconsin
BILL McCOLLUM, Florida
STEVEN SCHIFF, New Mexico



\



Hayden W. Gregory, Counsel

Edward O'Connelx., Assistant Counsel

William F. Patry, Assistant Counsel

JarILYN DUPONT, Assistant Counsel

Thomas E. Mooney, Minority Counsel

Joseph V. Wolfe, Minority Counsel



\



\



Xp.*-^'



(II)



CONTENTS



HEARING DATE



Page

June 30, 1994 1

TEXT OF BILL

H.R. 4357 3

OPENING STATEMENT

Hughes, Hon. William J., a Representative in Congress from the State of
New Jersey, and chairman, Subcommittee on Intellectual Property and
Judicial Administration • 1

WITNESSES

Tacha, Deanell Reece, judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit,
and Chair, Committee on the Judicial Branch, Judicial Conference of the
United States, on behalf of the Judicial Conference of the United States 53

Wray, Henry R., Director, Administration of Justice Issues, General Govern-
ment Division, U.S. General Accounting Office, accompanied by Linda D.
Koontz, Associate Director, Information Resource Management Division;
William O. Jenkins, Assistant Director, Administration of Justice Issues,
General Government Division; and Brian C. Spencer, Assistant Director,
Information Resource Management, Accounting and Information Manage-
ment Division ■■•• •• ^^^

Zobel, Rya W., judge, U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts,
and Chair, Committee on Automation and Technology, Judicial Conference
of the United States, on behalf of the Judicial Conference of the United
States, accompanied by Roy Carter, Assistant Director for Automation and
Technology, Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts 102

LETTERS, STATEMENTS, ETC., SUBMITTED FOR THE HEARING

Tacha, Deanell Reece, judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit,
and Chair, Committee on the Judicial Branch, Judicial Conference of the
United States, on behalf of the Judicial Conference of the United States:
Prepared statement 57

Wray, Henry R., Director, Administration of Justice Issues, General Govern-
ment Division, U.S. General Accounting Office: Prepared statement 144

Zobel, Rya W., judge, U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts,
and Chair, Committee on Automation and Technology, Judicial Conference
of the United States, on behalf of the Judicial Conference of the United
States: Prepared statement 106

APPENDIXES

Appendix 1.— Section-by-section analysis of H.R., 4357, the Federal Courts

Improvement Act of 1994 "■• •• 167

Appendix 2.— Letter from R. William Ide III, past president, American Bar
Association, to Hon. William J. Hughes, chairman. Subcommittee on Intel-
lectual Property and Judicial Administration, June 29, 1994 202



(111)



FEDERAL COURTS IMPROVEMENT ACT OF

1994



THURSDAY, JUNE 30, 1994

House of Representatives,
Subcommittee on Intellectual Property

AND JUDICL\L ADMESflSTRATION,

Committee on the Judicl\ry,

Washington, DC.

The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 10 a.m., in room
2237, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. William J. Hughes
(chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Present: Representatives William J. Hughes, Don Edwards,
Romano L. Mazzoli, Xavier Becerra, Carlos J. Moorhead, and
Howard Coble.

Also present: Hayden Gregory, counsel; Edward O'Connell, as-
sistant counsel; Phyllis Henderson, secretary; and Joseph Wolfe,
minority counsel.

OPENING STATEMENT OF CHAIRMAN HUGHES

Mr. Hughes. The Subcommittee on Intellectual Property and Ju-
dicial Administration will come to order.

Good morning and welcome to this morning's hearing.

The Chair has received a request to cover this hearing in whole
or in part by television broadcast, radio broadcast, still photog-
raphy or by any of such methods, in accordance with committee
rule 5(a). Permission will be granted, unless there is objection.

Hearing none, permission will be granted.

Let me just advise those that are here for our markup on the
performance rights bill, that there will not be a markup today. Un-
fortunately, the House late last night indicated that there would be
no legislative session today, just a pro forma session. For that rea-
son, I am putting off the markup of that legislation until we get
back in mid-July.

