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And the remarkable thing that I would like to have in the record is
the testimony that is revealed by witnesses from Lithuania, Latvia,
and Estonia, which is nothing more than a blueprint and a complete
repetition, you might say, almost identical with the barbarities and the
massacres that were revealed by the Katyn Committee. The reports
coming out of Korea only recently, of the barbarities and the murders
and the massacres committed on the American boys and the boys
fighting under the United Nations banner in Korea, is an exact blue-
print of what has been revealed at these hearings. Over 4,230 bodies
were found there at Katyn and there are probably 10,000 to 12,000 of
the intelligentsia of Poland that were massacred in 2 other camps,
whose bodies have not been found.

All this happened in 1939 and 1940 and 1941, not only in Poland and
other countries, but the testimony offered here in the last 2 weeks,
includes Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.

52975— 54— pt. 1 31



470 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

After Hitler turned on Russia, and the Communists, in 1941, Stalin
and the Kremlin wanted some of these Polish officers from Poland to
help build an army to fight Hitler. The flower of the Polish Army, as
we now know, had already been massacred by Stalin and his associates.
When the leaders of Poland went to the Kremlin they asked : What
happened to these Polish officers? We need them now to fight Hitler,
and Stalin, Molotov, and Vishinsky brazenly lied to the Polish enmiis-
saries, including General Anders and said he didn't know ; they must
have escaped to Manchuria.

That was said, wasn't it. Congressman Machrowicz, in 1943 ?

Mr. Machrowicz. 1943.

Mr. Madden. That is 3 years later than the testimony we have taken
here on Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, which shows the malicious,
unmitigated lying that is used by the leaders of the Kremlin, from
Stalin down, to inflict their inhuman barbarities on innocent people
and, Mr. Chairman, I think that the Baltic Committee has revealed so
far in its work astounding evidence corroborating what has been stated
and heard of the inhumanities and the barbarities of the Communist
dictators.

Mr. Kersten. Mr. Machrowicz, have you a statement?

Mr. Machrowicz. Mr. Chairman, I think both my colleagues have
stated my views on the situation existing with relation to the work of
this committee. I just want to add this very briefly : That this com-
mittee is not presenting this gruesome evidence merely for the sake of
presenting a gruesome picture. There is something more than that
involved in the functioning of this committee.

In these gruesome stories that have been told from the witness stand
there is a lesson and a warning to us Americans and if we listen to the
stories and merely sympathize with these people but don't take the
warning that is so obvious in what we have heard, not only here in
Chicago but in Detroit, New York, and Washington, the same iate
that befell the Baltic States could very easily befall the United States
of America.

The Americans are, in some respects peculiar people. They love to
read stories with a happy ending. We don't like to hear the grim
realities of life, and we don't like to hear grim stories of tortures, or
brutal atrocities, but when we stop to realize that the same things that
befell these people can happen to us, and we will then learn a lesson
which will be very valuable to the United States of America. Wlien
we learn that we can't do business with inhuman beings like the Com-
munists, and that we can't expect, by making treaties with those per-
sons to solve the problems which have been so well presented before
this committee, when we will have learned that lesson, then I think
that this committee has done a good job.

Mr. Kersten. Congressman Dodd?

Mr. Dodd. I can only add one thought, and that is this : It seems to
me that one of the most constructive things we are doing here is in the
making of the record with res]:)ect to these three small countries.
Many of the witnesses who have ap]:)eared here are the last living
representatives of their governments, the last legitimate governments
of those countries, and they are getting along in years, and their
memory, of course, will not be as sharp always as it is now. The record
itself could not otherwise be preserved other than in this manner, so



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 471

if we have done nothing else but to write a record of the right kind,
I think that we will have made some contribution, not only to the
importance of history, but as my fellow Congressman has pointed out,
as well to those people who still need to learn this important lesson.
1 suppose all of us are cognizant of the difficulties that we have had in
convincing people whether the Nazi state was a vicious organization,
which no one could do business with. All of the things that com-
munism represents are shown there, and the people know it now, and
while the people have recognized the basic evil of nazism, they
somehow happen to distinguish the evils of communism from the Nazi
evil.

