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Baltic States investigation. [First interim report] (Volume pt. 1) online

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Mr. Kaiv. Next, a treaty of nonaggi-ession of May 4, 1932.

Mr. McTiGUE. That will be markexl as "Exhibit 4-C."

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit 4— C." See p. 528.)



30 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Mr. Kaiv. Then, Conciliation Convention, June 16, 1932.

Mr, McTiGUE. The convention will be marked "Exhibit 4-D.''

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit 4-D." See p. 530.)

Mr, Katv. Then, the protocol renewing treaty of nonaggression,
April 4, 1934.

Mr. McTiGUE. That will be marked "Exhibit 4-E,"

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit 4-E," See p. 531.)

Mr. Kaiv. And the pact of mutual assistance, September 28, 1939.

Mr. McTiGUE. That pact will be marked "Exhibit 4-F."

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit 4-F." See p. 532.)

Mr, Machrowicz, In what language are those documents?

Mr. Kaiv. They are in Estonian and Russian. Some are in Esto-
nian and French,

Mr. ]\Iachrowicz. Mr, Chairman, I suggest whenever those docu-
ments are introduced as evidence, they be accompanied by translation,

Mr, Kaiv, The English translations are already made by the League
of Nations,

Mr, Ej:rsten. Are the English translations attached to the Esto-
nian?

Mr. Kaiv, They are attached to the French,

Mr, Kersten. You are introducing the English translations in con-
nection with the documents ?

Mr, Kaiv, Yes. The English translations are provided.

Mr, Madden. What percentage of the population of Estonia has
been placed in jeopardy, or in jail, or in prison camps or slave-labor
camps, if you know? Could you give us a rough estimate?

Mr. Kaiv. There are no exact estimates.

Mr, Madden. If you don't know the percentage, give us the esti-
mated number.

Mr. Kaiv. I would say the number of deportees may be from 120,000
up to 150,000,

Mr. Madden, Between 120,000 and 150.000?

Mr. Kaiv. Yes.

Mr. Madden. You testified regarding murders and massacres. To
what extent were they committed againstthe Estonian people ?

Mr, Kaiv. That is shown in my report. There were 2,000 murdered
in the year 1940.

Mr. Madden. Were those in the form of mass murders or massacres,
or just individual Idllings, separate murders'?

Mr. Kaiv. That is all combined. There were mass massacres, and
there were individual killings.

]Mr, Madden, How did they carry out these murders, or massacres;
l)y hanging, or sliooting, or how? Torture?

Mr, Kaiv, Well, in the township of Tartu, I don't know exactly
the number, but they murdered about 200, They were just thrown into
wells.

Mr, Madden. Were they shot first, or just thrown in alive?

Mr. Kaiv. Some were tortured, some were shot, and some were just
thrown in.

Mr. Madden. Do you know of any communications that have been
received by the relatives of the prisoners who were taken away, by the
people back in Estonia ? Any letters or information as to where they
w^ere sent?



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 31

Mr. Kaiv. Very rarely, but there have been certain communications
between the deported and the rehitives outside, but very few. They
are exceptions.

Mr. Madden. A certain percentage of these prisoners were Esto-
nians coming from the intelligentsia, or the leaders, or were they
Estonians in the laboring class ^

Mr. Kaiv. During the first occupation, there was a list composed
of professions, according to which deportations took place. But later,
there was no difference made among the different classes.

Mr. Madden. What was the estimated population of Estonia in
1940?

Mr. Kaiv. 1,135,000.

Mr. Madden. At the present time are there many Russian Com-
munists in Estonia, in official positions, or are they Estonians who have
embraced communism who are in official positions?

Mr. Kaiv. To my best knowledge, a great majority of the higher
oflicials are Russians, in Estonia.

Mr. Bentley. Dr. Kaiv, I would like to ask you a few questions that
I asked some of your diplomatic colleagues this murning. How long
have you been attached to the Estonian consulate here in the United
States 'i
Mr. Kah^ Since April 1, 1939.

