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ment of its task.



504 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Article 7

The two High Contracting Parties undertake to refrain from any measure
which might have an unfavourable effect on the discussion of any question in
the Conciliation Commission. In particular, they declare their willingness to
consider the question of preventive measures for this purpose.

Article 8

Tlie Conciliation Commission shall be deemed to form a quorum only if all
the members duly convened are present.

If one of the members is not in a position to take part in the work of the Com-
mission, the Party concerned shall appoint a substitute for him not later than
thirty days after his inability to attend has been established.

The decisions of the Commission shall be taken by the unanimous consent of
its members.

Article 9

The Conciliation Commission shall submit to both Governments a report on all
the questions in dispute submitted for its consideration. The report shall be
submitted before the end of the session during which the disputes have been con-
sidered, unless the Contracting Parties have decided by common consent to pro-
long that period.

The report shall contain a proposal for the settlement of each question in dis-
pute submitted to the Commission, if such proposal has been accepted by all the
members of the Commission.

Should the Commission not have been able to agree to joint proposals, the re-
port shall contain the proposals of both Parties.

Article 10

Further details of procedure shall be fixed by the Conciliation Commission it-
self as may be required.

Article 11

Each of the High Contracting Parties undertakes to inform the other Party
within a reasonable time, which shall in no case exceed three months, whether it
accepts the Commission's proposals as recorded in the report.

Article 12

The remimeration of the members of the Conciliation Commission, and of the
experts and other persons called in by each of the High Contracting Parties, shall
be defrayed by the Party concerned.

All other expenses connected with the activities of the Commission shall be
divided equally between the two Parties.

Article 13

The present Convention constitutes an integral part of the Treaty concluded at
Riga on February 5th, 1932, between Latvia and the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics, and is subject to ratification.

It shall come into force on the exchange of the instruments of ratification,
which shall take place simultaneously with the exchange of the instruments of
ratification of the aforesaid Treaty.

The present Convention shall remain in force for the period for which the
Treaty of February 5th, 1932, is concluded.

Article 14

The present Convention is drawn up in the Latvian and Russian languages.
Both texts are equally authentic.

In faith whereof the above-mentioned Plenipotentiaries have signed the present
Convention and have thereto affixed their seals.

Done at Riga, in duplicate, June 18th, 1932.

(Signed) K. Zarins.
(Signed) A. Sviderski.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 505

Exhibit 3-D

[Translation ^]

No. 3411

ECONOMIC AGREEMENT BETWEEN LATVIA AND THE UNION OF SOVIET
SOCIALIST REPUBLICS. SIGNED AT MOSCOW, DECEMBER 4TPI, 1933

The undersigned, being duly authorised by their respective Governments, have
agreed on the following :

Article 1

In the course of each year during which the Commercial Treaty concluded
this day between Latvia and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics remains
in force, the Trade Delegation of the Union and the Soviet economic organisa-
tions shall purchase in Latvia, for importation into the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics, goods of Latvian origin to the value of the goods exported from the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to Latvia, so that the exports of the Union
of Soviet Socialist Republics to Latvia shall be approximately equal to its imports
from Latvia,

Article 2

The execution of the provisions of Article 1 of the present Agreement shall
be verifieil at the end of each half-year of the duration of the Commercial Treaty
by persons specially appointed for the purpose by both Governments, two persons
being appointed by each Party. This verification must be concluded not later
than on the last day of the second month after the corresponding half-year of
the duration of the Commercial Treaty.

Article 3

Tlie value of Soviet imports into Latvia shall be determined on the basis of
prices for delivery free at frontier or c. i. f. Latvian ports, according to the
Latvian official statistics. The value of Latvian imports into the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics shall be determined on the basis of prices for delivery free
at frontier or c. i. f. Soviet ports, according to the Soviet official statistics. The
Parties shall be entitled to make corrections in the statistics on the basis of
documentary material.

Article 4

If it is found, when verifying the returns regarding the exchange of goods,
that the value of Soviet goods imported into Latvia is higher or lower than the
value of Latvian goods exported during the same half-year to the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics, the difference shall be carried forward to the following half-
year, a nd must be made up in the course of that half-year.