Mr. Kersten. You make that statement, I presume, on your ex-
perience of having been a prosecutor in the Nuremberg trials?

Mr. ])oDD. Yes, and in listening to these stories, and I think that we
have accomplished something very constructive, and I still think we
have a lot of work to do, and I would like to compliment our chair-
man on the way he has conducted these hearings.

Mr. Kersten. Thank you.

Mr. DoDD. It has been very well done.

Mr. Kersten. Thank you. Before we adjourn, I would like to
state that the record shows that we liave now had hearings in Wash-
ington, New York, Detroit, and in Chicago. The fact is that not too
many of our American people know that the policy of our Govern-
ment is to recognize the free and independent nations of Lithuania,
Latvia, and Estonia, and has never recognized the incorporation of
those small nations into the Soviet Union. The flags of these coun-
tries still fly in the consulates and the embassies and elsewhere in this
country, and in contrast to that the Soviets claimed recently — in fact,
Mr. Vishinsky, last December, in making the statement before the
United Nations, and in Soviet publications, the New Times, and re-
cently over the radio, claimed that they belonged to the Soviet Union.
The sole claim of the Soviets to these three Baltic States is that these
people voluntarily, and by their own will came into the Soviet Union,
and that they are now happy peoples' democracies. I believe that
the evidence in these 4 hearings has done a great deal to disprove that
claim, and one very important thing I think the evidence shows is
that the same people that took over these 3 defenseless countries and
other countries in Eastern Europe back in 1940 are still in jDower
today: Vishinsky, Molotov, Malenkov. Vishinsky himself, person-
ally, went to Riga, Latvia, and through the Soviet Embassy, and with
local Communists, managed to take over Latvia, and thereby estab-
lished a pattern. The Communists destroy all elements of society by
destroying the national life, the cultural life, the religious life, and
the educational life; they destroy the family, the school, and deport
hundreds of thousands of people into exile and death. I think that
one very synibolic fact, showing the complete perversion of humanity
and civilization, is demonstrated when they went to the jails and re-
leased the criminals with long criminal records, robbers and thieves.
These are the people they put into power; these are the people that
they put in charge over the innocent people, and it is that complete
upside down perversity whicli the Communists are using in attempt-
ing to establish communism in these countries. That is the record
I tliink we are beginning to write.

Thank you.



472 BALTIC STATES ESTVESTIGATION

Mr. McTiGXJE. Mr. Chairman, during the course of Dr. Padalis'
testimony in Detroit on December 8, reference was made to the intro-
duction into the record, as exhibits, the original in Russian as well as
the English translation of a memorandum entitled "Detailed Memo-
randum Regarding Counter-Revolutionary Leaflets Spreading on the
Territory of Lithuania S. S. R." It was suggested then that the
original and translation would be available for identification and
introduction here in Chicago. What purports to be the original and
translation have just been handed to me, but frankly, Mr. Chairman,
I haven't had the opportunity to study these documents and respect-
fully request that their introduction be put over until our next
healing.

Mr. Kersten. Very well, the request is granted.

At tJiis time the hearings are adjourned sine die until after the
first of the year.

(Thereupon the hearings were adjourned, sine die.)



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 473

Exhibit 1

[H. Res. 231, 82(1 Cong., 1st sess.]

RESOLUTION

Whereas the Government of the United States of America maintains diplomatic
relations with the governments of the Baltic nations of Lithuania, Latvia, and
Estonia and consistently has refused to recognize their seizure and forced
"incorporation" into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : Now, therefore, be it

Resolved, That there is hereby created a select committee to be composed of
seven Members of the House of Kepreseutatives to be appointed by the Speaker,
one of whom he shall designate as chairman. Any vacancy occurring in the
membership of the committee shall be filled in the same manner in which the
original appointment was made.