Mr. Bentley. Could you tell us what other countries — is it true
that the majority of western countries still recognize Estonia diplo-
matically ?

Mr. Kaiv. With a few exceptions ; yes.

Mr. Bentley. When were the connections between the Estonian
legation, or the Estonian consulate general, as the case may be, the
Estonian Government, when were those relations ceased ?
Mr. Kaiv. Do you mean in 1940?
Mr. Bentley. Is that the time?

Mr. Kaiv. It is impossible to say the exact date, but I did not con-
sider the newly appointed government an Estonian Government any
more and I took no instruction from it.

Mr. Bentley. Since that time, j^ou have had no connection either
with your Government, either during the Soviet or during the German .
occupation?

Mr. Kaiv. With one exception. Wlien the elections were going to
take place, I sent to get some documentation. I called to our Minister
for Foreign Affairs in the capital and said that, according to the
American press, elections were to take place on the question of joining
the Soviet Union. I asked on what basis the elections were being con-
ducted. I asked whether it was correct that we were joining w^ith the
Soviet Union.

Just before the Red Chamber of Deputies convened, I got a reply
from the Minister for Foreign Affairs — the puppet minister — that : ^

Elections are taking place on the basis of the constitution and electoral law.
Rumors about joining the Soviet Union, groundless.

Mr. Bentley. Dr. Kaiv, do you by any chance have in your files a
copy of that communication ?

Mr. Kaiv. I do not have it here, but it could be submitted.
Mr. Bentley. It could be submitted ?
Mr. Kaiv. Oh, yes.



32 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Mr. Bentlet. Since tliat time, lias there been pressure by the Soviets
to take over assets or property of the Estonian Government in this
country ?

Mr. Kaiv. Oh, yes. I have had to fight for years against their at-
tempts.

In tlie first place, there is the so-called Gosbank, the bank of the So-
viet Union in Moscow. They send an order to all American banks here
to transfer all Estonian funds to the Gosbank in Moscow. This order
was not followed, and the transfer was later prevented by the Presi-
dential order blocking the Baltic funds in this country.

Then they tried to seize Estonian vessels, here. I, myself, had
about 20 court cases. So far they lost in their attempts.

Mr. Bentlet. I want to ask you 1 or 2 questions about your state-
ment. As I recall, you said originally the Russian Provisional Gov-
ernment acknowledged Estonian independence in 1917.

Mr. Kaiv. They granted us autonomous self-government.

Mr. Bentlet. That was the Kerensky government?

Mr. Kaiv. That is correct.

Mr. Bentlet. That action was confirmed by the Soviet Communist
government following their military defeat?

Mr. Kaiv. That was reaffirmed in a peace decree. There was this
decree of self-determination of nations. That was published in their
official gazette. Later, the self-government was recognized by a peace
treaty between the Soviet Union and Estonia.

Mr. Bentlet. You mentioned that on March 29, 1940, the Soviets
expressed their satisfaction with the mutual assistance pact.

Mr, Kapv. That was Molotov's speech on March 29, 1940,

Mr, Bentlet. And he referred to Estonia, or all the Baltic
countries?

Mr. Kaiv, Full satisfaction was expressed,

Mr. Bentlet. With just Estonia, or all the Baltic countries?

Mr. Kaiv. Just Estonia.

Mr. Bentlet. You say there was no plebiscite in Estonia with
respect to joining the Soviet Union?

Mr. Kaiv. No.

Mr. Bentlet. Not even a normal one ?

Mr. Kaiv. No plebescite in any case.

Mr. Machrowicz. In the documents presented by you, there is the
treaty of nonaggression dated May 4, 1932. That was for a 3-year
period; was it?

Mr. Kaiv. Yes ; that was renewed.

Mr. Machrowicz. That was renewed subsequent to June 1945?

