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tions for the conclusion of the Treaty, and at the time of its sigTiature, was
guided by the conviction that the principle adopted by the Parties in Article
4 of the Treaty and relating to non-participation in any political agreements
directed against one of the Contracting Parites which might be concluded
between third Powers cannot in any way hinder Lithuania's execution of the
obligations laid upon her by the Covenant of the League of Nations.

(2) The Lithuanian Government is convinced that Lithuania's member-
ship of the League of Nations cannot constitute an obstacle to the friendly
development of the relations between Lithuania and the Union of Socialist
Soviet Republics.

(3) At the same time the Lithuanian Government considers that, in view
of Lithuania's geographical situation, the obligations laid upon her by her
membership of the League of Nations — an institution whose fundamental
purpose is to settle international disputes in a peaceful and equitable man-
ner — cannot constitute an obstacle to the Lithuanian nation's aspirations
towards neutrality, which is the policy best suited to her vital interests.

I have the honour to be, etc.

(Signed) Mykolas SLEZEvieius,
Prime Minister and Minister of Justice,
Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Lithuanian Republic.

Monsieur G. Tchitcherine,

People's Commissary for Foreign Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics.



484 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

II

Moscow, Septetnher 28, 1926.
Your Excellency,

On to-day's date you have addressed to me a Note to the following effect :

"(1) The two Governments have examined the questions of principle
which are bound up with Lithuania's membership of the League of Nations.
As regards this question the Lithuanian Government, both during the nego-
tiations for the conclusion of the Treaty, and at the time of its signature,
was guided by the conviction that the principle adopted by the Parties in
Article 4 of the Treaty and relating to non-participation in any political
agreements directed against one of the Contracting Parties which might
be concluded between third Powers, cannot in any way hinder Lithuania's
execution of the obligations laid up on her by the Covenant of the League
of Nations.

"(2) The Lithuanian Government is convinced that Lithuania's member-
ship of the League of Nations cannot constitute an obstacle to the friendly
development of the relations between Lithuania and the Union of Socialist
Soviet Republics.

"(3) At the same time the Lithuanian Government considers that in
view of Lithuania's geographical situation, the obligations laid upon her
by her membership of the League of Nations — an Institution whose funda-
mental purpose is to settle international disputes in a peaceful and equitable
manner — cannot constitute an obstacle to the Lithuanian nation's aspira-
ions towards neutrality, which is the policy best suited to her vital interests."
In conformity with my Government's instructions, I have the honour to inform
you that the Government of the Union takes due note of the above declaration.

I have the honour to be, etc.

(Signed) Georges Tchitchebine.

Monsieur Mykolas Slezevi^ius,

Prime Minister and Minister of Justice, Acting Minister for Foreign
Affairs of the Lithuanian Republic.

Ill

Moscow, September 28, 19'2C).

Your Excellency,

On the occasion of the signature on today's date of the Treaty between the

Union of Socialist Soviet Republics and the Lithuanian Republic, I have the

honour to inform you of the following :

The Government of the Union, being guided as always by its desire to see
the Lithuanian nation, like all other nations, independent — a desire which
the Government of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics has on several
occasions expressed in its declarations — and in conformity with the Note
addressed by the Soviet Government on April 5, 1923, to the Polish Gov-
ernment, and with the good-will with which the public opinion of the work-
ers of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics follows the destinies of the
Lithuanian nation, declares that the de facto violation of the Lithuanian
frontiers committed against the will of the Lithuanian nation has not shaken
its attitude with regard to the territorial sovereignty defined in Article 2
of the Treaty of Peace, concluded between Russia and Lithuanian on July 12,
1920, and in the Note annexed to the said Article.

I have the honour to be, etc.

(Signed) Georges Tchitchebine.

Monsieur Mykolas Sle^eviCius,

Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Lithuanian
Republic.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 485

IV

Republic of Lithuania
MiNiSTBY OF Foreign Affairs

LITHUANIAN LEGATION IN THE U. S. S. R.