The committee is authorized and directed to conduct a full and complete
investigation and study of said seizure and forced "incorporation" of Lithuania,
Latvia, and Estonia by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, including in
such investigation, but not limited to, secret agreements pertaining to the Baltic
nations between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and German Nazi regime
in the years of 1939-1940 ; treaties between the Baltic nations and the Union
of Soviet Socialist Republics and the violation thereof; the infiltration of the
Baltic nations by Soviet agents and the invasion of the Baltic nations by the
Soviet armed forces in the years 1939-1940 ; the fraudulent election system
imposed upon the Baltic nations in the year 1940 to insure the election of persons
favorable to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and inimical to the Baltic
nations and the Baltic peoples.

The committee shall report to the House (or to the Clerk of the House if the
House is not in session) as soon as practicable during the present Congress the
results of its investigation and study, together with such recommendations as it
deems advisable.

For the purpose of carrying out this resolution the committee, or any subcom-
mittee thereof authorized by the committee to hold hearings, is authorized to sit
and act during the present Congress at such times and places within or outside
the United States, its Territories, and possessions, whether the House is in session,
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, and to require, by subi)eTia
or otherwise, the attendance and testimony of such witnesses and the production
of such books, records, correspondence, memoranda, papers, and documents, as it
deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the signature of the chairman
of the committee or any member of the committee designated by him, and may be
served by any person designated by such chairman or member.



(Note. — On exhibits 2A through 4A, the original language docu-
ment may be found in committee files.)

Exhibit 2-A

[Translation =]

No. 04

PEACE TREATY BETWEEN LITHUANIA AND THE RUSSIAN SOCIALIST
FEDERAL REPUBLIC, AND PROTOCOL, SIGNED AT MOSCOW ON
JULY 12, 1920

Russia on the one part and Lithuania on the other part, being guided by a
firm desire to establish, on the principles of right and justice, lasting foundations
for future relations, guaranteeing to both countries and their peoples all the
benefits of peace and good neighbourship, have decided to enter into negotiations
for such purpose and have appointed as their representatives to this end :

The Government of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic: —
Adolf Abramovitch .Toffe,
Julian Josephovitch Marchlevski, and
Leonid Leonidovitch Obolenski ;
and



* Translation communicated by His Britannic Majesty's Foreign Office.



474 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

The Government of the Lithuanian Democratic Republic : —
Thomas Narusevicius,
Peter Klimas,
Simon Rozenbaum,
Josef Vailoliuitis, and
Witovt Rackauskas.
The said representatives havin? mutually produced their powers, which were
found drawn up in proper form and in due order, agreed as follows : —

Article I

Proceeding from the right, proclaimed by the Russian Socialist Federated
Soviet Republic, of all nations to free self-determination up to their complete
separation from the State into the composition of which they enter, Russia
recognises without reservation the sovereign rights and independence of the
Lithuanian State, with all the juridical consequences arising from such recog-
nition, and voluntarily and for all time abandons all the sovereign rights of
Russia over the Lithuanian i)eople and their territory.

The fact of the past subjection of Lithuania to Russia does not impose on
the Lithuanian nation and its territory any liabilities whatsoever towards
Russia.

