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dictated.

Mr. Kersten. Do you have those letters with you ?

Mr. Rastikis. I have them with me ; yes, sir.

Mr. Kersten. Would you show them to me, please?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes ; I can. Here are three of them.

Mr. Kersten. I show you three letters. As I understand it, these
are the original letters brought to you by an NKVD agent when you
and your wife were in Germany ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, sir.

Mr. Kersten. The letters are in the handwriting of your daughtei*s
and, as you said, part of them appear to have been dictated ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, sir.

Mr. Kersten. I show you six pictures. These are pictures of your
daughters, two of your daughters, and one picture contains a pic-
ture of your two daughters and

Mr. Rastikis. And my wife's mother.

Mr. IvERSTEN. And your mother-in-law; is that correct?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Kersten. Do these pictures purport to be pictures of your
daughters in Siberia?

Mr. Rastikis. Oh, yes.

Mr. IvERSTEN. And I show you the other three pictures, and these
appear to be pictures of your daughters walking in the streets of
the city?

Mr. Rastikis. Of the city in Lithuania.

Mr. Kersten. In Lithuania ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, sir.

Mr. Kersten. Back in Kalnas?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes ; in Kalnas.

Mr. Kersten. And these pictures, from these pictures it appears
tliat your daughters appear to have grown somewhat ?

Mr. Rastikis. Just one, my daughter, my daughter, my mother-in-
law, and that is a cousin.

Mr. Kersten. Mr. Jurgela, can you, without too much difficulty,
give us a translation of one of these letters so we can

Mr. Maciirowicz. May I ask the witness which daughter wrote
tlie letter and how old she was at the time she wrote it.

Mr. Kersten. Could you tell us, General, which one of your daugh-
ters wrote the letter?

Mr. Rastikis. The first one — the oldest one.

Mr. Kersten. What is her name ?



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 391

Mr. Kastikis. Laimute.

Mr. Kersten. What is the date on that letter?
Mr. Rastikis. March 27, 1948.
Mr. Kersten. How old was she at that time?
Mr. Rastikis. She was 15 years old.

Mr. Kersten. Is it satisfactory with you if I have Mr. Jurgela give
lis a running translation of this?
Mr. Rastikis. Yes.
Mr. Rastikis (through interpreter) :

Dear Daddy and Mommy : We have an opportunity to write a letter to you.
We three of us live together, Babune —

meaning grandmother —

Meilute, and I. All of us are in good health except it is very unpleasant. Aldute —

which is short for Aldona —

died after sickness.

Mr. Kersten. Was Aldona one of your children ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Kersten. That was the youngest daughter?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, the youngest one.

Mr. Kersten. Continue.

Mr. Rastikis (through interpreter) :

The grandparents, both of them, had already died.

That means my father and my wife's father. They were deported
to Siberia, too.

Meilute has grown quite big, but she is still crying quite often when her feet
hurt. I, too, have changed entirely. Both of us are studying in school. Meilute
is in the first grade and I am in the seventh grade. We are studying well.

We would wish so much that this letter should reach you. All of us are yearn-
ing for you and we would like very much to see you. We see you quite often in
dreams and we are thinking that other children here have their daddy and
mommy and we don't have that. We shall ask God that this letter would reach
you and we would wish very much to receive from you even a short letter.

Babune —

that is the grandmother —

is already quite old. We are studying in school. Life is very hard. There is
no one to i>erform the chores.

We receive some assistance from the government but it is not suflacient and
quite f reijuenly we must experience hunger.

Dear daddy and moniiuy, we wish so much to see you. We wish so much
again, like in the past, to live togetiier. You, too, probably frequently think
about your daughters. So many years have passed since we had not seen each
other and it is high time for us to meet but that depends on you.

Nevertheless, we think that you have not forgotten and that it is high time for
all of us to return to our homeland and to live like other people live.

We are expecting and longing for an answer from you. If you would know
how difficult it is here for us to live, then you would of necessity help us, because
there is no one from whom we should expect more help than from you and we
shall believe that you will help us necessarily. Then we would live as in the
past. We are waiting for the hour when we should meet again. We send you our
photographs and we do not think that we could not meet. Nevertheless, we should
meet soon and we shall await that hour. All 3 of us are writing and all 3 of us are
thinking about it, that we should meet as soon as possible. We shall await for an
answer from you and a great meeting.

We kiss you, both of you, many, many times.

