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Baltic States investigation. [First interim report] (Volume pt. 1) online

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4,000,000 gold roubles.

Article 16

Taking into consideration the damage suffered by Latvia owing to the world-war
of 1914-1917, Russia :—

(1) Exempts Latvia from all responsibility with regard to all the debts and
obligations of Russia, including the issue of paper-money Treasury Bonds result-
ing from Treasury obligations or receipts. With regard to the domestic and
foreign loans of the Russian Empire, guarantees, or loans contracted by various
institutions and undertakings, etc. All claims of this nature, lodged by creditors
of Russia must be exclusively addressed to Russia.

(2) With a view to assisting the Latvian peasants in the restoration of buildings
destroyed in the course of the war, the latter is accorded the right to cut down
wood over an area of one hundred thousand deciatines, in as close proximity as
possible to the Latvian frontier and also to railways and navigable rivers; the
procedure for giving effect to this concession shall be dwided by a mixed Russo-
Latvian Commission composed of an equal number of representatives of both
countries. This Commission shall be set up immediately after the ratification of
the Treaty.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 497

Abticle 17

(1) The contracting parties have agreed to conclude, immediately after tlie
ratification of the present Treaty, commercial and transit agreements, consular,
postal and telegraphic conventions, and a convention relating to the deepening
of the bed of the western reaches of the Dvina.

(2) Pending the conclusion of these commercial and transit agreements, the
Contracting Parties are agreed that their economic relations shall be governed
according to the following prhiciples : —

(a) The two parties guarantee to each other the "most-favoured nation"
treatment.

(ft) Goods in transit through the territory of the Contracting Parties are
exempt from all taxes and customs-duties.

(c) Freight-rates applied to goods in transit must not be higher than the
rates applied to goods of the same nature of national origin.

(3) Property bequeathed by a national of one of the Contracting Parties,
but situated in the territory of the other, shall be transferred in its entirety to
the Consul or Kepresentative of the Government of the country to which the
deceased belonged, to be disposed of according to the laws of the country of
origin of the deceased.

Article IS

Tlie Contracting Parties bind themselves simultaneously to take the necessary
steps to ensure the safe navigation of trading vessels in their waters by organ-
ising the necessary pilot services, and by re-establishing lighthouses and buoys
in dangerous zones ; and they bind themselves to do all that is necessary with
a view to the location of mine-fields until they have been completely swept.

The two Contracting Parties have agreed to take part in the work of sweeping
for mines in the Baltic. With this object an agreement will be concluded be-
tween the two parties. An arbitration tribunal will assign to each party its
share in this work in the event of their failing to agree upon this point.

ARTICLE 19

1 )iplomatic and consular relations between the Contracting Parties will be
renewed immediately after the ratification of the present Treaty.

Article 20

After the ratification of the present Treaty Latvian citizens, and those who
opt for Latvian nationality, on the one hand, and Russian citizens and those who
opt for Russian nationality, on the other hand, military and civilians alike,
shall be amnestied by the Russian and Latvian Governments respectively from
all penalties for political or disciplinary offences. If judgment in respect of such
offences has not yet been pronounced the case shall be dismissed.

Persons committing any of the above-mentioned offences after the ratification
of the present Treaty shall not benefit by this amnesty.

I'ersons undergoing trial, or who have been convicted or arrested for crimes
and offenses against common law committed before the ratification of the present
Treaty, as well as those who are undergoing sentences for the same offenses, shall
be immediately handed over to their Government, if the latter should so desire ;
all documents connected witii their cases shall also be handed over at the time of
extradition.

The two Contracting Parties shall, at the same time, amnesty their own na-
tionals from penalties for offences committed to the advantage of the other party
before the signature of the present Treaty.

Note (1). The provisions of the foregoing paragraph relating to amnesty
and extradition are only applicable to persons upon whom sentence has not
been passed at the time of the signature of the present Treaty.

Note (2). Russian subjects, and persons opting for Russian nationality,
who took part in the conspiracy of April 16, 1919, and in Bermondt's attack,
shall not benefit under the provisions of this paragraph.

