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at that time when I was in that voting place the woman made use of
this right to go in that corner and when she came out she went to
the ballot box with the list of candidates folded in her hand and tried
to put that list of candidates in that ballot box. Right at that time
two of the Red guards who stood by that ballot box slapped her hand.
She tried in vain to put the list of candidates in that ballot box but
that list was taken out of her hand.

Mr. Kersten. By whom?

Mr. Grantskalns. By the two Red guards. The election officials
went together and had a look at that list of candidates and that woman
was immediately arrested and taken away and never returned to her
community. I don't know what she wrote on that, but evidently she
wrote something.

52975— 54— pt. 1 9



118 BALTIC STATES mVESTIGATION

Mr. Madden. In other words, there has never at any time been any
fair election held?

ISIr. Grantskalns. No, that was a farce, a corned}'.

Mr. Madden. The Soviet Government has taken over control of
Latvia through elections, just as you outlined, and by threats and
murders, just as you testified?

Mr. Grantskalns. That is correct. The whole nation was terrified.

Mr. Madden. And the people who in the majority were assassinated
and murdered and buried in these mass graves were mostly potential
leaders of Latvia ?

Mr. Grantskalns. That is correct; mostly. But then, there were
very common people between them, laborers and people without much
schooling, and so on; even children.

Mr. Madden. But that pattern was not only used in Latvia to take
over the Latvian Government, but do you know whether that pattern
was used in Lithuania and Estonia and other countries as well ?

Mr. Grantskalns. Well, when I found those graves near Una, I was
on my way back to tell the Lithuanian officials about those discoveries
and then I heard from them that the same thing has happened in
Lithuania as well.

Mr. Madden. Mr. Chairman, I might say for the record that from
the testimony of Mr. Grantskalns, also other testimony that we have
taken in Washington, the pattern used by the Soviets in Latvia and
Lithuania and Estonia was identical with the same pattern used in
Poland. As a member of the Katyn Massacre Investigating Com-
mittee, we took testimony along the same lines. The same pattern
was used in Poland as was used in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.

I might say further that we had dozens and dozens of witnesses
who testified regarding the Katyn massacre, including doctors who
exhumed the bodies from the Katyn mass graves. The same method,
the same pattern was used in massacring these Polish officei'S and
intelligentsia as was used in Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania. With
very, very few exceptions, the 4,200 bodies found in the Katyn graves
were all shot in the back of the head, their arms tied behind them,
the same as has been described in regard to Latvia, Estonia, and
Lithuania. The pattern is identical, as the testimony of the Katyn
massacres revealed.

I might state that in connection with the propaganda sent out by
Vishinsky and the Russian leaders regarding Latvia, Lithuania, and
Estonia — particularly Latvia, becau.se Vishinsky was present in per-
son there — the Russian Soviet leaders lied immediately after the
graves at Katyn were found by the German army in the spring of
1943. Moscow, through the Kremlin radio, sent out word that the
Katyn massacre was committed by the Germans and, of course, the
Katyn report reveals, by the testimony of over 110 witnesses and by
two-hundred-odd exhibits that the Russian Soviet NKVD massacred
the 4,200 Poles at Katyn.

That testimony is the same identical pattern. iNfr. Chairman, as
this committee is unraveling regarding Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia.

Mv. Kersten. Mr. Madden, I think it is important that the state-
ment you have just made be made a })art of the record. You, having
been chairman of the Katyn Forest Committee, were certainly in an
excellent position to make these observations and I am very happy
that you have because we here in America are interested to know the



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 119

ptittern of Soviet Cominuiiist aggression and occupation. It is be-
coming clear that under the leadership of Vishinsky in Latvia this
pattern was imposed. It has been imposed by other Soviet leaders
in other countries, in Poland, as you point out, and in other countries
of Eastern Europe. From accounts coming from all over the globe
it was in operation in Korea. It is a very current pattern that the
Connnunists would like to employ wherever they have the opportunity
to do so.

Mr. Madden. Mr. Chairman, you are correct. I might further add
for the record that a year and a half ago when the first reports from
General Hanley came out of Korea, the soldiers and prisoners who
were massacred in Korea were massacred in the same manner, to wit,
shooting in the back of the head with their hands tied behind them.
That same program of massacring and murdering was carried out in
Korea as in Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, and Katyn.

Mr. IvERSTEN. Mr. Madden, this afternoon we intend to put on
the stand Mr. Voldemar G. Ludig who experienced a brain- washing
type of persecution in Estonia. We intend to have with him to also
tell his story, Sgt. George Morar of the United States Air Force,
who was subjected to the same treatment very recently in Korea.
They will show the identity, pattern, and blueprint that the Commu-
nists would employ all over the world.