Mr. Kaiv. Yes.

Mr, Machrowicz. Article I of that agreement, as presented by you
in evidence, states as follows :

Each of the high contracting parties guarantees to the other party the invio-
lability of the existing frontiers between them as defined by the peace treaty
signed February 2, 1920.

Those were the then existing boundaries ; were they not ?

Mr. Kaiv. Yes.

Mr. Machrowicz (reading) :

And undertakes to refrain from any acts of aggression or any violent measures
directed at the integrity or inviolability of the territory or against the political
independence of the other contracting party, whether such acts of aggression



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 33

or such violent methods are taken separately or in conjunction with the other
powers with or without declaration of war.

They say each party has a right to withdraw from this agreement
on 6 months' notice.

Have the Soviets ever given such notice of withdrawal ?

Mr. Kaiv. Just the opposite. In the pact of mutual assistance they
are referring to this same agreement.

Mr. Machrowicz. They provide in there that either party shall
have the right to denounce the treaty by notifying the other of its in-
tention 6 months before the expiration.

Mr. Kaiv. No such notification was ever given.

Mr. Machrowicz. I believe you said in your statement that when
the Communists took over they removed from the Parliament all of
the members with the exception of a few so-called left-wing liberals.

Mr. Kaiv. There was one list printed as permitted and this list was
made up of unknown, obscure people with the exception of a few left-
wing liberals.

Mr. Machrowicz. Was the reason they left the left-wing liberals
in, to give it the appearance of a unity government?

Mr. Kaia'. That is my opinion.

Mr. Machrowicz. Do you know what happened to the so-called
left-wing liberals who were not Communists ?

Mr. Kaiv. They were purged.

Mr. Machrowicz. The reason I asked you that is that that seems
to be the general pattern of Communists. That happened in Poland.
They include a few left-wing liberals, but as soon as they became safe
they immediately purged those left-wing liberals, leaving only Com-
munists in the government.

Mr. Kaiv. It would appear the same pattern was followed in
Estonia.

Mr. Machrowicz. That pattern is followed usually by the Com-
munists, to give that impression of unity, which didn't last very long.

That is all.

Mr. BoNiN. Doctor, do you believe there is a plan to completely
exterminate the Estonian people ?

Mr. Kaiv. I am sure of that. It is according to Communist doc-
trine. According to their doctrine, there must be one Communist
mass — no nationalities, no classes. They are in principle already
against any nation or any national move. They have already anni-
hilated some nationalist groups ; they have done it to some Germans
and the Republic in the Crimea, and so on.

Mr. BoNiN. Did you say there was an uprising in 1934 ?

Mr. Kaiv. It was in 1924.

Mr. BoNiN. Do you know whether or not it was sponsored by Rus-
sian agents and in cooperation with the Russian Government ?

Mr. Kaiv. A very thorough investigation took place and there is
no doubt but what that was prepared by the Soviet Government.
Even uniforms were brought into Estonia from Russia.

Mr. BoNiN. That was established by the existing Estonian Govern-
ment after that occurred ?

Mr. Kaiv. Yes.

Mr. BoNiN. Referring back to your statement concerning the Mutual
Assistance Pact, did I understand you correctly that they had vio-



34 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

lated that pact and brought in additional troops and stationed them
in places other than had been mentioned in the agreement?

Mr. Katv. Yes. . That is a fact.

Mr. BoNiN. Now, in reference to the Mutual Assistance Pact, the
Russian Government accused the officials of your government of vio-
lating that Mutual Assistance Pact because you allegedly had an
agreement with Lithuania and Latvia ? Is that correct ?

Mr. Kaiv. They accused us of having such an alliance with Latvia
and later of expanding that alliance to Litliuania and Finland. There
was no such pact in existence. The pact that we had before, that
was an alliance, but it was a cultural alliance.