Article 21

The solution of questions relating to public or domestic legislation which may
arise between the Government of one country and the citizens of the other coun-
try, shall be entrusted to a Mixed Commission consisting of an equal number from
both sides to be appointed immediately after the ratification of the present



498 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Treaty. The Composition, rights, and obligations of this Commission shall be
laid down in instructions which are to be drawn up by agreement Ijetween the two-
contracting parties.

Aktible 22

The present Treaty is drawn up in Russian and Lettish.

For purposes of interpretation both texts are to be regarded as official.

Article 23

The present Treaty is to be submitted for ratitication and shall come into-
force from the moment of ratification, except as otherwise provided in the Treaty.

The exchange of letters of ratification shall take place at Moscow.

In all cases, in the present Treaty, in which reference is made to the time of
ratification of the Treaty, this is to be understood to mean the time of the
exchange of letters of ratification.

In witness whereof the representatives of the two Contracting Parties have
signed the present Treaty and have affixed their seals thereto.

The original text is in duplicate.

Done at Moscow, completed and signed at Riga on the 11th August, 1920.

Ratification of the Treaty of Peace Between Latvia and Russia

Whereas the Plenipotentiaries of Latvia and the Plenipotentiaries of Russia
signed the following Treaty of Peace between Latvia and Russia on the 11th
August, 1920.

[Here follows the text of the Treaty]

and Whereas this Treaty has been approved by the Latvian Constituent Assem-
bly on the 2nd of September 1920, I hereby confirm this Provisional Convention
and authorise its execution.

Riga, September 25, 1920.

(Signed) J. Tschakste,
President of the Latvian Constituent Assembly.
(Countersigned) Meierovics,
Minister of Foreign Affairs for Latvia.

[Translation ^]

The Central Executive Committee of Deputies of the Workmen, Peasants,
Cossacks, and Soldiers of the Red Army of the Russian Federal Socialist
Republic of the Soviets

Announces that :

The Plenipotentiary Representatives of the Russian Federal Socialist Republic
of the Soviets and the Plenipotentiary Representatives of the Democratic Repub-
lic of Latvia have drawn up at Moscow, and have completed and signed at Riga
on August 11th, 1920, the Treaty of Peace between Russia, on the one hand, and
Latvia on the other, of which Treaty the exact wording is as follows :

[Here follows the text of the Treaty of Peace with the signatures]

After examining this Treaty, the Pan Russian Central Executive Committee of
the Councils of Deputies for the worl^men, peasants, cossacks, and soldiers of
the Red Army at their Seventh Meeting on September 9th, 1920, have approved
and ratified all its provisions and have undertaken that all the provisions set
forth in the above-mentioned documents shall be strictly observed.

In witness whereof the President of the Pan Russian Central Executive
Committee, after having signed these Letters of Ratification lias now confirmed
them and has affixed thereto the State seal.

Moscow, September 9, 1920.

For the President of the Central Pan Kussian Executive Committee of the
Council of Deputies for the workmen, peasants, cossacks and soldiers of the
Red Army.

(Signed) J. Loutchnovinof.
(Signed) Ienoitkidze, Secretary.



' Translated by the Secretariat of the League of Nations.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 499

[Trauslation ^]

Protocol

The undersigned met on October 4th 1920 at Moscow, at the Office of the Peoples
Commissary for Foreign Affairs in order to exchange Letters of Ratification of the
Treaty of Peace concluded at Riga on the 11th August 1920 l)et\veen Russia on
the one liand and Latvia on the other, in conformity with Article 23 of the afore-
mentioned Treaty of Peace.

After which, seeing that the Letters had been presented and found by both
parties to be in good and due form, and that their contents were found to be
identical, the exchange of letters of Ratification took place.

In witness whereof the undersigned have drawn up the present Protocol and
have thereto affixed their signatures and seals.

The original has been done in duplicate and signed on the 4th of October 1920
at 0.30 p. m.

(Signed)

Georges Tchitcherin.
L. Kabakhan.
G. Alb AT.
AV. Grewin.



Certified true copy:



[l. s.] L, Seya,
Director of Political and Economic Affairs.