Mr. Madden. That is all.

Mr. Kersten. Mr. Bonin, go ahead.

Mr. Bonin. Mr. Grantskalns, you said you investigated one grave in
which there were 99 people found murdered.

Mr. Gr.\ntskalns. Two pits, 99 people.

Mr. Bonin. Another one with 113 bodies?

Mr. GrantskxVlns. That is correct.

Mr. Bonin. Another one with 2,000 bodies?

Mr. Grantskalns. Yes.

Mr, Bonin. Another one with 979 young people's bodies?

Mr. Grantskalns. That is a mistake. That figure, 979, represents
the sum of the various small graves all around Latvia. That is the
total sum of the small graves but that doesn't include those 2,000 in
Una.

Mr. Bonin. These atrocities, brutalities, and murders, are the Rus-
sian plans for happiness, peace and contentment which we hear being
sounded off in the United Nations here in this city ? Is that correct ?

Mr. Grantskalns. So far as I understood the Russian policy, I
was sure that the Russians intended to destroy the present generation.

Mr. Kersten. You are speaking of the Communists, aren't you,
not the Russian people, but the Communists?

Mr. Grantskalns. The Communist rule of the Russian nation. I
get the impression that it was to destroy the Latvian nation.

Mr. Bonin. We have seen demonstrations of the same occurrences
in Estonia, Lithuania, and in Poland. We have heard of the same
identical things being practiced in Czechoslovakia, Romania, and
Bulgaria, in the Eastern Zone of Germany, therefore it is logical
to conclude that this pattern and these plans would even take effect
in the United States if they were able to accomplish it.

Mr. Grantskalns. Wherever the Communists will take over, the
same pattern will be executed. There is no doubt about that because
in all countries where the Communists took over, conquered, the



120 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

same thing happened again. I don't see why it would be, for instance
here, different.

Mr. BoNiN. A little earlier in the testimony you described the vot-
ing precinct during the course of the elections in 1940. Would you
mind describing to the committee just exactly what was in that voting
precinct ? Was there a picture of Stalin in that voting precince ?

Mr. Grantskalns. As I told, that was a big room and on the left
side from the entrance doors there was a table at which sat some girls.
They handed out to the voter a list of candidates and then in the center
of that room stood a small table. On that was a wooden ballot box.
There was an opening on the top. Behind that opening there was a
very big picture of the head of Soviet Russia, Stalin. In one corner
was a dresser, turned in the corner so that it was a hiding place. All
around in that room there were the Red guards, the Red militia, police,
Red police, and representatives from the district and a lot of officials.
I can't identify them all ; I don't know what kind of duties each had.
Of course, there was the Red flag, the Red banner.

Mr. BoNiN. But they did have another box there where this woman
wanted to put her ballot?

Mr. Grantskalns. That was the same ballot box. Usually every-
body who came in took that list of the candidates, went right to the
ballot box, didn't fold it, but put it in. This woman took that list
and went into that corner behind that dresser. She spent about a min-
ute there, came out with that list folded and tried to put it into the
ballot box. That women, her hand was slapped and opened and that
list of candidates taken out of her hand. Those officials looked at that
list and that woman was taken away and she never returned.

Mr. BoNiN. That is the free type of elections guaranteed by the
constitution of the U. S. S. R. and of the U. S. S. — whatever they
call it for Latvia now, and the U. S. S., whatever they call it for
Estonia, and the U. S. S. for Poland, Lithuania and all other countries?

Mr. Grantskalns. That is the type of elections which we had in
Latvia and everybody has seen it who lives in the countries dominated
by the Communists.

Mr. BoNiN. Can you visualize how people in this Nation here, with
all the freedom they have, can be stupid enough to follow that type
of philosophy?

Mr. Grantskalns. If at everybody's neck there is a soldier with a
pistol in his hands, I can visualize that ; yes. That is what happened
in Latvia.

Mr. Berzins. All leaders at first were arrested, put into jail, and
sent to Siberia.

Mr. BoNiN. In otlier words, anybody who has sympathy with the
Communist philosophy today — if they were successful, the same sym-
pathizers would be shot or put into concentration camps ?

Mr. Grantskalns. I am afraid.

Mr. DoDD. Following up Congressman Benin's question, let me ask
you this: Were there a substantial number of people in Latvia who
believed that Russian communism was a desirable thing in any respect
before the occupation of Latvia?

