United States. Congress. House. Committee on the J.

Legal immigration reform proposals : hearing before the Subcommitee on Immigration and Claims of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, May 17, 1995 online

. (page 27 of 30)
Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. House. Committee on the JLegal immigration reform proposals : hearing before the Subcommitee on Immigration and Claims of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, May 17, 1995 → online text (page 27 of 30)
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managed immigndoii growth to create ■ significantly
larger Canaji«p population by the end of the century ."

Despite a politica] decision not to emphasize
population-size issues during a serious economic downturn
and despite official downplaying of the recommendations
of a recent Government-initiated demographic review
(Employment and Immigrabon Canada (1988). (1990a).
(1990b)), the annual immigration planning ranges for the
Den few years are set only slightly below the level
recommended by the review - I per cent of the Canadia n
population (table 3.6).



H) Spatiat-4iitribution eonsUtntioiu

Just as approximately three quarters d immigrants to
the United Stales settle in five states*, inunigmts to
Canada are highly concentrated in a few provinces. An
absolute majority goes to Ontario (about 54 per cent),
while almost all of the rest go to Quebec (approximately
19 per cent)." British Columbia (about 14 per cent)," and
Alberu - whose average of nearly 9 per cent has been
keeping pace with overall increases in Ca n a di a n
immigratiaa. Only slightly less striUng than this
coocfntration of about 96 per cent of immigrants in four
Canadian provinces is the concentratioa of immigrants in



" The wide-rin(iBt leview of du> qocoiiai is At lut I9I0| cane
on in fivoor of nich < liiilu(c

* h order of impwuncc, Califonna. New Ywk. Teut. Flocidai and
■Oinoit. Sec INS. Amnal Sutijtical Kco/toat ef At /mmifrafuin w who m abk lo tfm capital
fmoboo iBd, lets directly, oeaie jobs fdt rtoadiana

'" Xiafhc ndi effons, levtnl nano* occapadonal spedahiea as
dbminaicd by imniigrinls. One eiticnie eaanpie is dtai of ag d iologl a tt.
nen moie than SO per cent cf tte wiakfuiu la foRip-bon
(Fapadcmetnog (1981b)).

" Tbc kner is laifely a Anclica of die munbcr and taoDy
ciRvmsunccs of imniifnna who eaend Canada die p i e t i o us year.



Specifically, spouses and uomaiTied children of
principals (and, as of 1989, the principals' Bever-manied
children over 1 8 yean of age, and their dependents" ) can
immigrate whether the principals are ranadian dtizent or
landed immigrants. Furthermore, the principals' parents of
any age," and grandparents who are over tiO (or «e
widowed or incapable of working), also can immigrate to
Canada and bring their other children with them without
restrictions. HnaDy, siblings, nephews/nieces, and
grandchildren under 18 who have never married, or
grandchildren who are orphaned, also are granted
immigralioa rights under the funily-connectioa category
(Employment and Immigration Canada (1990c)).

In addition, prospective imntigrants to Canada
without immediate relatives there are stiD able to obtain
immigration benefits as independent immigrants under the
independent system's "assisted relatives" category. These
"assisted relatives" are screened against the labour-market
criteria of the selected-woricer system but are awarded up
lo'lS additional bonus points if eligible family members in
Canada consent to be financially responsible for IhenL
This formula effectively lowers the "pass marie" required



" Whik die Tua ieqirifeiiie« is RMiiicly fhrrtdd, the second is only

inie/niitseialy eafoiced.

" TV Canadian Ouncr of Rifhti and Ftadoim has fKminalrd
moai dtiienship.sutxis -based £stinctioas from Canada's derivadvc
li uiu i |fi on bcnefns. In (he view of moet observen. die few itinaittini
bimen lo tponsonhip and appeal ri|)its by landed immi|ranls' (the
Canadian c^ivalenl to US bwful pcnnanenl icsidems) IR likely lo faO
ander omeai and planned legal rhallm|r«



197



niMler ihe "lelected wofken" cMegoty to a voy
muugeable 55 points (table 3.7).

(k) Tlu indeptndfia



Selecud-worter ( 'point') ammignatts

The codificatioo of Canada'i intoefl ia in d rprn d t n t
nnmignnts goes back to 1967 and can be traced to the
iacreasiog appreciation of the pivotal role die quality and
size of a country's labour force plays ia overall irxwinmir
growth (Hawkins (1989): Papademetrioo (1988b)X

Since dte size of the family stream it to a cenaia
degree inflexible, the independent stream tiaditiooally has
been the engine for expanding inunigratioa during good
economic times. Similarly, as noted earlier, during poor
economic times, and Rtost notably during the early 1980s.
this has been the place for reducing immigrant anmbere.
But the Canadian government recently has made a
conscious decision that this is the part of the syttem it can
least afford to allow to fluctuate drastically. That i*
precisely because of independent immigratioa's direct
idatiouhip to positive economic performance.