Welcome to the subcommittee's hearing this morning on H.R,
4357, the Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1994. H.R. 4357 con-
sists of over 40 legislative proposals adopted by the Judicial Con-
ference of the United States over a number of years.

A few of the provisions are within the responsibility of other sub-
committees, and we will not be focusing on those particular provi-
sions. We also have previously discussed the in-State plaintiff di-
versity portion of H.R. 4357 in a prior hearing. Today we will dis-
cuss the remaining sections of that bill which the Judicial Con-
ference characterizes as being primarily housekeeping in nature.

(1)



My judgment, however, is that many of these proposals rise to
a Httle higher level than housekeeping, and I would encourage our
witnesses from the judicial branch to spell out those provisions
which are their priorities so we can expedite our consideration of
these matters in the waning days of the Congress.

In my memo to the subcommittee members, I have identified two
such proposals which I believe need special attention. They are sec-
tion 202, dealing with the judicial automation fund, and section
401, which would revise the "rule of 80" to permit a judge with 20
years of judicial service who has reached the age of 60 to take sen-
ior status.

I highlighted the judicial automation fund since it is only author-
ized until September 30 of this year, and some congressional action
needs to be taken in the next few months. The automation fund
provides procedures whereby the judiciary can spend funds over
multiple fiscal years, which normally must be expended in one fis-
cal year. This provides the judiciary with both stability and flexibil-
ity m their automation program.

Fund obligations in this program have been about $350 million
in the last 4 years, and I believe on the whole it served the judici-
ary and the public fairly well. However, there are problems with
the fund which we should pursue prior to any reauthorization. We
have a lot of ground to cover today, so I am not going to say any-
thing further.

[The bill, H.R. 4357, follows:]



103d congress
2d Session



H. R. 4357



To make improvements in the operation and administration of the Federal
courts, and for other purposes.



IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

May 5, 1994

Mr. Hughes (for himself and Mr. Moorhead) (both by request) introduced
the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary



A BILL

To make improvements in the operation and administration
of the Federal courts, and for other purposes.

1 Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representa-

2 tives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

3 SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE AND TABLE OF CONTENTS.

4 (a) Short Title. — This Act may be cited as the

5 "Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1994".

6 (b) Table of Contents. — The following is the table

7 of contents for this Act:

Section 1. Short title and table of contents.

TITLE I— FEDERAL COURTS STUDY COM^HTTEE
RECOMMENDATIONS

Sec. 101. Diversity jurisdiction.
Sec. 102. Prisoner civil rights suits.



Sec. 103. Parties' consent to bankruptcy judge's findings and conclusions of

law.
Sec. 104. Enforcement of National Labor Relations Board orders.
Sec. 105. Qualification of diief judge of Court of International Trade.
Sec. 106. Judicial cost-of-living ii



■nTLE n— JUDICIAL FINANCIAL ADMINISTRA-nON

Sec. 201. Reimbursement of jodidaiy for dvil and criminal forfeiture expenses.

Sec. 202. Amendments to the judidaiy automation fund.

Sec. 203. Increase in civil action filing fee.

Sec. 204. Increase in attorney admission fees.

Sec. 205. Transfer of retirement funds.

Sec. 206. Consolidation of unclaimed registiy funds.

Sec. 207. Interpreter performance examination fees.

TITLE in— JUDICIAL PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS

Sec. 301. Court arbitration authorization.

Sec. 302. Duties of magistrate judge on emergency assignment.

Sec. 303. Consent to tiial in certain criminal actions. ^

Sec. 304. Removal of cases under the Employee Retirement Income Security f|

Act.
Sec. 305. Elimination of in-state plaintiff in diversity jurisdiction cases.

TITLE IV— JUDICIARY PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION, BENEFITS,

AND PROTECTIONS

Sec. 401. Judicial retirement mattov.

Sec. 402. Senior judge certification.

Sec. 403. Contribution rate for senior judges under the Judicial Survivors' An-
nuities system.

Sec. 404. Refund of contributions for deceased deferred annuitants under the
Judicial Snrvivon' Annuities system.

Sec. 405. Disability retirement and cost-of-living ac(justments of annuities for
territorial judges.