Mr. (irantskalns. No, I don't think so, because the Communist
Party in Latvia — there were practically no Communists in Latvia,
maybe a few. The number can be set under 100 in the whole Latvian
Nation.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 121

Mr. DoDD. Previously a witness in "Washington told us some of the
left wing liberals — I believe he described them — cooperated with the
Soviet people when they came in there.

Mr. Grantskalns. After the Communists took over there were
some — I might say traitors — who were thinking Now the Communists
are the rulers and they are going to make the best out of the situation.
There were only a couple of men, maybe.

Mr. DoDD. I had the impression — and I feel; and perhaps some of
the other members of the committee do too — that there were some
people in Latvia who were foolish enough to believe that the Soviet
Communist group in Russia were not as bad as some people were try-
ing to tell the world for several years even before 1939 and before
1940.

Mr. Grantskalns. Well, at that time when the Communists took
over the country, Latvia, the whole world didn't know as much about
Communists as they know now, so no wonder that some of the Latvians
were foolish enough at that time to believe that they couldn't be so
bad as they turned out to be.

Mr. DoDD. You don't need to feel badly about that and I didn't metin
to raise any question about Latvia. We have some here, too.

Mr. Kersten. From your experience in Latvia with Vishinsky when
he operated through the Soviet Embassy at Riga and put into motion
this new Communist system, what would you expect if he, operating
in the United Nations, were able to get any of the ideas across in this
country so as to impose his will ? Do you think he would do the same
thing or not?

Mr. Grantskalns. Mr. Vishinsky is following the general policy
of the Communist and the Communist general policy is to take over
the world. Sometimes they go that way, sometimes this way, but they
have only one goal and that is to destroy the free world.

Mr. BoNiN. And is it immaterial what methods they use and what
type of cunning or how much cleceitfulness and how much lying and
everything else, just to accomplish their purpose. Is that correct?

Mr. Grantskalns. That is correct. They don't care about the way
they do it.

Mr. Kersten. The hearing will now adjouiTi until 2 o'clock this
afternoon.

(Whereupon, at 12:45 p. m., the committee adjourned, to recon-
vene at 2 p. m.)

(The committee reconvened at 2:15 p. m.)

Mr. Kersten. The hearing will come to order, please.

Mr. Ludig, will you step forward, please?

Is Sergeant Morar here ? Will you come forward, please ?

Will you both raise your right hands, please? You do solemnly
swear that you and each of you will tell the truth, the whole truth
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ?

Mr. LuDiG. I do.

Sergeant Morar. I do.

Mr. Kersten. Now, to identify each of these witnesses : Sergeant,
will you give us your full name and rank?

Sergeant Morar. M. Sgt. George Morar, United States Air Force.

Mr. Kersten. You are presently in service, are you ?

Sergeant Morar. Presently a patient at Walter Reed Army Medical
Center.



122 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Mr. Keksten. You recently returned from the Far East?

Sergeant Morar. I returned from Korea and entered tlie United
States the 14th of September 1953, after being repatriated on the 2d
of September the same year.

Mr. Kersten. You were a POW in Korea, were you ?

Sergeant Morar. Yes, sir.

Mr. Kersten. When were you released from the Communists in
Korea ?

Sergeant Morar. The 2d of September 1953.

Mr. KJERSTEN. How long had you been in Korea prior to that time ?

Sergeant Morar. I came to Korea in June of 1951 and was shot
down and captured in September of 1951.

Mr. Kersten. That will be all for the time being. Sergeant. In
just a few moments we want you to go on with your story.

Mr. Ludig, will you identify yourself, please ?

STATEMENTS OP VOLDEMAE Gt. LUDIG, UNITED STATES MEMBER
OF THE BOARD OF THE ESTONIAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE, NEW
YORK; AND OF M. SGT. GEORGE MORAR, UNITED STATES AIR
FORCE

Mr. Ludig. My name is Voldemar George Ludig.

Mr, KJERSTEN. Where do you live?

Mr. Ludig. I live in the Bronx, New York City.

Mr. I^RSTEN. How long have you been in the United States ?

Mr. Ludig. I came to the United States a displaced person in
October of 1949.

Mr. Kerstex. Where was your home originally?

Mr. Ludig. My home orginally was in Estonia.

Mr. Kersten. State whether or not you fell into the hands of the
Communists in Estonia.

Mr. Ludig. That is right; I did.

Mr. Kersten. When?

Mr. Ludig. In 1940.

Mr. Kersten. How long were you in the hands of the Communists?