Exhibit 3-B

[Translation 'j

]\o. 3408

TREATY OF NON-AGGRESSION BETWEEN LATVIA AND THE UNION
OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS, SIGNED AT RIGA, FEBRUARY
5TH, 1932

The President of the Latvian Republic and the Central Executive Committee
of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ;

Having in view the Peace Treaty concluded on August 11th, 1920, between
Latvia and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the effect of which
extends to the entire territory of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and
all the provisions of which remain invariably and permanently the firm founda-
tion of the relations between the High Contracting Parties ;

Being convinced that it is in the interests of both High Contracting Parties
to adopt certain provisions which may contribute to the development and con-
solidation of the friendly relations between the two States ;

Being firmly resolved to resi)ect mutually and unreservedly each other's
sovereignty, political independence, territorial iutegi-ity and inviolability;

Being guided by the desire to contribute to the consolidation of world peace ;

Declaring that none of the obligations so far assumed by either of the Parties
hinders the peaceful development of their mutual relations or is incompatible
with the present Treaty ;

Being desirous of confirming and supplementing in their relations the General
Pact of Renunciation of War of August 27th, 1928, which continues to retain its
effect as in the past between the High Contracting Parties, independently of the
duration or the normal expiry of the present Treaty or its possible denunciation
before the date provided for ;

Have decided to conclude the present Treaty, and have for that purpose
appointed as their Plenipotentiaries :

The President of the Latvian Republic:

M. Margers Skujenieks, Piime Minister, acting Minister for Foreign
Affairs ;



^Translated by tlip Secretariat of the League of ^'atlons.

2 Translated by the Secretariat of the League of Nations, for information.



500 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

The Central Executive Committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics :
M. Boris Spiridonovitch Stomoniakov, Member of the Council of the

People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs, and
M. Alexis Ivanovich Svidersky, Plenipotentiary Representative of the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics;
Who, having communicated their full powers, found in good and due foi'm, have
agreed as follows :

Article I

Each of the High Contracting Parties undertakes to refrain from any act of
aggression directed against the other, and also from any acts of violence directed
against the territorial integrity and inviolability or the political independence
of the other Contiticting Party, regardless of whether such aggression or such
acts are committed separately or together with other powers, with or without a
declaration of war.

Aecicle 2

Each of the High Contracting Parties undertakes not to be a party to any mili-
tary or political treaties, conventions or agreements directed against the inde-
pendence, territorial integrity or political security of the other Party, or to any
treaties, conventions, or agreements aiming at an economic or financial boycot
of either of the Contracting Parties.

Article 3

The obligations provided for in the present Treaty may not in any way limit
or change the international rights and obligations devolving on the High Con-
tracting Parties from treaties concluded by them before the coming into force
of the present Ti-eaty and duly published in the official publications of each
Party, in so far as such treaties do not include any elements of aggression
within the meaning of the present Treaty.

Article 4

In view of the obligations assumed in the present Treaty, the High Contract-
ing Parties undertake to submit all disputes, whatever their kind or origin,
which may arise between them after the signature of the present Treaty and
which cannot be settled within a reasonable period by ordinary diplomatic pro-
cedure, to a procedure of conciliation in a joint conciliation commission of
which the composition, powers, and procedure are to be fixed by a special Con-
vention which the two Parties undertake to conclude as early as possible, and
which shall come into force at the same time as the present Treaty.

Article 5

The present Treaty is drawn up in duplicate in the Latvian and Russian lan-
guages, both texts being equally authentic. It shall be ratified and the instru-
ments of ratification shall be exchanged between the High Contracting Parties
in Moscow.

Article 6

The present Treaty shall come into force at the moment of the exchange of the
instruments of ratification and shall remain in force for three years. Each of
the High Contracting Parties shall be entitled to denounce the Treaty by giving
notice six months before the expiry of this period, or without giving notice if the
other Contracting Party commits an aggression upon any third State. If the
Treaty is not denounced by either of the High Contracting Parties, its period
of validity shall be automatically prolonged for two years; in the same manner,
the Treaty shall be deemed to be prolonged on each occasion for a further period
of two years, if it is not denounced by either of the Contracting Parties in the
manner provided in the present Article.