No. 3772

MOSCOW

Moscow, September 2S, li)26.
YouB Excellency,

On today's date you have addressed to me a Note to the following effect :

"The Government of the Union, being guided as always hy its desire to
see the Lithuanian nation, like all other nations, independent — a desire
which the Government of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics has on
several occasions expressed in its declarations — and in conformity with
the Note addressed by the Soviet Government on April 5th, 1923, to the
Polish Government, and with the good-will with which the public opinion
of the workers of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics follows the desti-
nies of the Lithuanian nation, declares that the de facto violation of the
Lithuanian frontiers committed against the will of the Lithuanian nation
has not shaken its attitude with regard to the territorial sovereignty defined
in Article 2 of the Treaty of Peace, concluded between Russia and Lithuania
on July 12, 1920, and in the Note annexed to the said Article."

Acting on my Government's instructions, I have the honour to inform you
that the Lithuanian Government takes due note of the above declaration.
I have the honour to be,

(Signed) Mykolas SlezeviCIus,
Prime Minister and Minister of Justice,
Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Lithuanian Republic.

Monsieur Georges Tchitchebine,

People's Commissarg for Foreign Affairs
of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.



Exhibit 20
[Translation^]

No. 28o9

PROTOCOL RENEWING THE TREATY OF NON-AGGRESSION BETWEEN
LITHUANIA AND THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS OF
SEPTEMBER 28, 1936. SIGNED AT MOSCOW, MAY 6, 1931

The President of the Lithuaian Republic and the Central Executive Com-
mittee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Considering that the Treaty between the Republic of Lithuania and the Union
of Soviet Socialist Republics, signed at Moscow on September 28th, 1926, has
effectively helped to strengthen and develop friendly relations between the two
States and to consolidate peace in Eastern Europe,

And being desirous of further strengthening and developing their mutual
relations, which are inspired with a spirit of peace and sincer friendship,

Have decided to prolong the validity of the said Treaty, and have to that end
appointed as their Plenipotentiaries :

The President of the Lithuanian Republic :

Jurgis Baltrusaitis, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten-
tiary of the Lithuanian Republic at Moscow ;



1 Translated by the Secretariat of the League of Nations, for information.



52975 — 54 — pt. 1 32



486 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

The Central Executive Committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics :

Maxim Litvinov, Member of the Central Executive Committee of the

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, People's Commissary for Foreign

Affairs ;

Who, having exchanged their full powers, found in good and due form, have

agreed on the following provisions :

Article 1

The Treaty concluded between the Lithuanian Republic and the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics at jNIoscow on September 28, 1926, together with the
notes of the Governments of Lithuania and the Union of Soviet Socialist Re-
publics annexed thereto, shall be deemed to be prolonged for a period of five
years from the date of expiry of the said Treaty. Unless either of the Con-
tracting Parties informs the other, six months before the expiry of this period,
of its desire to enter upon negotiations regarding the future form of the political
relations between the two States, the Treaty shall be regarded as being auto-
matically prolonged on each occasion for one year.

Article 2

The present Protocol is drawn up in the Lithuanian and Russian languages.
For its Interpretation both texts shall be deemed authentic. Th Protocol shall
be ratified as soon as possible. It shall come into force on the date of the ex-
change of ratifications, which shall take place at Kaunas.

In faith whereof the above-mentioned Plenipotentiaries have signed the present
Protocol and thereto affixed their seals.



Done at Moscow, in duplicate. May 6, 1931.



JuRGis BaltruSaitis.
Litvinov.



Exhibit 2-D
[Translation ^]

No. 3405

CONVENTION' BETWEEN LITHUANIA AND THE UNION OF SOVIET
SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS FOR THE DEFINITION OF AGGRES-
SION—SIGNED AT LONDON, JULY 5TH, 1938

French official text comnitmicated by the Hthuatxian Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The registration of this Convention took place April 16th, 1934

The President of the Republic of Lithuania and the Central Executive Com-
tee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ;

Being desirous of consolidating the peaceful relations existing between their
countries ;

Mindful of the fact that the Briand-Kellogg Pact ', of which they are signato-
ries, and likewise the Pact* of Non-Aggression concluded between them at
Moscow on September 28th, 1926, prohibit all aggression ;

Deeming it necessary, in the interest of the general security, to define aggres-
sion as specifically as possible, in order to obviate any pretext whereby it might
be justified ;