Very much longing for you.

Dated : March 27, 1948.



392 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Mr. Kersten. Is there a place on the letter, Mr. Jurgela, indicating
the place from which it was written ?

The Interpreter. No. It seems as if it has been cut. I have read the
entire text, whatever was in the writing.

Mr. Kerstex. Will you state. General, whether the other letters
from your daughters in Siberia are similar?

Mr. Rastikis. Similar, yes.

Mr. Kerstfn. I will return these to you, unless the members think
these is any necessity for putting these in the record. My own thought
is tliat the translation will be adequate.

Mr. McTigue. Off the record.

(A discussion was had off the record.)

Mr. Kersten. So these letters from your daughters were brought to
you, and the pictures, by NKVD people while you were in the DP
camp in Germany ; is that right ? We have decided to return these to
you and mark for exhibit the translation of the letter read into the
record, 15 c.

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Kersten. And what did they tell you?

Mr. Rastikis. They told me if I will decide to come back to my
country and live there, I will live together with my daughters, maybe
with other relatives who were deported to Siberia ; I will receive maybe
a very good position in government, or especially in the Red army, and
I will be very lucky like the other peoples in the Soviety Union.

At least, as I did not agree, and my wife, too, they told me I would
regret it in the future, that I had decided so.

Mr. Kersten. That if you did not go back you would regret it?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Kersten. How much time did they spend with you ?

Mr. Rastikis. They spent with me about 2 hours, I think. I have
as a witness my brother, who was during these conversations between
my wife, me and these NKVD men present, because my brother was
at that time in the same DP Camp as we were.

Mr. Kersten. In other words, these were NKVD persuaders ; is that
right ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, sir.

Mr. Kersten. And I suppose they had the permission of the Ameri-
can authorities to go in there ; is that right?

Mr. Rastikis. No, I don't think so.

Mr. Kersten. Oh.

Mr. Rastikis. I don't think at that time, because the Russians had
repatriated Russian staffs in the Russian Zone of Germany, but these
men who were in our camp, I think that they came there not officially^
and without permission of the authorities.

Mr. Kersten. Apparently secretly?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, I think so.

Mr. Kersten. Did you recognize any of them ?

Mr. Rastikis. One of them I recognized from the old times, but the
second one, I didn't know him.

Mr. Kersten. And was your wife with you ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Kersten. And what was the decision of you and your wife after
these talks ?



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 393

Mr. Rastikis. First my decision, and the decision of my wife was
that I and my wife could not come back, because we knew that we
would not be in Lithuania, but in Siberia, like a lot of the other pa-
triots, but they tried to convince us that we were wrong.

Mr. IvERSTEN. You mean they tried to persuade you ^

Mr. Rastikis. Yes; they tried to persuade us that we were wrong,
and if I don't believe that they told me the truth, I could permit my
wife to go to Lithuania alone without me, to meet our children, to see
how they had a very happy life over there, and after that maybe my
wife and my children together w^ould persuade me also to come back
to Lithuania.

My wife asked them if maybe they couldn't get the children back to
Germany and they answered "No," that that was impossible.

Mr. Kersten. What did you and your wife finally decide to do ?

Mr. Rastikis. We finally decided to stay here.

Mr. Kersten. That is, in Germany ?

Mr. Rastikis. In Germany ; yes.

In Germany, and not to go back, because we knew very well what it
would mean to go back for such people like my wife and I.

Mr. Kersten. What, in your mind, did it mean, or w^ould it mean
to go back ?

Mr. Rastikis. I think that they would first use me for some propa-
ganda with other displaced persons from Lithuania, to come back,
and later when I would no longer be useful to them they would maybe
delice, like in this document that you showed me.

Mr. Kersten. You mean like this death notice ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes; because the Communists never forgot all the
things that happened in the past.

Mr. Kersten. Congressman Bonin has a few questions, I believe.

Mr. Bonin. General, you were a member of the delegation that went
to Moscow to enter into the Mutual Assistance Pact ; were you not ?

]Mr. Rastikis. Yes, sir.

Mr. Bonin. As a matter of curiosity on my part, during the conver-
sation with Molotov, Potomkian, and the other Russian officials — did
they entertain you at all ? Was there any entertainment by the Rus-
sians to your delegation ?

Mr. Rastikis. Entertainment? Directly, no; not directly, but in-
directly, and in all this atmosphere it was so. For instance, one time
Molotov said :

If you will not sign such a pact you will see what will happen with you.

