United States. Congress. House. Committee on the J.

Legal immigration reform proposals : hearing before the Subcommitee on Immigration and Claims of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, May 17, 1995 online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. House. Committee on the JLegal immigration reform proposals : hearing before the Subcommitee on Immigration and Claims of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, May 17, 1995 → online text (page 25 of 30)
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and retain US workers for such jobs.**

Two final analytical challenges further complicate
the issue. It is difficult to establish whether a US
employer's need for a foreign worker is of such a nannc
that the entry of that worker will not displace similarly



commitneal B faoily immigntion. and (c) inumpitioa aouroe the United States b; recton
and Kleded country of last rcsidcnct, Bscal year 19S9



TOTAL IMMIGRATION



FROM THE
WESTERN HEMISPHERE




FROMASU



FROM EUROPE





Hhi allied firm m dte First Family Preference, as



" Hdi i> ilB Icna of M ia US immipaiioa taw »»l imb> • US
cibica/pcniiaiitfll icsidnii is dv *^cdDocii^ Mid Ihc pnspccow
immiiniuilie bencftcuiy of d* petiiioa.

" AD ulumm B US mi uigi Mk n nub ia dait pope wiO culadc
■cfiifKt unlen odiowiit indiciied. IUfii|c«> an idiniiicd onder a
dininct pncea nd dicir nainbcti at decided imiully dwoogb
connihabom between die US eiecinivc and kgiibiivt br a n ch e i . h
fiical year I9B9, abcM 101.000 wcr tdnined (lae INS, SUiuiica/
rMf*«it(l990)).

" Thii tan fifure iododes dioat pinini eioy under Ihc
cfiiploynml-baitd calcfona dimucd lucr. Under die pit-1990
liiunifTatioa Act imvisiom of the limnifratioa and Nationality Ad
(INAX IhcR wen Z70.000 prefeitncc vital available annually bw no
sin(lc country could eacted 20.000 in any flical year (INA. Sect 201,
I use. 1 1 S2 (a)). Ttie provision, however, doo not "|naraniee~ 20.000
vital 10 any counliy Raiher. each counny compele* for the pool of
270.000 visas a|ainst all oiliei counoiet ip k> die 20.000-vita Undl -
cnatiog a "Bse-ii-or-k»e H' enviranmenl Eiccti applicaolt widi
approved petitioos aic placed on wailinf Hsti in the order of the date of
approval of dieir petition (known aa '>iomy' dates). (Papademorioa
(I9«».)



well as about 3,000 additional visas from T>iiid Family
Preference (married sons and daughters of US citizens)."

The most significant change in the Second Family
Preference category," however, is its division into two
groups. The first group is allocated a minimum of 77 per
cent of available visas, assigned in die order in which die
petitions were filed, to spouses and minor children of US
permanent residents without regard to country ceilings.
The remaining visas, but no more dun 23 per cent of die
category's total visa allocation of 114,200,* go to
unmarried sons and daughters of US permanent residents.
TTiis group of visas will continue to be subject to country
ceilings.

The rationale for and significance of diese viu
number manipulations is two-fold. First, tfiey are intended
to begin to address die category's visa backlog problems
for the countries widi the longest waiting lines. Second,
diey put some additional substance to the nation's
commitment to the principle of family reunification and to
the corollary that closer family relationships should receive
■ "truer preference" than more distant ones - even when
die relatives in question are those of permanent residents,
rather dian VS citizens.

Altogether, die LA increases Cunily-preference
numbers to a minimum of 226,000. Theoretically, any
sending country can have a maximum of 7 per cent of diis
total allocated to it Togedier widi access to die same
proportion from die 140,000 employment-based visas (die
two categories total a minimum of 3i66,000), a country can
obtain as many as 25.620 visas. Widi die exception of
Hong Kong," dependent areas are limited to a dieoretical
maximum of 2 per cent of die same overall total, or 7320
visas.