Article 2

The State frontier between Russia and Lithuania proceeds : —
Commencing from the point of the junction of the Gorodnianka river with
the Bobr river at 2 versts on the east of the Tsharnylias village along the
Gorodnianka small stream between the villages of Khmelniki and Khmelevka
and the villages of Levki and Olsha ; from there along the dried-up watercourse
to the southern side of the village of Veselovo ; from there along the unnamed
tributary of the small stream Kamennaya to the junction of this tributary with
the aforesaid small stream Kamennaya at a distance of about a verst from
the village of Veselovo. Farther, up the flow of the small stream Kamennaya for
a distance of about one verst ; from there along the dried-up watercourse roughly
in the direction of the eastern side of the village of Nerasnaya right up to the
source of the unnamed tributary of the small stream Siderka ; farther, along
this tributary to its confluence with the small stream Siderka at a distance of
about one verst from the village of Siderka ; from there along the flow of the
Siderka (Siderianka) small stream, between the villages of Shestaki and Siderka,
past the town of Sidra. between the villages of Yuashi and Ogorodniki, past the
village of Beniashi, past the village of Litvinka, between the villages of Zveriany
and Timani up to the village of Lovtshiki ; from there along the dried-up water-
course in the direction of the southern outskirts of the village Volkusha ; from
there to the northern side of the village of Tshuprinovo ; farther, up the elevation
with the trigonometric point lOS.O, which is at a distance of about one verst on
the south of the village of Novodeli ; farther, in a direction towards the northern
side of the environs of Toltshi, at a distance of roughly one verst on the north
of same ; from there in a direction towards the southern side of the village of
Dubovaya ; farther, along the small stream Indurka, past the village of Luzhki,
past the town of Indura, past the village of Prokopitshi, past the village of
Belevo ; farther, along the small stream Lashanka, past the village of Bobrovniki,
and, farther, along this small stream to its junction with the small stream
Svislotsh. Farther, along the small stream Svislotsh up to its junction with the
Neman river ; from there along the Neman river to the mouth of the Berezina
river along the Berezina, Islotsh and Volozliinka rivers along the western side
of the town of Volozhin and along the northern side of the villages of Brilki,
Burlaki and Polikshovstshizna ; from there to the north-east along the eastern
side of the villages of IMelashi and Gintovtshizna (Menzhikovtshizna) at about
one verst from them ; farther, towards the north-east in the direction of the
western side of the town of Kholkhlo at a distance of about one verst from the
same ; farther, towards the western side of the village of Sukhonarovstshizna at
a distance of about one verst from it. Fi-oni there the frontier turns north-east
towards the western side of the village of Berezovtzy at a distance of about one
A'erst from it; farther, towards the north-east in the direction of the western
side of the village of Vaskovtzy ; from there in the direction of the western side



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 475

of the village of Lialkovtshizna at a distance of about one verst from it ; from
there it turns to the north towards the western side of the village of Kulevshizna,
and from there to the north between the villajies of Dreni and Zherlaki ; from
there to the north-west along the eastern side of the village of Garavina and the
western side of the village of Adamovitchi ; farther, towards the eastern side
of the village of Myslevitchi ; farther, along the eastern side of the village of
Bukhovsttshina, towards the station of Molodetshno, crossing the railway junc-
tion in such a manner, that the Vilno-Molodetshno-Lida railway line remains
in Lithuanian territory, and the Vileika-Molodetshno-Minsk railway line in
Russian territory ; from there along the small stream Bukhovka to its junction
with the small stream Usha : along this small stream Usha to the village of
Usha ; from there it turns north-east and passes along the dried-up watercourse
on the western side of the villages of Slobodka, Dolgaya and Prenta ; from there
along the small stream Narotch, and near the village of Tsheremstshitza, at a
distance of about one verst from the same, it turns northward and passes along
the eastern shore of the Bliada lake; at a distance of about one verst from same
it proceeds northward across the Miastra lake, and upon issuing from this
lake, along the dried-up watercourse between the village of Pikoltzy on the
western side, and the village of Mintshaki on the eastern side ; farther, north-
ward and on the western side of the village of Volotshek at a distance of about
one verst from it ; from there northward across the Madziol lake to the western
side of the village of Pshegrode at a distance of about one verst from same ; from
there towards the source of the Miadzelka small stream, and along this small
stream to its junction with the Disna river ; from there the frontier proceeds
along the dried-up watercourse north-eastward towards the western side of
the village of Borovyia, at a distance of about one verst from the same ; farther,
north-eastward in a direction across the Mikhalishki lake ; farther, along the
small stream Nistshenka to the parallel of the Ozyraitzy lake, to the western
edge of the Repistshe lake, to the western outskirts of Zaraoshie ; to the Zolva
lake ; along the small stream Zolvitza, across the Dryviaty lake to the Tzno
lake and Neslizha lake ; farther, northward across the Nedrovo lake, and from
this lake along the Druika river to its intersection with the boundary line of
the province of Kovno ; farther, along the boundary line of the province of
Kovno, and, farther, to the Western Dvina river near the Shafranovo farm.