And, for instance :

You cannot wait for any help from Germany, because the Germans now are our
friends, and you are in our hands, your future is now in our hands.

But personally for us, for the men of the delegation ; no.

Mr. Bonin. But during the course of your conversation did they
serve your delegation with any vodka ?

Mr. Rastikis. No.

Mr. Bonin. They did not ?

Mr. Rastikis. No ; just after the mutual-security pact was signed,
after that there was a little small party, but after that, not before that.
Before that at no time was there such entertainment given, like vodka.

Mr. Bonin. In other words, everything was absolutely serious?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, sir.



394 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Mr. BoNix. Prior to the time of the signing of the mutual-assistance
pact ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes; very serious.

Mr. BoNiN. Then after the pact had been signed

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, sir.

Mr. BoNiN. Then, there was a small party ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, sir.

Mr. BoNiN. And, I assume that there were toasts to Stalin; is
that right?

Mr. Rastikis. No; it was not toasts to Stalin, but it was in such
order in Moscow, that during such reception or such party — the host
was Molotov, and a small toast or a short toast to everyone, to all
of the guests. They were quite short, and, at the end of the party, at
then at the end of the party, there were two pretty long speeches.
First spoke Molotov. Then he was answered very shortly by the
president of our delegation, Mr. Urbsys, and then a pretty long speech
by Stalin himself.

Mr. Kjersten. Stalin was there ; was he ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes ; Stalin was there, and Stalin, during his speech^
stressed several times that this pact will not have any role in the
internal matters of Lithuania ; that we have not to be afraid that the
Communists will

Mr. BoNiN. Harm the Lithuanian pepole?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. BoNiN. Therefore, your delegation had to succumb to the dic-
tates of Molotov and Stalin and the rest of the delegation ?

Mr. Rastikis. We had to ; yes.

Mr. BoNiN. And, as a result of giving in, your country was taken
over by the Russians ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, sir

Mr. BoNiN. Now, from your experience, and having been in the
presence of Molotov and Stalin and the other high officials of the
Soviet Government, would you put any faith or reliance at all upon
any of the agreements that those people make?

Mr. Rastikis. No, sir. Regarding my experience with the Rus-
sians, I don't have any such thing now at the present time, and I think
I will have never.

Mr. BoNiN. You will never have any confidence in any of the agree-
ments, pacts, treaties, or otherwise, that the Russian officials enter
into?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes ; I don't believe in it.

Mr. BoNiN. Thank you very much.

Mr. Kersten. I want to say at this time that I think we are very
fortunate in having on this committee, members who are experienced
in dealing with Communists. We are fortunate to have with us a
former chairman of the Katyn Forest investigating committee. Con-
gressman Ray Madden. His close associate in that same investiga-
tion on this committee, is Congressman Machrowicz, of Michigan.
There is also Congressman Tom Dodd, of Connecticut, who had wide
experience in the Nuremberg trials. Also, Congressman Al Bentley,
who lived with the Communists in Hungary, as a member of the
American mission. Also, Congressman Bonin, who has had much
experience with the Communists, and also Congressman Busbey, and



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 395

1 think it may be particularly pointed out here, that in Poland, the
Soviet occupation which was exposed by Congressman Madden's in-
vestigation was of great help in disclosing the true face of the Com-
munists.

I would like to suggest that Mr. Madden ask some questions at this
time.

Mr. Madden. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, General, so much testi-
mony has been offered before this committee regarding the practice
of the Kremlin and the NKVD having all their interrogations or their
questioning at night. These third degree inquisitions at 1 o'clock and

2 o'clock in the morning continued until dawn.

Do you have any reasons why the leaders of the Kremlin, do most
of their business with people outside the Russian sphere, in the early
hours of the morning^ Have you anything to say about that? Do
you have any opinions on that ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, sir. I can say something. For instance, all
the questionings of our political prisoners in Lithuania during the
first occupation by the Bolsheviks in Kaunas and other prisoners of
Lithuania, all these questionings took place always at night, during
the whole night, and the next day, for instance, it was not permitted
for the person to sleep and another night during the whole night, too,
the questioning goes further.

Or, for instance, in the diplomatic sphere at the Kremlin in Moscow,
during the talks with diplomats, I think that they have some purpose
and this purpose is this : That they want to depress the interior force
of a man, to make him tired, without sleep, and in such a position to
get from him more than he would give to them if he would be in a
strong position with sleep, and so forth.