** SeePapadeneBiea(l990a)lkirafidliiicaBioaofdKC^>aBdlB
retadomUp B d* Canadian pnctkc of tcain( "humI immipaaioi

» tlieac viiat wen made available becauae btKklop tai dbe idevaal
(amOy prefcrence a/cgaiy (the Scatnd Ptefennoc) woald have inpoaed
kmi delays on family icanirieaikin hr dioae lepliaed Mider RCA. Tkt
vast majority wcr of Meiicaa cri|in, and Cimily leanificalioa far ltd
iroop woold have been delayed nin mora, as Meaica and die FUippiaci
have die lonfeat Second P i tfeiejax waiiini Uata. (Sec Pa p ad u n ca rioc
( 1 990a) tor a ditconioa of dc inlenctian among vita catetotka and te
delaya caaed.)

" His probably makes ds cap only a symboBc vicny fcr IB
p ropon ents . Still, they probably fad dial when die itsae b levi ii aed. Acy
will have an easier bme aetiini a "^mf cap afler at leaal haviag wea
acceptance for the principle of a cap.

" Vitas for die Foorlh FaMy Picfercncc under die IA (brodien and
titleis of US dtiieiii - prcviootly die Hllh Picfcicnce) wiD be lar^
uTKhanfed at 65.000. plus unuted vitas from aD earlier pterercnoo. The
category had 64.0(7 vitas available in fiscal year I9t9. h January af
that year - the last for which cxHtipirheniive data are avallabb - te
backlog ia the category nood at 1 .470.000 pertoni The longest waidag
hncs were for Rlipinot. Indians, Meiicans, Koreans, and ■ntolaad
CWncac - 16, II, 10. 1, and 7 pet cent of die waidag list. icspcaiMlir.
(US Depvtment of Stale ( 1 991 ). p. 1 21)



188



(»; EmplojmtaU-hafdimmiptaom
Tht tysum befor* the 1990 Act

The other (ignificwit route for pennaiieai eatiy iaio
iie United States « through emptoymeat-teJited «•«.
Tlie US tnnuany admiu 54.000 fofeiga natknaU whose
ttrncts are sought by US bosineuet. The newcomen'
taunediate ftmilies also are allowed admitsioo. The visas
have been divided equaHy between professiooah, on the
one band, and skilled and unskilled woricers oa the otfaer°
- each categoiy getting 27,000. The Uob's Awe of visas
offend to skilled and unskilled woftos lHaally has gone
to the unskilled.

TVaditional concent by organixed labour *out the
poientiaUy advene effects on US workers ftom wch
■bnissions has led to a requitement that employers
demonstrate to the government that Ihey have made
concerted efforu to attract domestic woricen far specific
job openings but have been unsuccessful Enqiloyers are
further lequiied to demonstrate that the wages and working
eooditioos they will offer the foreign enqiloyee wiD not
tfTect adversely tftose of US workers employed in
comparable jobs.

The Immigratum Act ef 1990

The lA makes tignificam - if in some respects
tentative - changes to the process through which
employment-based immigrants enter the US. to the
selection mechanism, and to the eompoaition of the flow.

The first change tests whether or not generalized
Labor Market Information (LMI) data" might be used
reliably to make foreign labour eertificatioos** by the US
Department of Labor (DOL). The U authoiiies the
Department to establish a pilot programme for fiscal yean
1992 _ 1994 to identify up to 10 "shortage" or •^wp'"*"
occupations, using several types of generaUzed LMI data
and the Department's own (fiscretioo, and to make
•Wanket" (as opposed to case-by-case) certificatioo
decisions for these occupations. If the occupation is
judged to be in "shortage", automatic certification wooW



Till. 10 Che Seomd PirferaiM euegoiy ii likely 10 c»« ■« «■«■
tecUop. to 1989. (ke FbK Pidamt hid i tackkt cf « J57
VBM • 17 J2S of dwn far FOipiiKs; nd te Tl«a FMaOjr nOueooe
(■nRunial *m and diughioi of US dlijem) ■ l«eUot "J"?^*'
vbu - 51 tfid 29 pe» cent mpettivtly. faf HBpinw "d MexOBC
(Sec US Deputmem ofSlMe (1991). p.l29.)

■ -niit cottgoty WiD BOW hove 114.200 vine, flm aiy »ta«
Mfljble ibovt the (loof of 226,000 tMidy prefereoa not (*■ >. *c
«ffeicnce. if «>y. be>««eii die vim mol by -iinnie



Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. House. Committee on the JLegal immigration reform proposals : hearing before the Subcommitee on Immigration and Claims of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, May 17, 1995 → online text (page 25 of 30)