Article 5

The present Economic Agreement shall remain in force for the entire duration
of the Commercial Treaty of to-day's date.

Done at Moscow, in duplicate, in the Latvian and Russian languages, Decem-
ber 4th, 1933.

(Signed) Dr. Alfr. Bilmanis. (Signed) B. Stomonakovs.

(Signed) V. Hunters. (Signed) S. Dvolaickis.

(Signed) E. Ozolins. (Signed) I. Loeencs.

Final Protocol

To Article 1

1. The delegation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics states that not less
than 50% of the purchases made by the Union of Latvia on the basis of Article
1 of the present Agreement will consist of agricultural products.

2. A refusal by the Foreign Exchange Commission of the Latvian Ministry of
Finance to permit the export of manufactured goods of Latvian origin to the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics against payment in lats may not serve as a



^ Translated by the Secretariat of the League of Nations, for information.



506 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

justification for failure to observe ttie relationship established in Article 1 of the
present Agreement between Soviet exports to Latvia and Soviet imports from
Latvia.

The Latvian delegation states that, as regards the grant of permits to export
manufactured goods of Latvian origin against payment in hits, the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics shall not be placed in a worse position than any third
State.

3. The difference between exports from the Union to Latvia and imports into
the Union from Latvia must not exceed two hundred thousand (200,000) lats in
either direction at the end of each year during which the Commercial Treaty re-
mains in force. Should the Treaty be denounced by either Contracting Party,
the difference remaining at the end of the corresponding year must be made up
in the course of four months from the date when the Commercial Treaty ceases
to apply, that is to say, two months for the verification of the exchange of goods
in the last half-year, and two months for making up the difference.

To Article 3

The Parties will grant each other mutual assistance in verifying the invoices
and other documents submitted to the Customs administrations, on which the
statistical registration is based.

To Article 4

The provisions of Article 4 shall not in any way affect the provisions of the
Final Protocol to Article 1, paragraph 3, of the present Agreement.

Done at Moscow, in duplicate, in the Latvian and Russian languages, Decem-
ber 4th, 1933.

(Signed) Dr. Alfr. BIlmanis. (Signed) B. Stomonakovs.

(Signed) V. Munters. (Signed) S. Dvolaickis.

(Signed) E. Ozolins. (Signed) I. Lorencs.



Exhibit 3-E

[Translation]

No. 4656

PACT OF MUTUAL ASSISTANCE BETWEEN THE B EPUBLIC OF LATVIA
AND THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS. SIGNED AT
MOSCOW, OCTOBER 5TH, 1939

The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Uiaon of Soviet Socialist
Republics, of the one part, and

The President of the Republic of Latvia, of the other part.
With the object of developing the friendly relations established by the Treaty
of Peace of August 11th, 1920, founded upon recognition of the independent
political existence and non-interference in the internal affairs of the other
Party;

Recognising that the Treaty of Peace of August 11th, 1920, and the Treaty of
Non-Aggression and Peaceful Settlement of Disputes of February 5th, 1932,
continue to constitute the firm foundation of their mutual relations and obli-
gations ;

Convinced that it is in the interests of both Contracting Parties that the exact
conditions under which their mutual security is assured should be determined ;
Have deemed it necessary to conclude between themselves the Pact of Mutual
Assistance hereunder, and have for that purpose appointed as their Plenipo-
tentiaries :

The* Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics :

M. V. M. Molotoff, President of the Council of People's Commissaries
and People's Commissionary for Foreign Affairs;
The President of the Republic of Latvia :

M. Vilhelm Munters, Minister for I'oreign Affairs;



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 507

Who. having communicated to each other their full powers, found in good
and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions :

Article I

The two Contracting Parties undertake to render each other assistance of
every kind, including military assistance, in the event of a direct aggression or
threat of aggression by any great European Power against the maritime fron-
tiers of the Contracting Parties in the Baltic Sea or against their land frontiers
across the territory of the Estonian or Lithuanian Republics, and also against
the bases provided for in Article III.

Article II

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics undertakes to assist the Latvian army,
on advantageous terms, with armaments and other war material.