This pact with Latvia mentions that during the negotiations of the
Mutual Assistance Pact — and it was said by fr Russian representative,
Molotov or Stalin : "That doesn't come into consideration ; that doesn't
hurt this agreement."

Mr. BoNiN. Were there any hearings similar to this to establish
the fact that there had been a violation of any form of agreement?

Mr. Kaiv. They never accused the Estonian Government before
the ultimatum. They were our best friends and fulfilling the agree-
ments on the best terms. Then they came right in and submitted an
ultimatum.

Mr. BoNiN. They seized your government, and are still in control
of it?

Mr. Kaiv. Yes.

Mr. BoNiN. Do you know whether or not any of the underground
Communists in your country have become officials of the Estonian
Government, or did they after the seizure by Russia ?

Mr. Kaiv. Oh, yes.

Mr. BoNiN. They did?

Mr. Kaiv. Yes.

Mr. BoNiN. Were any of those officials who were placed in power,
in jail?

Mr. Katv. Most of them have disappeared. The names of the Com-
munist officials which arose after the invasion in Estonia, their names
have disappeared already. They are not mentioned any more. It
means they are liquidated, or what happened, we don't know.

Mr. BoNiN. That is all.

Mr. DoDD. I think you said there was an order issued, preventing
the Soviet Government from taking over the funds of the Estonian
Government in this country.

When was that order issued ?

Mr. Kaiv. I don't remember the exact date, but it was in July 1940.
It was a general blocking order of a political sense in this order.

Mr. DoDD. What was that ?

Mr. Kaiv. It was a general order.

Mr. McTiGUE. Wliat was the date of the outbreak of war between
Russia and Finland?

Mr. Kaiv. I don't know exactly.

Mr. McTiCxUE. You said in your prepared statement that the Rus-
sians used bases in Estonia to bomb Finland.

Mr. Kaiv. That was the so-called winter war, between Russia and
Finland.

Mr. MrTmuE. Bases were already established in Estonia as a result
of the Mutual Assistance Pact; is that right?



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 35

Mr. Kaiv. They used them in viohition of our pact, to attack
Finland.

Mr. McTiGUE. That is the point I am trying to make.

Now, when they violated the pact by using the bases in Estonia to
bomb Finland, did the Government of Estonia protest?

Mr. Kaiv. There were protests by the Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Mr. McTiGUE. What was the result of the protests ?

Mr. Kaiv. It resulted in no results.

Mr. McTi(iUE. When they moved in moi-e troops than you and the.
Soviet had agreed to under the Mutual Assistance Pact, did you also
protest that to the Soviet Government ?

Mr. Kaiv. There were oral protests made, but there was no escape,
and Estonia had to just keep quiet and let them bring in more troops.

Mr. McTiGUE. You made an official protest, and there was never
any answer of any kind ^

Mr. Kaiv. There were no results.

Mr. Kersten. If the Soviets continue to occupy Estonia as they
have been in the past, for some considerable time in the future, what
will happen to what remains of the Estonian people, in your opinion?

Mr. ICafv. It depends on the tradition. In my opinion, their ulti-
mate aim is to destroy Estonia, as a nation. When they have had
sufficient time, a sufficient number of years, they will accomplish this.

Mr. Kersten. You refer to the Mutual Assistance Pact of 1939.
It is dated September 28, 1939.

Now, it w^as in June of the following year that the Soviet troops
broke out of the area of their bases and occupied the entire country;
is that not right ?

Mr. Kaiv. New troops came from Russia.

Mr. Kersten. When was it they broke out of their bases and occu-
pied the entire country?

Mr. Kaiv. The Russian troops on the bases in Estonia, they were
alerted and they were already in fighting readiness. However, at the
same time new troops were brought in over the border.

Mr. Kersten. When was that?

Mr. Kaiv. It was June 17, 1940.

Mr. Kersten. So, tlie period of September 1939 until June of the
following year, 1940, there was only that short period of time existing
before they grossly violated the so-called Mutual Assistance Pact?