Mr. Ludig. I was in a Communist prison from December 1940 until
March 22, 1941.

Mr. Kersten. How many months?

Mr. Ludig. Approximately 4 months.

Mr. Kersten. Wliat is your occupation?

Mr. Ludig. I was a lawyer in Estonia.

Mr. Kersten. You had been a lawyer before the Communists came
into Estonia, had you ?

Mr. Ludig. That is right.

Mr. Kersten. Practicing in Tallinn?

Mr. Ludig. Yes. At the moment when the Communists took over
I was connected in an executive capacity with the Estonian Shipping
Co. in Tallinn, Estonia.

Mr. Kersten. All right for the moment, Mr. Ludig.

Sergeant, where is your home?

Sergeant Morar. Fort Walton, Fla.

Mr. Kersten. Your folks live down there, do they?

Sergeant Morar. I have no parents. I was born in Ohio, settled in
Florida.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 123

Mr. Kersten. All right.

Mr, ]\IcTiGUE. Did you spend some time in the consular service, Mr.
Ludig ?

Mr. Ludig. Yes; between the years of 1924 and 1941 1 was employed
by the Estonian Minister of Foreign Affairs and during this time I
served as a secretary to the consul general in Leningrad, in Stockholm,
Sweden, in Copenhagen, Denmark, and at the end I was employed by
the Estonian Legation in London. Afterward I was secretary to the
Consul in Newcastle-on-Tyne.

Mr. McTiGUE. In June 1940, when the Russians marched into
Estonia and seized the country, what was your position ?

Mr. Ludig. In June 1940, when the Russians took over, I was em-
ployed in an executive capacity with a shipping company in Estonia.

Mr. McTiGUE. What happened to the shipping company after the
Conmiunists took over Estonia ?

Mr. Ludig. Shortly after the Communists took over Estonia, all
private businesses were nationalized, which means they were taken over
by the Government.

Mr. McTiGUE. Were you instructed to assist in the nationalization ?

Mr. Ludig. Since the senior member of our company was in his
seventies, I had practically to do the work and turn over all the com-
pany's assets and liabilities.

Mr. McTiGUE. Who was put in charge of the company ?

Mr. Ludig. The usual procedure was that a person was appointed
by the Soviet authorities as a commissar of the company to supervise
the winding up of all the affairs and the turning it over to the Gov -
ernment.

Mr. McTiGUE. Do you recall who was put in charge of your par-
ticular shipping company?

Mr. Ludig. Yes; a jobless ship engineer was put in charge of our
company at that time as a commissar to supervise our activities.

Mr. McTiGUE. We have had testimony here before that the Com-
munists were in the habit of putting former criminals in positions of
responsibility. Did this happen in the case of the shipping company ?

Mr. Ludig. It may have happened in some cases, but I should say
there were numerous companies in the country that didn't have so
many criminals to put in.

Mr. Keesten. They didn't have enough criminals to go around ?

Mr. Ludig. That is right.

Mr. McTiGUE. Will you please describe the event that led to your
arrest ?

Mr. Ludig. After the Communists came in I was busy about 2 or 3
months winding up the business and turning the business over to the
Government. It took me about 2 or 3 months. After that I didn't
have any intention to take up a job. Actually, what I thought was.
I intended leaving the country, by necessity unlawfully. I intended
going to Finland or Sweden if possible at all.

After I finished the job with my own company I think I stayed at
home about 3 or 4 days. After 3 or 4 days a car was sent after me.
I was taken to the Central Shipping Administration and ordered to
take over the job of the Central Shipping Administration.

The Central Shipping Administration was a government agency
which took over all the nationalized former private companies. In



124 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

the Central Shipping Administration my job was assistant legal
adviser.

Mr. McTiGUE. After you worl^ed there for a period of 3 months
were you arrested ?

Mr. LuDiG. After working there for a period of about 3 months
and getting my office more or less in running order, I was arrested.
It seems to be the policy to get things running by people who have
been formerly in the business and who know something of the busi-
ness. Afterward they were eliminated and Communist persons were
put in their places.

Mr. McTiGtTE. On what date were you arrested?

Mr. LuDiG. In the beginning of December; I don't remember the
date.

Mr. McTiGUE. December of 1940?

Mr. LuDiG. Yes.

Mr. McTiGUE. Wliere were you taken and what were you charged
with ?

Mr. LuDiG. I was taken to the building of the former Estonian War
Ministry. I wasn't charged with anything. According to the head
of the Shipping Administration they wanted to ask me questions
about claims with regard to insurance companies abroad.