Ajrticle III

The Latvian Republic, with a view to ensuring the security of the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics and consolidating its own independence, grants to
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the right to have in the towns of Liepaja
(Libau) and Ventspils (Windau) naval bases and a number of aerodromes for
an air force, these to be leased at a reasonable rent. The exact sites of the
bases and aerodromes shall be assigned and their boundaries determined by
special agreement.

With a view to the defence of the Strait of Irbes, the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics is granted the right, on the same conditions, to construct a base for
coastal artillery on the littoral between Ventspils and Pitrags.

With a view to the defence of the naval bases, the aerodromes and the
coastal artillery base, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics shall have the
right to maintain at its own expense, in the areas allotted for the bases and
aerodromes, a strictly limited quantity of Soviet armed land and air forces, the
maximum numer of which shall be determined by a special agreement.

Article IV

The two Contracting Parties undertake not to conclude alliances or to take
part in coalitions directed against either of the Contracting Parties.

Article V

The enforcement of the present Pact may in no way impair the sovereign
rights of the Contracting Parties, more especially with regai'd to their political
structure, economic and social systems, and military measures.

The areas allotted for the bases and aerodromes (Article III) shall remain
Latvian territory.

Article VI

The present Pact shall enter into force on the date of the exchange of the
instruments of ratification. The exchange of instruments shall take place at
Riga within six days from the date of signature of the present Pact.

The period of validity of the present Pact shall be ten years, provided always
that, if neither of the Contracting Parties finds it necessary to denounce the
present Pact one year before the expiry of that period, the Pact shall auto-
matically continue to have effect for the ten years following.

In faith whereof the above-named Plenipotentiaries have signed the present
Pact and have thereto afl5xed their seals.

Done at Moscow in duplicate originals, in the Russian and Latvian languages,
this 5th day of October, 1939.

V. MUNTERS.
V. MOLOTOFF.



508 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Exhibit 3-F

[Translation i]

No. 3391

CONVENTION = FOR THE DEFINITION OF AGGRESSION— SIGNED AT
LONDON, JULY 3RD, 1933

French oflicial text commtmicated bjj the Roumanian Envoy Edtraordinary and
Minister Plenipotentiary accredited to the League of Nations, by the Minister
for Foreign Affairs of Turkey, and by the Permanent Delegate of Finland
accredited to the League of Nations. The registration of this Convention took
place March 29th, 1934-

His Majesty the King of Roumania, the President of the Estonian Republic,
the President of the Latvian Republic, the President of the Polish Republic, the
President of the Turkish Republic, the Central Executive Committee of the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, His Imperial Majesty the Shah of Persia,
and His Majesty the King of Afghanistan :

Being desirous of consolidating the peaceful relations existing between their
countries ;

Mindful of the fact that the Briand-Kellogg Pact, of which they are signatories,
prohibits all aggression ;

Deeming it necessary, in the interests of the general security, to define aggres-
sion as specifically as possible, in order to obviate any pretext whereby it might
be justified ;

And noting that all States have an equal right to independence, security, the
defence of their territories, and the free development of their institutions ;

And desirous, in the interest of the general peace, to ensure to all peoples
the inviolability of the territory of their countries ;

And judging it expedient, in the interest of the general peace, to bring into
force, as between their countries, precise rules defining aggression, until such
time as those rules shall become universal ;

Have decided, with the aforesaid objects, to conclude the present Convention,
and have duly authorised for the purpose :
His Majesty the King of Roumania :

M. Nicholas Titulescu, Minister for Foreign Affairs ;
The President of the Estonian Republic :

Dr. Oskar Kallas, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
in London ;
The President of the Latvian Republic :

M. Waldemaras Salnais, Minister for Foreign Affairs ;
The President of the Polish Republic :

M. Edouard Raczynski, Permanent Delegate to the League of Nations,
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary ;
The President of the Turkish Republic :

Tevfik Riistii Bey, Minister for Foreign Affairs ;
The Central Executive Committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics :

M. Maxine Litvinoff, People's Commissary for Foreign Affairs ;
His Imperial Majesty the Shah of Persia :

Fatollah Khan Noury Esfandiary, Charge d'Affaires in London ;
His Majesty the King of Afghanistan :

Ali Mohammed Khan, Minister of Education ;



^ Translated by the Secretariat of the League of Nations, for information.
'Deposit of ratification in Moscow:

Roumania October 16th, 1933.