Mr. Madden. In other words, you say that whether it is a diplomat
or a prisoner, their resistance is lower in the early hours of the
morning ?

Mr. E.ASTIKIS. Yes, sir ; I said so.

Mr. Madden. When Stalin and Molotov stated that these bases must
be established in Lithuania, that was nothing more than the opening
wedge for the military of the Soviets to take over the country ?

Mr. Kastikis. Yes. In my opinion that was, as we know from the
history of the wars of Troy and Greece, the same method.

Mr. Madden. The same as the Trojan horse in Greece?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, the Trojan horse in Greece.

Mr. Madden. Your experiences with the broken promises of the
Kremlin was the Number 1 reason why you didn't return to Lithuania
at the invitation of these letters that were supposed to have been
written by your daughters ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Madden. Of course, you did not know at this particular time
that you have narrated in your testimony a replica of the atrocities
the Soviet had inflicted on Poland and other countries during 1939
and 1940.

You didn't know about the Katyn massacres during that time?

Mr. Rastikis. No, we didn't.

Mr. Madden. You didn't know then?

Mr. Rastikis. We didn't, at that time ; no.

Mr. Madden. It was revealed by the Katyn congressional committee
that in the fall of 1939 and in the spring of 1940 there were 150,000



396 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

prisoners taken out of Poland and out of that 150,000, 15,000 officers
and government officials, were placed in 3 camps and massacred during
the spring of 1940 by the NKVD of the Soviets?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Madden. You didn't know that at that time?

Mr. Rastikis, At that time we didn't ; no.

Mr. Madden. You didn't know that ?

Mr. Rastikis. No.

Mr. Madden. So Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia were merely the
same victim of Soviet criminality and barbarism that was inflicted
upon Poland and the other Baltic countries that were forced under
the heel of the Soviets ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Madden. That is all.

Mr. Kersten. Congressman Machrowicz.

Mr. Machrowicz. General Rastikis, early in your testimony you
referred to the fact that Molotov told you that he and Ribbentrop
had already previously agreed on August 28, 1939, on the division of
the sphere of influence in Eastern Europe. Are you sure you meant
August 28, 1939, or did you mean September 28, 1939 ?

Mr. Rastikis. I think it was September or August — I don't know
exactly. I don't remember exactly, no. I must say that it was dur-
ing the second trip of Molotov to Moscow. I don't know exactly.

Mr. Machrowicz. To put these events that you have related in
proper historic background, it is true, isn't it, that Germany invaded
Poland on September 1, 1939 ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Machrowicz. Using that as a basis, would you say that this
agreement was prior to the invasion of Poland ?

Mr. Rastikis. Now, you helped me. Now I can say quite sure that
it was not August but September — the 28th of September 1939.

Mr. Machrowicz. And you would like to correct that to Septem-
ber 28 ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, I would like to correct it, not August but Sep-
tember.

Mr. Machrowicz. Poland was attacked on September 1 and in
2 or 3 weeks was overrun by the Nazis ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes; right.

Mr. Machrowicz. Immediately after that the Nazis delegated Rib-
bentrop and the Soviets Molotov to enter into a mutual agreement
between the Soviet Communists and the German Nazis to divide
Eastern Europe among them?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Machrowicz. And the result of that agreement was the map
which was offered here in evidence ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Maciirowicz. And only a week after that, on October 2 or 3,
you were called into Moscow ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes. First it happened with Estonia, then with
Latvia, and at last with Lithuania.

Mr. Machrowicz. At that time an agreement was entered into, mu-
tual assistance agreement, between Lithuania and Russia?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 397

Mr. Maciirowicz. In October of 1939, I believe you said, and
about the 10th it Avas finally signed ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, October 10.

Mr. Maciirowicz. How long did that agreement last before the
Russians invaded Lithuania ?

Mr. Rastikis. From October 1939 until June 15, 1940.

Mr, Maciirowicz. About 8 months?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Maciirowicz. So that the solemn agreements entered into by
the Soviet government wuth Lithuania did not last any longer than
8 months?

Mr. Rastikis. Eight or nine montlis.