I was taken over to this building. I was left there for 4 or 5
hours; nobody seemed very much to care about me. After 4 or 5
hours I was told to get out, that they wouldn't question me this time.

When I got outside the room I was surrounded by 4 or 5 Mongolian
guards who took me to the basement. After a thorough search I
was locked up in the basement.

Mr. McTiGUE. You were locked in a cell ?

Mr. LuDiG. In a celJ.

Mr. McTiGUE. Were you locked in the cell alone ?

Mr. LuDiG. At the beginning I was alone. The cell was intended,
actually, for 8 people. At the end there were 17 people in the cell.

Mr. McTiGUE. Can you tell us what happened after you were con-
fined to the cell as far as the NKVD was concerned ?

Mr. LuDiG. After, I was trying to speak to the guards, or trying to
epeak to a responsible person, which is a natural tiling to do. I mean,

I just wanted to get somebody to explain to me what the trouble was.
I was informed by the guards that I would be informed about my

troubles in due course.

I don't quite remember the number of days I was in there ; I think
it may have been 4 or 5 days. Nobody asked me any questions at all.
Then on the 5th or 6th day — well, that is the usual procedure — about

II o'clock or midnight I was taken out of my cell ; I was taken up-
stairs.

The usual procedure seemed to be that before a person was inter-
rogated they put him in a box.

Mr. McTiGUE. Are these boxes built into the wall along the room?

Mr. LuDiG. The boxes were affixed to the wall. The boxes were of
such a size, about 4% feet by 11^ feet by 3 feet.

Mr. McTiGUE. So that you couldn't stand upright?

Mr. LuniG. You couldn't stand upright. I couldn't very well stand
up in 4I/2 feet. I couldn't sit down because the box was too narrow
and I couldn't lie down. The box was illuminated by a very powerful



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 125

bulb which was j^erhaps the most baneful thing about it, because it
caused you headache and you were kind of blind after it.

Mr. McTiGUE. The strong light was directly above your head in that
small closet where you couldn't stand up?

Mr. LuDiG. Protected by wiring, yes.

Mr. JMcTiGUE. Could you see outside ?

Mr. LuDiG. No.

Mr. McTiGUE. You had no view at all ?

Mr. LuDiG. No Anew at all ; no, sir.

Mr. McTiGUE. How long were you confined in that closet ?

Mr. Lttdig. That was the usual procedure for the first time and
afterward the people who were taken for interrogation were usually
kept a couple of hours, 2 hours, 3 hours, just as the case may be. They
were kept in such a box.

Mr. McTiGUE. That was a softening up process ?

Mr. LuDiG. That was surely a softening up process, to make, so to
say, softening the power of resistance.

Mr. McTiGUE. After 2 or 3 hours this first night were you taken out
of the closet ?

Mr. LuDiG. I was taken by the guard out of the closet and taken to
the room of the — well, let's call him the examining judge or something
like that, perhaps.

Mr. McTiGUE. Were just you and he alone in the room?

Mr. LuDiG. Occasionally other people were present to assist, but I
mean the interrogation was more or less directed by one person.

Mr. McTiGUE. What kind of interrogation was it?

Mr. LuDiG. To begin with, my first question, which was probably
a natural one, was to explain to me what I was charged with. He
told me I would be informed about the charge, the accusation, in due
course. In the meantime he said I would have to explain, to give all
the information about my life story. I had to explain in detail where
I had been; having served with the Ministry for Foreign Affairs I
had been abroad quite a few times. I had to explain what the ad-
dresses were, what I had been doing, of course. I had to explain
where I was staj'ing, the friends I had had, where I went to have
some meals, with whom I was corresponding. I mean, there were
all sorts of personal questions they could think of.

Of course, it was rather difficult to reconstruct because after years
one doesn't even remember where one has stayed, I mean 4 or 5 years
ago, what hotel or what street.

Mr. McTiGUE. How long did this interrogation last ?

Mr. LuDiG. This interrogation about my life story ?

Mr. McTiGUE. I mean the first night.

Mr. LuDiG. The first night it lasted — well, I was in the box 2 or 3
hours. I was taken out about 2 o'clock in the morning until 6 or 7
in the morning.

Mr. McTiGUE. After the interrogation you were returned to your
cell?

Mr. Ltjdig. After the interrogation I was not returned to my cell ;
I was retui-ned to the same box.

Mr. McTiGUE. To the same box ?

Mr. LuDiG. Yes.



126 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Mr. McTiGTJE. Were you confined for another hour or two or three ?

Mr. LuDiG. For another hour or two until the guards came and took



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