In faith whereof the above-mentioned Plenipotentiaries have signed the pres-
ent Treaty and have thereto affixed their seals.

Done at Riga, in duplicate, in the Latvian and Russian languages, February
5th, 1932.

(Signed) Maegers Skujenieks.
(Signed) B. Stomoniakov.
(Signed) A. Sviderski.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 501

Pkotocox- Modifying the Conditions of Validity of the Above Agreement

The President of the Latvian Republic and the Central Executive Committee
of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ;

Guided by the aspiration to provide the firmest possible basis for the develop-
ment of the relations between their countries ;

Desirous of giving each other fresh proof of the unchangeability and solidity
of the peaceful and friendly relations happly established between them;

Inspired by the desire to contribute to the consolidation of world peace and
to the stability and peaceful development of international relations in Eastern
Europe ;

Noting that the conclusion, at Riga on February 5th, 1932, of the Treaty

between Latvia and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has had a beneficial

effect on their relations and on the solution of the above-mentioned problems;

Have decided to sign the present Protocol and have for that purpose appointed

as their Plenipotentiaries:

The President of the Latvian Republic :

Dr. Alfred BTlmanis, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plentipoten-
tiary of the Latvian Republic in Moscow,;
The Central Executive Committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics :
M. Maxime Maximovich LitvinofE, Member of the Central Jjxecutive
Committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, People's Com-
missary for Foreign Affairs ;
Who, having exchange their full powers, found in good and due form, have
agreed on the following:

Article 1

In alternation of the period of validity of the Treaty concluded at Riga on
February 5th, 1932, between Latvia and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,
provided for in the first sentence of Article 6 of the said Treaty, the Treaty
shall remain in force until December 31st, 1945. *

Article 2

The present Protocol is drawn up in duplicate, in the Latvian and Russian
languages, both texts being equally authentic. It shall be ratified as soon as
possible, and the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged between the
High Contracting Parties at Riga.

The present Protocol shall come into force on the date of the exchange of
ratifications.

In faith whereof the above-mentioned Plenipotentiaries have signed the present
Protocol and have thereto affixed their seals.

Done in Moscow, in duplicate, in the Latvian and Russian languages, April
4th. 1934.

(Signed) Dr. Alfr. BIlmanis.
(Signed) M. Litvinoff.

Exhibit 3-C

[Translation i]

No. 4381

PROTOCOL MODIFYING THE ECONOMIC AGREEME]S'T, WITH FINAL
PROTOCOL, CONCLUDED ON DECEMBER 4TH, 1933, BETWEEN LATVIA
AND THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS. SIGNED AT
MOSCOW, JUNE 21ST, 1937

The undersigned, being duly authorised liy their Governments, have agreed to
introduce the following amendments in the Economic Agreement between Latvia
and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of December 4th, 1933, and in the
Final Protocol to the said Agreement.



^ Translated by the Secretariat of tlie League of Nations, for hiformation.
52075— 54— pt. 1 33



.502 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION



Article 2 of the aforesaid Agreement shall in future read as follows :

"The execution of the provisions of Article 1 of the present Agreement
shall be verified at the end of each year of the duration of the Commercial
Treaty by persons specially appointed for the purpose by both Governments,
two persons being appointed by each Party. This verification must be con-
cluded not later than on the last day of the second month after the correspond-
ing year of the duration of the Commercial Treaty."



Article 4 of the aforesaid Agreement shall in future read as follows :

"If it is found, when verifying the returns regarding the exchange of
goods, that the value of Soviet goods imported into Latvia is higher or lower
than the value of Latvian goods exported during the same year to the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics, the difference shall be carried forward to the
following year, and must be made up in the course of that year."



The last sentence of Clause 3 of the Final Protocol to Article 1 shall in future
read as follows :

"Should the Treaty be denounced by either Contracting Party, the difference
remaining at the end of the corresponding year must be made up in the course
of four months from the date when the Commercial Treaty ceases to apply,
that is to say, two months for the verification of the exchange of goods iu
the last year, and two months for making up the difference."