Mr. Kaiv. Yes, sir.

Mr. Kersten. xVs I understand it, the complete takeover of Estonia
took place just a few months after they entered into this pact which
guaranteed independence and political freedom, and gave all these
other assurances to Estonia ?

Mr. Kaiv. It was an interval of about 7 months.

Mr. Kersten. And there had been these previous assurances and
agreements of political independence and complete freedom of
Estonia ? All of that just before the complete takeover ; is that right ?

Mr. Kaiv. Yes.

Mr. Kersten. Estonia's experience with pacts and negotiations with
the Soviets has been a very sad experience, hasn't it ?

Mr. Kaiv. It would appear so.

Mr. Maciirowicz. Do you feel there is any freedom or chance for
the freedom of your people through negotiations with Soviet Russia ?

Mr. Kaiv. It is difficult to reply, but it depends upon what is in the



36 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

negotiations. "Wlien you negotiate a treaty with them, according ta
Estonia, there is no reason — I myself don't know of any international
agreement to which Soviet Russia is a party, which they have not
violated.

Mr. Machrowicz. So you wouldn't give much faith and credence to
such an agreement, if there was such an agreement, would you ?

Mr. Kaiv. According to our experience, we cannot give it much
weight.

Mr. Kersten. That is all, and thank you, Mr. Kaiv.

Mr. McTiGUE. Before you leave, Mr. Kaiv, you are going to supply
two exhibits for the record, in answer to Congressman Bentley's ques-
tion : First, Molotov's speech on March 29, 1940, the Soviet approval
of the Mutual Assistance Pact of Estonia ; and second, the reply of the
Estonian Foreign Minister to you, denying annexation of Estonia by
the Soviet Union.

You will supply those two documents for our record ?

Mr. Kaiv. I will send them tomorrow.

(The two documents referred to will be marked "Exhibits 4-G
and 4-H." See p. 535.)

Mr. Kersten. With regard to the use of Estonian bases for further
aggression, specifically when you said that what did you refer to,
Mr. Kaiv?

Mr. Kaiv. They emptied the Estonian islands of Estonians and
brought in a Russian Army. They have enclosed these islands and
they are building their bases, naval and air bases. That is more or
less common knowledge. Even in the European press appear items
about the fortifications in the Baltic.

Mr. Kersten. Is it your information that this has been taking place
for some time, and is presently taking place ?

Mr. Kaiv. It is continuously taking place.

Mr. Kersten. The preparation of these islands, is that what you
refer to ?

Mr. Kaiv. Yes.

Mr. Kersten. Would they be just north of Estonia, in the Baltic
Sea?

Mr. Kaiv. There are two larger islands, and there are numerous
smaller islands. The smaller ishinds are all emptied of Estonians,
and it is a restricted area. Even fishermen can't go there.

Mr. Kersten. Have you some fairly recent information as to the
occupation of those islands ?

Mr. Kaiv. That is not so recent anymore. It has been 2 or 3 years

I can submit this information, what I have.
Mr. McTigue. That will be marked "Exhibit 4-1."
(Tlie information referred to was marked "Exhibit 4-1." See
p. 536.)

Mr. Kersten. General Musteikis?



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 37

STATEMENT OF BRIG. GEN. KAZYS MUSTEIKIS, DEFENSE MINISTER
IN MERKY'S CABINET, THROUGH INTERPRETER CONSTANTINE
R. JURGELA

Mr. Kersten. Mr. Jurgela, I understand you will assist in the
translation.

For the purposes of the translation, I think it will probably be
proper to swear the translator, that you will well and truly translate
the statements given by General ISIusteikis.

Do you solemnly swear that you will well and duly translate from
Lithuanian into English the statements made by General Musteikis,
our witness who is before us here, so help you God ?

Mr. Jurgela. I do.

Mr. Kersten. Give us you full name?

Mr. Jurgela. Constantine R. Jurgela.