Mr. Machrowicz. As a matter of fact, that agreement was only a
renewal of an agreement made about 7 or 8 years before that, isn't
that right ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Maciirowicz. So that Russia, not on 1 occasion, but at least
on 3 occasions entered into agreements with Lithuania guaranteeing
them their political integrity and

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Machrowicz. And violated them all ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Maciirowicz. Now, you say that Dekanozov came to Lithuania
in June 1940, to supervise the taking over of Lithuania, isn't that
right ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Machrowicz. Actually, isn't it true that the first so-called new
"free" cabinet under the Soviet occupation

Mr. Kersten. You mean "free" in quotation marks ?

Mr. Machrowicz. Yes, naturally — was actually dictated by the
Soviets in their Embassy in Kaunas ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Machrowicz. Can you tell us in that first cabinet how many
Communists were in that cabinet and how many non-Communists ?

Mr. Rastikis. I think that the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Pro-
fessor Michiewiczaus — he is now here in the United States. Then,
the second one. Minister of Finance, Galvanlraustas, lives now in
Madagascar.

Mr. Machrowicz. These two were non-Communist?

Mr. Rastikis. These were not Communists — not Communists.
Then the Minister of War of National Defense, General Vitkauskas,
now he is a Communist. He is a general in the Red Army, but at
that time I think he was not yet.

Mr. Machrowicz. All together, there were how many non-Com-
munists ?

Mr. Rastikis. Three.

Mr. Machrowicz. And how many Communists ?

Mr. Rastikis. I don't remember how many, but they had more min-
isters than we had during the independence in our government, but
I don't know the number.

Mr. Machrowicz. Prior to that, what percentage of the Lithuanian
population would you say were Communists?

Mr. Rastikis. I don't know. We had about 3 million population
and the Communists, maybe about 1,000 or 1,200.



398 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Mr, Machrowicz. One thousand out of three million ?

Mr. Kastikis. Yes.

Mr. Machrowicz. Outside of the general who turned Communist,
what happened to the other two non-Communists in the First Soviet
cabinet of Lithuania ?

Mr. Kastikis. One of them, Mr. Galvanauskas, had to fly to Ger-
many

Mr, Machrowicz. Do you mean he had to leave Lithuania?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Machrowicz. In order to escape arrest and deportation ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, sir.

Mr. Machrowicz. And the other?

Mr. Rastikis. Mr. Mickiewicz stayed in Lithuania, but his position
was very uncertain.

Mr. Machrowicz. The reason I asked you that. General, is because
it seems to be the general pattern of the Soviets in occupying these
countries, whether it was Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Poland, or any
other, that in the first cabinet they always put in a few non-Com-
munists.

Mr. Rastikis. That is right.

Mr. Machrowicz. And you testified that that happened in Latvia
and Estonia ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Machrowicz, And those were soon liquidated or disappeared?

Mr. Rastikis. They all disappeared, yes.

Mr. Machrowicz. As a matter of fact, I think in Latvia they ap-
pointed a professor head of the Latvian Soviet Friendship Society.

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Machrowicz. I just want to bring that out for the edification
of some of our so-called American friends of the Soviet, that they
should remember that they are used as long as it is necessary and
are later liquidated.

Mr. Rastikis. Surely.

]\Ir. Machrowicz. What happened to Mr. Paleckis, the head of that
Government, is he still that ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, he is still there.

Mr. Machrowicz. He is a Lithuanian, is he not?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Machrowicz. But isn't it true that he spent practically all of
his life in Soviet Russia prior to the time he took over the Cabinet?

Mr. Rastikis. No, that is not true. He did not spend all of his
life in Soviet Russia, but he was a reporter in Lithuania.

Mr. Machrowicz. Was he known as a Communist?

Mr. Rastikis. Not quite a Communist, but very near to a Com-
munist, very close to a Communist. From the morals side he was
not a good man, and he made several journeys to Soviet Russia during
the independence of Lithuania.

Mr. Kersten. So he was Moscow-trained ?

Mr. Rastikis. Yes, he was Moscow's friend, maybe not a Commu-
nist at that time, but I believe at that time he was already a Com-
munist.

Mr. Machrowicz. Now, in connection with that letter, or those
letters which you received from your daughters, there are several
thinffs that intrigue me about these letters.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 399

They seem to be like an ordinary letter that a daughter would send
to a father, and yet I notice tliat nowhere in the letter does she refer
to the fact as to where she is living.

Mr. Rastikis. Yes.

Mr. Machrowioz. Did you have any indication as to where she



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