The present Protocol is subject to ratification. It shall come into force as
from the date of the exchange of instruments of ratification, which shall take
place at Riga as soon as possible.

The present Protocol shall remain in force for the entire duration of the
aforesaid Economic Agreement between Latvia and the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics.

Done at Moscow, in duplicate, in the Latvian and Russian languages, this 21st
day of June, 1937.

V. MUNTERS.

VI. POTEMKINE.



[Translation ^J

No. 3409

CONVENTION RELATING TO COUNCILIATION PROCEDURE BETWEEN
LATVIA AND THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS.
SIGNED AT RIGA, JUNE 18TH, 1932

In accordance with the provisions of Article 4 of the Treaty concluded at Riga
on February 5th, 1932, between Latvia and the Union of Soviet Socialist Re-
publics, the President of the Latvian Republic and the Central Executive Com-
mittee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics have decided to conclude a
Convention relating to conciliation procedure, and have for that purpose fyr^
pointed as their Plenipotentiaries :

The President of the Latvian Republic :

M. Karlis Zaring, Minister for Foreign Affairs ;
The Central Executive Committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics :
M. Alexei Ivanovich Svidersky, Plenipotentiary of the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics ;



^ Translated by the Secretariat of the League of Nations, for information.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 503

Who, having couimuiiicated Iheir full poAvers, fouiul in .iruod and due fonn,
have agreed on the following provisions :

Article 1

The Hi,i;h Contracting Parties mutually undertake to submit for amicahle set-
tlement in the Conciliation Commission, in accordance with the provisions of the
present Convention, disputes of all kinds which may arise between them on
account of circumstances occurring after the coming into force of the Treaty con-
cluded at Riga on February 5th, 1932, between Latvia and the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics, and which cannot be settled through the diplomatic chan-
nel within a reasonable time. This undertaking also refers in particular to any
possible differences regarding the interpretation and execution of treaties and
agreements concluded or to be concluded between the High Contracting Parties.

Article 2

The Conciliation Connnission provided for in Article 1 shall not be permanent,
but shall be specially constituted for each session. It shall meet once a year for
an ordinary session, the exact date of which shall be fixed on each occasion by
agreement between the two High Contracting Parties.

Extraordinary sessions shall be held if, in the opinion of either Party, they are
required by any urgent special case.

All the sessions of the Conciliation Commission shall take place at Riga and
Moscow alternately. The place of meeting of the first session shall l)e decided
by lot.

As a general rule, the session must not last for more than fourteen days.

Article 3

The Conciliation Commission shall consist of four members, each of the High
Contracting Parties appointing two members from among its own citizens for
each session of the Commission.

Each of the Contracting Parties shall be entitled to have recourse to the
services of experts appointed by it, who may sit on the Commission in an advisory
capacity.

The chair shall be taken at each session by one of the members of the Commis-
sion representing the Party in whose territory the session is held.

Article 4

The task of the Conciliation Commission shall be to examine disputes sub-
mittetl to it and to propose to the two High Contracting Parties an equitable
solution satisfactory to both Parties, and in particular to avert any possible
future disagreement between the two Parties on the same questions.

If, during one session, the Conciliation Commission does not arrive at a com-
mon proposal on any one of the questions on its agenda, the question may be
again submitted to an extraordinary session of the Conciliation Commission,
which must, however, take place not later than four months after the first session.

The results of each session of the Conciliation Commission shall be submitted
in the form of a report to the Governments of the two Parties.

The report or parts thereof may be published only by agreement between the
two Governments.

Article 5

Each of the Parties shall transmit to the other Party through the diplomatic
channel, not later than fourteen days before the date of meeting of the ordinary
session of the Conciliation Commission, a list of the questions which it desires to
examine at the session in question.

In case of an application to hold an extraordinary session, the Party making
the application must inform the other Party of the circumstances connected with
the urgent special case which give rise to the application. The Commission must
meet not later than one month after the receipt of the application.

Article 6

Both High Contracting Parties undertake to furnish the Commission with all
particulars which it may require, and to facilitate in all respects the accomplish-



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