Poland October 16th. 1933.

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics October 16th, 1933.

Afghanistan October 20tb, 1«83.

Persia November 16tli, 1933.

Latvia December 4th, 1933.

Estonia December 4tb, 1933.

Turkej' March 23rd, 1934.

Accession:

Finland January 31st. 1934.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 509

AVho have agreed on the following provisions :

Article I

Each of the High Contracting Parties undertakes to accept in its relations
with each of the other Parties, from the date of the entry into force of the present
Convention, the definition of aggression as explained in the report dated May
24th, 1933, of the Committee on Security Questions (Politis report) to the Con-
ference for the Reduction and Limitation of Armaments, which report was made
in consequence of the proposal of the Soviet delegation.

Article II

Accordingly, the aggressor in an international conflict shall, subject to the
agreements in force between the parties to the dispute, be considered to be that
State which is the first to commit any of the following actions :

(1) Declaration of war upon another State;

(2) Invasion by its armed forces, with or without a declaration of war,
of the territory of another State ;

(3) Attack by its land, naval or air forces, with or without a declaration
of war, on the territory, vessels or aircraft of another State ;

(4) Naval blockade of the coasts or ports of another State;

(5) Provision of support to armed bands formed in its territory which
have invaded the territory of another State, or refusal, notwithstanding the
request of the invaded State, to take, in its own territory, all the measures
in its power to deprive those bands of all assistance or protection.

Article III

No political, military, economic or other considerations may serve as an excuse
or justification for the aggression referred to in Article II. (For examples,
see Annex.)

Article IV

The present Convention shall be ratified by each of the High Contracting
Parties in accordance with its laws.

The instruments of ratification shall be deposited by each of the High Con-
tracting Parties with the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

As soon as the instruments of ratification have been deposited by two of the
High Contracting Parties, the present Convention shall come into force as
between those two Parties. Tlie Convention shaU come into force as regards
each of the other High Contracting Parties when it deposits its instruments of
ratification.

Each deposit of instruments of ratification shall immediately be notified by
the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to all the signatories
of the present Convention.

Article V

The present Convention has been signed in eight copies, of which each of the
High Contracting Parties has received one.

In faith whereof the above-named Plenipotentiaries have signed the present
Convention and have thereto affixed their seals.

Done in London, July 3rd, 1933.

[l. s.] (Signed) N. Titulescu.

[l. s.] (Signed) O. Kallas.

[l. s.] (Signed) Waldemaras Salnais.

[l. s.] (Signed) E. Raczynski.

[l. s.] (Signed) Tevfik Rustu.

[l. s.] (Signed) Maxime Litvinoff.

[l. s.] (Signed) Ali Mohammed Khan.

[l. s.] (Signed) F. Noury Esfandiary.



510 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Annex to Article III of the Convention Rexating to the Definition of

Aggression

The High Contracting Parties signatories of the Convention relating to the
definition of aggression,

Desiring, subject to the express reservation that the absolute validity of the
rule laid down in Article III of that Convention shall be in no way restricted, to
furnish certain indications for determining the aggressor.

Declare that no act of aggression w^itliin the meaning of Article II of that Con-
vention can be justified on either of the following grounds, among others :

A. The internal condition of a State:

E. g., its political, economic or social structure ; alleged defects in its ad-
ministration ; disturbances due to strikes, revolutions, counter-revolutions,
or civil war.

B. The international conduct of a State:

E. g., the violation or threatened violation of the material or moi'al rights
or interests of a foreign State or its nationals ; the rupture of diplomatic or
economic relations ; economic or financial boycotts ; disputes relating to eco-
nomic, financial or other obligations towards foreign States ; frontier inci-
dents not forming any of the cases of aggiession specified in Article II.

The High Contracting Parties further agree to recognise that the present Con-
vention can never legitimate any violations of international law that may be
implied in the circumstances comprised in the above list.

[l. s.] (Signed) N. Titueescu.

[l. s.] (Signed) O. Kallas.

[l. s.] (Signed) Waldemaras Salnais.

[l. s.] (Signed) E. Raczynski.

[l. s.] (Signed) Te\tik RtJSTt;.