Sec. 406. Federal Judicial Center personnel matters.

Sec. 407. Judicial administrative oGBcials retirement matters.

TITLE V— CRIMINAL LAW

Sec. 501. New authority for probation and pretrial services officers.

Sec. 502. Transportation expenses for defendants.

Sec. 503. Federal substance abuse treatment program reauthorization.

Sec. 504. Technical Amendments to Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

TITLE VI— CRIMINAL JUS^nCE ACT AMENDMENTS

Sec. 601. Establishment of Federal defender organizations.

Sec. 602. Panel attorney support office.

Sec. 603. Judicial Conference to determine rates of compensation for attorneys.

Sec. 604. Judicial Conference to determine maximum amounts of compensation

for services other than counsel.
Sec. 605. Compensation of paralegals and law students.
Sec. 606. Tort Claims Act amendments relating to liability of Federal public

defenders.

■nTLE Vn— PLACES OF HOLDING COURT
•HR4S57 IH



I



Sec. 701. Place of Holding Court in the Northern district of Indiana.
Sec. 702. Place of Holding Court in the Southern district of New York.
Sec. 703. Place of Holding Court in the E&Btem district of Texas.

TITLE Vra— BANKRUPTCY

Sec. 801. Bankruptcy rulemaking.

Sec. 802. Bankruptcy administrator program.

Sec. 803. Damages for violation of automatic stay.

TITLE EX— MISCELLANEOUS

Sec. 901. Property damage, theft, and loss claims of jurors.

Sec. 902. Expanded workers' compensation coverage for jurors.

Sec. 903. Elxemption from juiy service.

Sec. 904. Full-time status of court reporters.

Sec. 905. Technical amendment relating to the Judicial Conference.

Sec. 906. Technical amendment relating to the Director and Deputy Director
of the Administrative Office.

Sec. 907. Technical amendment relating to removal.

Sec. 908. Technical amendment to Federal Judicial Center retirement provi-
sions.

Sec. 909. Vacancy in clerk position; absence of clerk; compensation of deceased
clerk of Supreme Court.

Sec. 910. Registration of judgments for enforcement in other districts.

Sec. 911. Magistrate judge positions authorized in the District Courts of Guam
and the Northern Mariana Islands.

Sec. 912. Venue in diversity civil actions.

1 TITLE I— FEDERAL COURTS

2 STUDY COMMITTEE REC-

3 OMMENDATIONS

4 SEC. 101. DIVERSmr JURISDICTION.

5 (a) Section 1332 of title 28, United States Code, is

6 amended —

7 (1) in subsection (a), by striking out "$50,000"

8 and inserting in lieu thereof "$75,000";

9 (2) in subsection (b), by striking out "$50,000"

10 and inserting in lieu thereof "$75,000";

11 (3) by redesignating subsection (d) as sub-

12 section (e); and



•HR 4SS7 IH



4

1 (4) by inserting after subsection (c) the follow-

2 ing new subsection (d):

3 "(cl)(l) Effective on January 1 of each year that im-

4 mediately follows a year evenly divisible by 5, the amounts

5 specified in subsection (a) of this section shall be increased

6 by the percent change published in the Federal Register

7 during the preceding year pursuant to paragraph (2) of

8 this subsection. The amount shall be rounded up or down

9 to the nearest five thousand dollars.

10 "(2) Before the end of each year that is evenly divis-

1 1 ible bv 5, the Director of the Administrative Office of the

12 United States Courts shall compute the percent change

13 in the price index for September 1 of such year over the

14 price index for September 1 of the fifth year preceding

15 such year and shall publish such percent change in the

16 Federal Register.

17 "(3) As used in this subsection, the term 'price index'

18 means the Consumer Price Index (all items — United

19 States city average) published monthly by the Bureau of

20 Labor Statistics.".

21 (b) The first increase under subsection (d) of section

22 1332 of title 28, United States Code (as added by sub-

23 section (a)(4)), shall be made effective on January 1,

24 2000.