And noting that all States have an equal right to independence, security, the
defense of their territories and the free development of their institutions ;

And desirous, in the interest of the general peace, to ensure to all peoples the
inviolability of the territory of their countries ;

An judging it expedient, in the interest of the general peace, to bring into force
as between their countries precise rules defining aggression, until such time as
those rules shall become universal ;



1 Translated by the Secretariat of the Leapue of Nations, for Information.

2 The exchange of ratifications took place at Moscow, Decenilier 14th, 1933.

3 Vol. XCIV. page 57 ; and Vol. CXXXIV, page 411, of this Series.
* Volume LX, page 145, of this Series.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 487

Have decided, with the aforesaid objects, to conclude the present Convention
and have duly authorised for that purpose :

The President of the Republic of Lithuania :

Mr. Vaclovas Sidzikauskas, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni-
potentiary in London ;
The Central Executive Committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics :
Mr. Maxime Litvinoft", People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs :
Who have agreed upon the following provisions :

Article 1

Each of the High Contracting Parties undertakes to accept in its relations with
the other Party, from the date of the entry into force of the present Convention,
the definition of aggression framed by the Committee on Security Questions of
the Conference for the Reduction and Limitation of Armaments, following on
the Soviet delegation's proposal.

Article 2

Accordingly, the aggressor in an international conflict shall, subject to the
agreements in force between the parties to the dispute, be considered to be that
State which is the first to commit any of the following actions :

(1) Declaration of war upon anothei State ;

(2) Invasion by its armed forces, with or without a declaration of war, of the
territory of another State ;

(3) A-ttack by its land, naval or air forces, with or without a declaration of
war, on the territoi-y, vessels or aircraft of another State;

(4) Naval blockade of the coasts or ports of another State ;

(5) Provision of support to armed bands formed in its territory which have
invaded the territory of another State, or refusal, notwithstanding the request
of the invaded State, to take in its own territory all the measures in its power
to deprive those bands of all assistance or protection.

Article 3

No political, military, economic or other considerations may serve as an excuse
or justification for the aggression referred to in Article 2 (for examples, see
Annex J.

Article 4

The present Convention shall be ratified by the High Contracting Parties in
conformity with their national laws.

It shall come into force immediately after the exchange of the instruments of
ratification, which shall take place at Moscow.

In faith whereof the above-mentioned Plenipotentiaries have signed the present
Convention and have thereto affixed their seals.

Done in London in two copies, in French, .July 5th, one thousand nine hundred
and thirty-three.

(s) Vaclovas Sidzikauskas.
(s) Maxime Litvinoff.

Annex to Article 3 of the Convention Relating to the Definition of

Aggression

The High Contracting Parties signatories of the Convention relating to the
definition of aggression,

Desiring, subject to the express reservation that the absolute validity of the
rule laid down in Article 3 of that Convention shall be in no way restricted, to
furnish certain indications for determining the aggressor.

Declare that no act of aggression within the meaning of Article 2 of that
Convention can be justified on either of the following grounds, among others :

A. The internal condition of a State:

E. g., its political, economic or social structure; alleged defects in its
administrations ; disturbances due to strikes, revolutions, counter-revolu-
tions or civil war.

B. The international conduct of a State:

E. g., the violation or threatened violation of the material or moral rights
or interests of a foreign State or its nationals ; the rupture of diplomatic or
economic relations ; economic or financial boycotts ; disputes relating to eco-



488 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

nomic, financial or other obligations towards foreign States ; frontier inci-
dents not forming any of the cases of aggression specified in Article 2.
The High Contracting Parties further agree to recognise that the present Con-
vention can never legitimate any violations of international law that may be-
implied in the circumstances comprised in the above list.

(S) V. SiDZIKAUSKAS.

(s) Maxime Litvinoff.



Exhibit 2-E
TREATY INFORMATION

Compiled by the Treaty D ids ion

Conciliation

treaty of conciliation with hungary (treaty series no. 798)

The present composition of the International Commission provided for under
the terms of the Treaty of Conciliation between the United States and Hungary^
signed January 26, 1929, appears in this Bulletin under the heading ''Interna-
tional Conferences, Commissions, etc."