REMAKK 1

The frontier line between Lithuania and Poland, and between Lithuania and
Ivatvia, will be fixed by arrangement with these States.

REMARK 2

The State frontier between the two contracting parties shall be established
in situ, and the frontier marks shall be fixed by a mixed commission having an
equal number of representatives on both sides. In establishing the frontier in
situ the mixed commission shall be guided by ethnographic and economic features,
keeping as far as possible to the natural lines of division, and inhabited points
shall as far as possible enter wholly into the composition of one State. In those
cases where the frontier is carried along lakes, rivers and canals, it shall pass
through the middle of these lakes, rivers, and canals, unless otherwise provided
for in this treaty.

REMARK 3

The frontier herein described has been delineated in red line on the map
hereto annexed.'

In the event of any disagreement between the map and text, the text shall be
the deciding factor.

REMARK 4

The artificial diversion of water from the frontier rivers and lakes, causing a
lowering of the average level of the water of same, is not permitted.

The order and conditions of navigation and fishing in these rivers and lakes
shall be determined by a special arrangement, and fishing may only be carried on
by means which do not exhaust the fishing resources.



■Not reproduced.



476 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Artici-e 3

The conditions relating to the protection of the frontier, as also custom-house
and other questions connected therewith, will be regulated by a separate agree-
ment between the contracting parties after the occupied localities dividing
Lithuania and Russia shall have been freed of occupation.

Article 4

Both contracting parties undertake : —

(1) Not to permit on their territory the formation and sojourn of the Gov-
ernments, organizations or groups, wlio have for their object armed warfare
against the other contracting party. Similarly not to permit within their terri-
tories the recruiting and mobilization of effectives for the armies of such Gov-
ernments, organizations or groups, and the sojourn of their Governments and
officials.

(2) To prohibit those countries who are de facto in a state of war with the
other of the contracting parties, and also organizations or groups, who have
as their object armed warfare against the other contracting party, the im-
portation into their ports and the transport through their territories of all that
may be made use of against the other contracting party, such as : armed forces,
military equipment, technical war supplies and artillery, commissariat, engineer-
ing and flying materials.

Article 5

In the event of international recognition of the permanent neutrality of Lithu-
ania, Russia on its part undertakes to conform to such neutrality and to partici-
pate in the guarantees for the maintenance of same.

Article 6

Persons resident at the date of the ratification of this treaty within the confines
of Lithuania, who themselves or whose parents have permanently resided in
Lithuania, or who have registered with the rural, municipal or corporate bodies
in the territory of the Lithuanian State, and also persons, who prior to 1914 were
residing in the territory of the same State for not less than the last ten years
and had a permanent occupation there, excepting former civil and military
officials not of Lithuanian origin and the members of their families, shall ipso
facto be considered citizens of the Lithuanian State.

Persons of the same category, residing at the time of the ratification of this
treaty in the territory of a third State, but not naturalised there, are equally
considered to be Lithuanian citizens.

However, all persons who have attained the age of 18 years and are resident
in the territory of Lithuania, are entitled within the period of one year from the
date of the ratification of this treaty to declare their wish to opt for Russian
citizenship, and their citizenship shall extend to the children under 18 years of
age and to the wife, if no other arrangement has been made between the husband
and wife.

Similarly, persons residing in the territory of Russia and coming under the
first paragraph of this article, may within the same period and on the same con-
ditions opt for Lithuanian citizenship.

Those who have made a declaration of optation and also those who follow their
citizenship, shall retain their rights to personal and real j)roperty within the
limits of the laws in force in that State in which they reside, but nmst within a
year from the date of handing in the declaration leave its confines, they being
entitled to realise all their property or to take the same away with them.

REMARK 1

For persons residing in the Caucasus and Russia in Asia, the periods indicated
in this article for lodging the declarations, and also for departure, are extended
by one year.

REMARK 2

The rights of optants indicated in this article shall be enjoyed by those citizens
also who prior to and during the world war were resident in the territory of one
side, but at the moment of the ratification of this treaty reside in the territory
of the other.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 477



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