The current five-year immigratioo plan (table 3.6)
makes this clear. Despite unemploymeal exceeding 10 per
cent (almost reaching previous records frtxn 1982 - 1985
of ll.a 11.8, 11.2, and 10.5 per centO). the iodependeal
immigration stream was projected to undergo modest
increases until 1993, when it was slated to grow by
approximately one third - to 29,0(X) principal inooigranis
for each of the plan's remaining two years (table 3.6). The
piaa also makes clear that such high immigtaiioa leveii
will not come at the expense of any of the odier streans."

Since the inauguration of the in de p e n d en t cttegoift
main element - selected worken"- ia 1967. the
relationship of independent immigtttian to ovcnll
ecooomic growth and labour-market considerations has
been affinned repeatedly. The 1975 Greea Paper on
Iminigradon and Population, for example, focused to a
great extent on labour markets and scale cmnomies
(Canada (1975)). And in 1981. dte Task Force Report on
Labour Market Developttteot concluded diat die proper
role of immigration policy in this context should be to
admit skilled foreign workers when C a n ad ian worken
were unavailable (Hawkins (1989); and Empltqnoeai aad
Immigration Canada (1989e)). Finally, a recent review bjr
the CSovemmenf s Economic Council** also backed bbov-
market iirunigration despite a contested overall finding that
immigration in general has a very smaD ("insignificaaO
positive economic iznpact (Economic Couitcil of Canada
(1991)).

In a similar but more intense and systematic vty than
the United States, Canada engage* ia cootinuoas sool-



" Tin ttgulaucy ezBaaae ha bedcvfled C i iiKiM kaoivalga
e(5cub (who exiniued die dun|e would have •■ iUDfBifiaai mfteti
and hv U ID ti(mfic*si Asttxtioat ia imaafrBioa Sgma - tipt 'i i tf



** 11c pmas of landed inmipiai wi* fem tm Aac jatf
teiidencc in Cin^a nua be over to. widowed, or iacifiUe of aioddig.



fj ^ rhinj itioat the best way to make immigratioa r espond
to the needs of dK labour market One of dte most
frequeady relied-upoo methods is to fine tune labour
*>»alidalion'' (labour certificatioo) regulations. These
regulations are dmilar to US procedures but also require
dMi employers demonstrate dial Canadian workers cannot
be Baiiied to do dte task concerned in die time it takes to
petition and win approval for immigrants.

Catada's principal mechanism of labour-market
ia t er v ea t i on dvougfa immigration, however, is a system
that awanb "^oiits of assessment** (points) to applicams
for a ■umber of primarily human capital attributes and
demogrqihic fKton draught of as dte best predictors of
economic adqitation*° (table 3.7). Among the attributes
are education, age, vocational pr^iaratioo," occupation"
aad ex p eri ence ia it, arranged employment, knowledge of
English/Preach, a purely administrative variable called
leveb controT,** aad "personal suitability" (a
ifiscretionary categtxy in which the visa officer assigns a
poim value based on the required interview; see
Pa p adentetriou (1988b). (or a detailed description aad
evahntion of the Canadian selection system).

Business Immlgreuils

The second distinct category within the ranariian
jit d tprn d rrt immigratioo stream is business immigration.**
This p rogr a m me accounted for about 8.5 per cent of total
immigraliaa ia 1990. Its goal since inception in 1978 hat
beea to select tminigrants on the basis of dieir potential for
conoributiBg significantly to what Kunin (1991, pj) calls
Canada's luiman aad risk capital reservoir^. The
p r ngiaminr. iadades sdf-employed persons**
eanepreaeun. retirees**- aad. siace 1984, investors."

1. Self-enployed

Iia n iig r a Bt s lader diis cat^oty must engage ia a
lnni ii fn that win oeate emptoynteat for themselves or wiD
contriboie to the artistic aad cultural life of Can«la.



For ane osl or aeie kmt jwm, nmynnaB to finwii



Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. House. Committee on the JLegal immigration reform proposals : hearing before the Subcommitee on Immigration and Claims of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, May 17, 1995 → online text (page 27 of 30)