•HR 4357 IH



5

1 (c) This section shall take effect 90 days after the

2 date of enactment of this Act.

3 SEC. 102. PRISONER CIVIL RIGHTS SUITS.

4 Section 7 of the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Per-

5 sons Act (42 U.S.C. 1997e) is amended—

6 (1) in subsection (a) —

7 (A) in paragraph (1), by striking out

8 "ninety days" and inserting in lieu thereof

9 "120 days"; and

10 (B) in paragraph (2), by inserting before

11 the period at the end the following: "or are oth-

12 erwise fair and effective"; and

13 (2) in subsection (c) —

14 (A) in paragraph (1), by inserting before

15 the period at the end the following: "or are oth-

16 erwise fair and effective"; and

17 (B) in paragraph (2), by inserting before

18 the period at the end the following: "cr is no

19 longer fair and effective".

20 SEC. 103. PARTIES' CONSENT TO BANKRUPTCY JUDGE'S

2 1 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS OF LAW.

22 Section 157(c)(1) of title 28, United States Code, is

23 amended to read as follows:

24 "(c)(1)(A) A bankruptcy judge may hear a proceed-

25 ing that is not a core proceeding but that is otherwise re-

•HR 4387 IH



8

6

1 lated to a case under title 11. In such proceeding, the

2 bankruptcy judge shall make proposed findings of fact and

3 conclusions of law.

4 "(B) If a party files a timely objection, the bank-

5 ruptcy judge shall submit the proposed findings of fact

6 and conclusions of law to the district court, and any final

7 order or judgment shall be entered by the district judge

8 after considering the bankruptcy judge's proposed findings

9 and conclusions and after reviewing de novo those matters

10 to which any party has timely and specifically objected.

11 "(C) if a party does not file a timely objection, that

12 party shall be deemed to consent to the findings of fact

13 and conclusions of law proposed by the bankruptcy judge.

14 The proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law shall

15 become final, and the bankruptcy judge shall enter an ap-

16 propriate order thereon.",

17 SEC. 104. ENFORCEMENT OF NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS

18 BOARD ORDERS.

19 Section 10 of the National Labor Relations Act (29

20 U.S.C. 160) is amended—

21 (1) in subsection (e) —

22 (A) by striking out the first sentence;

23 (B) in the second sentence, by striking out

24 "Upon the filing" and all that follows through

25 "thereupon" and inserting in Ueu thereof

•HR 4SS7 IH



7

1 "Upon the filing of a petition for review under

2 subsection (e), the court"; and

3 (C) in the last sentence, by striking out

4 "by the appropriate United States court of ap-

5 peals if application was made to the district

6 court as hereinabove provided, and";

7 (2) in subsection (f) —

8 (A) in the first sentence by inserting ",

9 within 30 days after the date of the order,"

10 after "by filing in such court"; and

11 (B) by striking out the last sentence;

12 (3) by redesignating subsections (e) and (f) as

13 subsections (f) and (e), respectively, and by revers-

14 ing the order of such subsections;

15 (4) in subsection (g), by striking out "or (f)";

16 and

17 (5) by adding at the end thereof the following

18 new subsection:

19 "(n) If any p)erson violates a final order issued by

20 the Board under this Act with respect to an unfair labor

21 practice, the Board may petition any United States dis-

22 trict court in which the unfair labor practice occurred, or

23 in which such person resides or transacts business, for im-

24 position of a monetary penalty not to exceed $5,000 for

25 each day on which such person violates the order. The

■HR 4SS7 IH



10

8

1 United States district courts shall have jurisdiction to im-

2 pose such a penalty.".

3 SEC. 106. QUALIFICATION OF CHIEF JUDGE OF COURT OF

4 INTERNATIONAL TRADE.

5 (a) Chapter 11 of title 28, United States Code, is

6 amended by adding at the end the following:

7 "§ 258. Chief judges; precedence of judges

8 "(a)(1) The chief judge of the Court of International

9 Trade shall be the judge of the court in regular active

10 senice who is senior in commission of those judges who —

11 "(A) are 64 years of age or under;

12 "(B) have served for one year or more as a

13 judge of the court; and

14 "(C) have not served pre\iously as chief judge.