Mutual Guaranties

soviet-lithuanian treaty of mutual assistance

The American Ambassador to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics trans-
mitted to the Secretary of State with a despatch dated October 30, 1939, a copy
of the English translation of the treaty between the Soviet Union and Lithuania,
signed on October 10, 1939, as publislied in the 3Ioseow Daily News of October 16,
1939. The text is as follows :

"Treaty on the Transfer of the City' of Vilno and Vilno Province to the
Lithuanian Republic and on Mutual Assistance Between the Soviet UNior?
and Lithuania

"The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on the one side and

"the President of the Lithuanian Republic on the other side,

"for the purpose of developing the friendly relations established by the Treaty
of Peace of July 12, 1920, and based on recognition of the independent state
existence and non-intervention in the internal affairs of the other Party ; recog-
nizing that the Treaty of Peace of July 12, 1920, and the Pact on Non-Aggression
and the Peaceful Settlement of Conflicts of September 28, 1926, form as hereto-
fore a firm Ijasis for their mutual relations and undertal<ings,

"convinced that the definition of the exact conditions of insuring mutual secu-
rity and the just settlement of the question regarding the state appurtenance
of the city of Vilno and Vilno Province, unlawfully wrested from Lithuania by
Poland, meet the interests of both Contracting Parties,

"found it necessary to conclude between them the following Treaty on the
Transfer of the City of Vilno and Vilno Province to the Litluianian Republic
and on Mutual Assistance Between the Soviet Union and Lithuania and appointed
for this purpose as their authorized representatives

"the Presidum of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR :

"V. M. Molotov, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars and People's
Commissar of Foreign Affairs,

"the President of the Lithuanian Republic :

"Juozas Ui'bsis, Minister of Foreign Affairs, which authorized representatives,
after having communicated to each other their respective full powers, found in
due form and good order, have agreed on the following:

"article I

"For the purpose of consolidating the friendship between the USSR and Lithu-
ania, the city of Vilno and Vilno Province are transferred by the Soviet Union
to the Lithuanian Republic and included in the territory of the Lithuanian
state, the boundary between the USSR and the Lithuanian Republic being estab-



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 489

lished in accordance with the map appended hereto, which boundary shall be
specified in more detail in a supplementary protocol.

"article n

"The Soviet Union and the Lithuanian Republic undertake to render each other
every assistance, including military, in the event of aggression or the menace of
aggression against Lithuania, as well as in the event of aggression or the menace
of aggression against the Soviet Union through Lithuanian territory on the part
of any European power.

"article III

"The Soviet Union undertakes to render the Lithuanian army assistance in
armaments and other military equipment on favorable terms.

"article IV

"The Soviet LTnion and the Lithuanian Republic undertake jointly to effect pro-
tection of the state boundaries of Lithuania, for which purpose the Soviet Union
is granted the right to maintain, at is expense, at points in the Lithuanian Republic
mutually agi-eed upon, Soviet armed land and air forces of strictly limited
strength. The exact location of these troops and the boundaries within which
they may be quartered, their strength at each particular point, and also all
-other questions, such as economic, administrative, jurisdictional, and other, aris-
ing in connection with the presence of Soviet armed forces on the territory of
Lithuania under the present Treaty, shall be regulated by special agreements.

"The sites and buildings necessary for this purpose shall be allotted by the
Xiithuanian Government on lease at reasonable terms.

"article V

"In the event of the menace of aggression against Lithuania or against the
USSR through the territory of Lithuania, the two Contracting Parties shall
immediately discuss the resulting situation and take all measures found neces-
sary by mutual agreement to secure the inviolability of the territory of the
Contracting Parties.

"article VI

"The two Contracting Parties undertake not to conclude any alliances nor to
participate in coalitions directed against either of the Contracting Parties.

"article VII

"Realization of this pact shall not affect to any extent the sovereign rights of
the Contracting Parties, In particular their state organization, economic and
social systems, military measures and, in general, the principle of nonintervention
in internal affairs.

"The localities in which the Soviet armed land and air forces will be quartered
(Article IV of the present Treaty) under all circumstances remain a component
part of the territory of the Lithuanian Republic.