[l. s.] (Signed) Maxime Litvinoff.

[l. s.] (Signed) Alt Mohammed Khan.

[l. s.] (Signed) F. Nol'ry Esfandiart.

Protocol of Signature

It is hereby agi*eed between the High Contracting Parties that should one or
more of the other States immediately adjacent to the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics accede in the future to the present Convention, the said accession shall
confer on the State or States in question the same rights and shall impose on
them the same obligations as those conferred and imposed on the ordinary signa-
tories.

Done at London on July 3rd, 1933.

(Signed) Maxime Litvinoff.

S. Salnais.

N. Titulesco.

Ali Mohammad.

f. noury esfandiary.

O. Kallas.

E. Raczynski.

T. RusTiJ.



Exhibit 4-A

[Translation ']

No. 289

TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN RUSSIA AND ESTHONIA, SIGNED AT
TARTU ON FEBRUARY 2, 1920

Esthonia of the one part, and Russia of the other part, moved by a sincere
desire to put an end to the war which has broken out between them, have decided
to enter into peace negotiations, and to conclude as quickly as possible a just, hon-



* Translated by the Secretariat of the Leapue of Nations.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 511

curable and lasting peace, and have therefore appointed as their plenipoten-
tiaries :

The Government of the Democratic Republic of Esthonia :
Jaan Poska, member of the Constituent Assembly ;
Ant, Piip, member of the Constituent Assembly ;
Mait. Puuman, member of the Constituent Assembly ;
Julius Seljamaa, meml)er of the Constituent Assembly ; and
Jaan Soots, Major-General of the General Staff ;
and the Council of the Commissaries of the People of the Federal Socialist
Republic of Soviet Russia :
Adolphe Abramovitch Joffe, member of the Central Executive Committee
of the Soviet of Workmen, Peasants, Soldiers of the Red Army and
Cossacks, and
Isidor Emmanuelovitch Goukovski, member of the College of the Popular
Commissariat of State Control.
The plenipotentiaries appointed, having met at Tartu, after communicating
their povi^ers found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following:

Article 1

The state of war between the Contracting Parties shall be at an end from the
date on which the present Treaty of Peace shall come into force.

Article 2

On the basis of the right of all peoples freely to decide their own destinies, and
even to separate themselves completely from the State of which they form part,
a right proclaimed by the Federal Socialist Republic of Soviet Russia, Russia
unreservedly recognises the independence and autonomy of the State of Esthonia,
and renounces voluntarily and for ever all rights of sovereignty formerly held
by Russia over the Esthonian people and territory by virtue of the former legal
situation, and by virtue of international treaties, which, in respect of such rights,
shall henceforth lose their force.

No obligation towards Russia devolves upon the Esthonian i)eople and territory
from the fact that Esthonia was formerly part of Russia.

Article 3

(1) The frontier between Esthonia and Russia shall take the following course :
Starting from the Bay of Narva, one verst south of the Fishermen's House, it
proceeds towards Ropsha, then follows the course of the rivers Mertvitskaia and
Rosson as far as the village of Ilkino ; thence it passes one verst to the west of
the village of Keikino, half a verst to the west of the village of Isvosi, and con-
tinues towards the village of Kobolvaki ; it then crosses the mouth of the River
Shchuchka, passes by Krivaia Luka, by the Pechurki estate, at the confluence of
the three sources of the River Vtroia, follows the southern boundary of the
village of Kurichek with its outlying buildings and proceeds . . . [line omitted
in original] ... of Lake Peipus, which it follows southwards, thus passing one
verst to the east of the Island of Piirisaar (Pork) ; follows the middle of the
strait as far as the Island of Salu, passes thence across Lake Pihkva (Pskov)
between the Talabski Islands and the Island of Kamenka, then to the east of the
village of Poddubie (on the southern shore of Lake Pskov) and to the look-out
post on the railway near Griadishche, then passes successively to the west of the
village of Shahintsoi, to the east of Novaia, across Lake Poganova, between the
villages of Babina and Vomorski, one and a-half versts to the south of the
forester's settlement (north of Glybochina) to Sprekhtichi and the farm of
Kudepi.

Note 1. The frontier described in this article is marked in red on the



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