15 "(2) (A) In any case in which no judge of the court

16 meets the qualifications of paragraph (1), the \-oungest

17 judge in regular active service who is 65 \'ears of age or

18 o^cr and who has served as a judge of the court for one

19 year or more shall act as the chief judge.

20 "(B) In any case under subparagraph (A) in which

21 there is no judge of the court in regular active senice who

22 has ser\'ed as a judge of the court for one j-ear or more,

23 the judge of the court in regular active service who is sen-

24 ior in commission and who has not sen-ed pre\'iously as

25 chief judge shall act as the chief judge.

•HR *3S^ IH



11



9

1 "(3)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (C), the

2 chief judge serving under paragraph ( 1 ) shall serve for

3 a term of seven years and shall serve after expiration of

4 such term until another judge is eligible under paragraph

5 (1) to serve as chief judge,

6 "(B) Except as provided in subparagraph (C), a

7 judge of the court acting as chief judge under subpara-

8 graph (A) or (B) of paragraph (2) shall serve until a judge

9 meets the qualifications under paragraph (1).

10 "(C) No judge of the court may serve or act as chief

1 1 judge of the court after attaining the age of 70 years un-

12 less no other judge is qualified to serve as chief judge

13 under paragraph (1) or is qualified to act as chief judge

14 under paragraph ( 2 ) .

15 "(b) The chief judge shall have precedence and pre-

16 side at any session of the court which he or she attends.

17 Other judges of the court shall have precedence and pre-

18 side according to the seniority of their commissions.

19 Judges whose commissions bear the same date shall have

20 precedence according to seniority in age.

21 "(c) If the chief judge desires to be relieved of his

22 or her duties as chief judge while retaining active status

23 as a judge of the court, the chief judge may so certify

24 to the Chief Justice of the United States, and thereafter

25 the chief judge of the court shall be such other judge of



12

10

1 the court who is quaUfied to serve or act as chief judge

2 under subsection (a).

3 "(d) If a chief judge is temporarily unable to perform

4 his or her duties as such, they shall be performed by the

5 judge of the court in active service, able and qualified to

6 act, who is next in precedence.'*.

7 (b) Chapter 11 of title 28, United States Code, is

8 amended as follows:

9 (1) Section 251 is amended by striking sub-

10 section (b) and redesignating subsection (c) as sub-

11 section (b).

12 (2) Section 253 is amended —

13 (A) by amending the section caption to

14 read as follows:

15 ''§253. Duties of chief judge";

16 and

17 (B) by striking subsections (d) and (e).

18 (3) The table of sections at the beginning of

19 chapter 11 -^f title 28, United States Code, is

20 amended —

21 (A) by amending the item relating to sec-

22 tion 253 to read as follows:

"253. Duties of chief judge.";

23 and

24 (B) by adding at the end the following:

"258. Chief judges; precedence of judges.".
•HR 43S7 IH



13



11

1 (c) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 258(a)

2 of title 28, United States Code, the chief judge of the

3 United States Court of International Trade who is in of-

4 fice on the day before the date of enactment of this Act

5 shall continue to be such chief judge on or after such date

6 until any one of the following events occurs:

7 (1) The chief judge is relieved of his duties pur-

8 suant to section 258(c) of title 28, United States

9 Code.

10 (2) The regular active status of the chief judge

11 is terminated.

12 (3) The chief judge attains the age of seventy

13 years.

14 (4) The chief judge has served for a term of

15 seven years as chief judge.

16 When the chief judge vacates the position of chief judge

17 pursuant to the preceding sentence, the position of chief

18 judge of the Court of International Trade shall be filled

19 in accordance with section 258(a) of title 28, United

20 States Code.

2 1 SEC. 106. JUDICIAL COST-OF-LIVING INCREASES.


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. House. Committee on the JFederal Courts Improvement Act of 1994 : hearing before the Subcommittee on Intellectual Property and Judicial Administration of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, on H.R. 4357 ... June 30, 1994 → online text (page 1 of 17)