"article \t:ii

"The term of validity of the present Treaty in regard to the undertakings for
mutual assistance between the USSR and the Lithuanian Republic (Articles
II-VII) is 1.5 years and unless one of the Contracting Parties finds it necessary
to denounce the provisions of the present Treaty established for a specified term
one year prior to the expiration of that term, these provisions shall automatically
continue valid for the next 10 years.

"article IX

"The present Treaty comes into force upon the exchange of instruments of
ratification. The exchange of the instruments shall take place in the city of
Kaunas within six days of the date of the signing of the present Treaty.

"The present Treaty is done in two originals, in the Russian and Lithuanian
languages, in the city of Moscow on October 10, 1939.

V. MOLOTOV.

J. Uresis."



490 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Exhibit 3-A

[Translation >]

No. 67

TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN LATVIA AND RUSSIA, DONE AT MOSCOW,
COMPLETED AND SIGNED AT RIGA, AUGUST 11, 1920

Russia on the one hand and Latvia on tlie other, being strongly desirous of
bringing to an end the present state of war between them, and of bringing about
a final settlement of all the cpiestions arising from the former subjection of
Latvia to Russia, have decided to commence negotiations for peace and to con-
clude as soon as possible a lasting, honourable and just peace. For this purpose
they have appointed as their representatives :

The Government of the Federal Socialist Republic of Russian Soviets :
Adolphe Abramovitch Joffe, and
Jacob Stanislavovitch Hanetski.
The Government of the Democratic Republic of Latvia :
Jean Wessman,
Pierre Bergis,
Ans Buschewitzs,
Edouard Kalnin,
Charles Pauluk.
These representatives being assembled at Moscow and having mutually ex-
amined the powers with which they wei-e furnished, which were I'ecognised to
be in good and due form, agreed on the following terms :

Article 1

The state of war between the Contracting Parties shall cease from the date
of the coming into force of the present Treaty.

Article 2

By virtue of the principle proclaimed by the Federal Socialist Republic of the
Russian Soviets, which establishes the right of self-determination for all nations,
even to the point of total separation from the States with which they have been
incorporated, and in view of the desire expressed by the Latvian people to
possess an independent national existence. Russia unreservedly recognises the
independence and sovereignty of the Latvian State and voluntarily and irre-
vocably renounces all sovereign rights over the Latvian people and territory
which formerly belonged to Russia under the then existing constitutional law as
well as under international Treaties, which, in the sense here indicated, shall in
future cease to be valid. The previous status of subjection of Latvia to Russia
shall not entail any obligation towards Russia on the part of the Latvian people
or territory.

Article 3

The state frontier between Russia and Latvia shall be fixed as follows :
Starting from the Estonian frontier between the villages of Babina and Vuimorsk,
through Vuimorsk, along the river Cioubotsa through Vachkova, then along the
little river Opotchna and the rivers Opotchka and Viada as far as Doubinina.
Here by the shortest route it reaches the river Koukhva, then along the river
Koukhva, and along its tributary the river Pelega, as far as Oumeniichi. From
there in a straight line towards the river OutroTa as far as the letter "V" of the
word "Kailov" ; along the river Outroia as far as the bend which it forms at
Malaja Melnitsa ; from there in a straight line to the curve of the river Lja, 2
versts to the North of the word "Starina." Then along the river Lja and the
administrative frontier of the districts of Lutsin, Rejitsa and Dvinsk with those
of Opotchesk, Sebej and Drissa as far as Pazina on the river Ossounitsa ; then
in a straight line across the White Lake, the Black Lake and the lake between
Vassilieva and Mossichki ; through the farm of Saveiki as far as the mouth of
the narrow river which runs into the Western Dvina between Koskovstsi and the
farm and village of Novoje Selo, then along the Western Dvina as far as the farm
of Chafranovo.



' Translated by the Secretariat of the League of Nations.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 491

Fourteen days after the ratification of the Treaty the Coutractinj^ Parties each
uudertalve to withdraw their troops as far as the state frontier of their own
territory.

Note (1). The frontiers indicated in this article are marked in red on
the map (Scale 3 versts to tlie inch) annexed to this article. In case of dif-



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