Mr. IvERSTEN. You thoroughly understand the language?

Mr. Jurgela. I do. I am in charge of Lithuanian service for the
Voice of America.

Mr. McTigue. Before proceeding with the general's testimony, I
would like to read into the record an article from a Moscow weekly,
published in Moscow, entitled "New Times," dated August 12, 195?..

I am reading from page 15, under the title of "International Notes."
This publication, incidentally, is published in Russian, English,
French, German, Spanish, Polish, Czech, and Swedish, and has a wide
circulation.

Here is the article and it is entitled "Wasted Money" :

The House of Representatives, it is reported froai Washington, has approved
$30,000 to cover the expenses of a special committee under Congressman Kersten
(Republican, Wisconsin) to "conduct an investigation and study of the
seizure (!) of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia by the Soviet Union."

One does not know what to be surprised at most — the abysmal ignorance of
the Congressmen or their penchant for provocation.

All the world knows that there was no seizure of Lithuania, Latvia, and
Estonia by the Soviet Union. For 13 years now these 3 Soviet Baltic Republics
have been an integral part of the multinational Soviet State. They joined it
voluntarily ; the decision to do so was adopted by their parliaments and whole-
heartedly approved by their people back in 1940. Since then Soviet Lithuania,
Soviet Latvia, and Soviet Estonia have, with the assistance of the other fra-
ternal republics, made immense progress in economic and cultural development.

These are generally known facts, known probably even to Wisconsin school-
boys. But the Congressman from that State and his colleagues in the House of
Representatives pretend that they need thousands of dollars in public money
to "study" this absolutely clear question.

The ignorance of American Congressmen has become a byword, but this time
it is more a matter of provocation than of ignorance, as is indicated by the fact
that it was Kersten who was appointed to head the committee. He is the author
of the celebrated "amendment" allocating $100 million for subversive activities
against the People's Democracies and the Soviet Union and has had a hand in
many another sordid undertaking.

The reactionaries in Congress do not relish the prospect of a lessening of inter-
national tension and are thinking up new tricks to poison the atmosphere. In
allocating $.30,000 for this latest "investigation" the House of Representatives
evidently wants to start a new campaign of provocation.

Nothing will come of it ; the Kersten dollars are just so miich money wasted.

That is the end of the article. It is obvious that the Communists
have a very low regard for you and the committee.
Mr. Kersten. Apparently. Proceed, please.

52975 — 54 — pt. 1 4



38 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Mr. McTiGUE. General Miisteikis, will you identify yourself, please ?

General Musteikis (through interpreter). I am Kazys Must-eikis.

Mr. McTirxUE. Where were you born, please?

General Musteikis (through interpreter). I was born in Lithuania.

Mr. McTiGUE. Where did you acquire your military education?

General Musteikis (through interpreter) . The first" military educa-
tion I have gained in Russia was in 1916. Having returned to Lithu-
ania, I have" been sent by the Government to the military academy in
Belgium, from which I graduated in 1931.

Mr. McTiGUE. Wliat has been your experience in the Lithuanian
Army ?

General Musteikis (through interpreter) . I began with the lowest
grade and rose to brigadier generalship.

Mr. IklcTiGUE. What was your position in the last legitimate Lithu-
anian Government?

General Musteikis (through interpreter). Since Deceniber 1938
until June 14, 1940, 1 have been Minister of National Defense.

Mr. McTiGUE. You were present here when the Lithuanian Min-
ister testified this morning that Lithuania was stunned when the ulti-
matum was issued to the Cabinet on June 14?

General Musteikis (through interpreter). Yes. I was very much
stunned.

Mr. McTiGUE. You were Defense Minister in that Government when
the ultimatum was issued.

General Musteikis (through interpreter). Yes.

Mr. McTiGUE. Can you tell us what happened in the Cabinet meet-
ing at the time the ultimatum was received from Moscow?



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