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Baltic States investigation. [First interim report] (Volume pt. 1) online

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patrol from his apartment. (Accusation proved under Art
19-58-8 of the UK.)

In 1919 served in the White Army as a private. From 1922 to
1940 worked as investigating judge; at the hearings of the
Communists and members of the Commmiist Youth League
(Consomol) was beating them, pulling their hair and mocking
at them. (Proved guilty under Art. 58-13 of the UK.)

At the beginning of war operations with Germany deserted his
work and conducted anti-Soviet propaganda. (Proved
guilty under Art. 58-14 of the UK.)

From 1931 to 1937 active member of the Home Guards. When
Germany opened military operations, he deserted his work
on June 22-24. In 1934 participated in the fascist coup
d'etat. (According to Article 58-13 and 58-14 of the UK
proved guilty.)

Conducted malicious propaganda at the Kegums railroad
station. (Aec. to Art. 58-10, Part 2 of the UK proved guilty.)

Conducted anti-Soviet propaganda at a coal depot, spoke of
Red Army weakness and praised the German army. (Ac-
cord, to Art. 58-10, Part I of the UK proved guilty.)

From 1934 to 1940 was a member of the Home Guard. After
establishment of the Soviet regime in Latvia conducted anti-
Soviet propaganda and threatened to resist actively the
Soviet authorities in case of war against Germany. (Accord,
to Art. 58-la and 58-13 of the UIv proved guilty.)

Member of an espionage organization, by whose order gathered
espionage material on the Soviet Union for German intelli-
gence. At the beginning of war between the USSR and
Germany, ordered members of his organization to aid German
parachutists in their landing on the territorv of the Latvia
SSR. (Proved guilty under Art. 58, p. 1-a of the UK.)

Hostile toward the Soviet regime, she secured intelligence on
the existence of the espionage organization "Tevijas Sargas"
and maintained, for illegal activities, close relations with the
head of this organization, Klavinsh (arrested). (Ace. to Art
58-12 of the UK proved guilty.)

Officer of the old Tsarist army. On June 23 made bonfire In
the backyard of his house by which he assisted German
airplanes in finding their targets. In 1919 enlisted voluntarily
the Latvian Army, where he held responsible high posts.
His last rank was that of a colonel. (Accusation according
to Art. 58-13 of the UK proved.)



562



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION



Charges preferred and remarks



36



Kuznecov, MatveilNikolaevitch

Kagan, Jazep Abramovitch

Dolgov, Pjotr Evstratievitch

Alekseev, Sergei Antonievitcb...

Herling, Jan

Lusis, Pauls

Kuks, Janis

Valeskalns , Voldemars

Keidans, Richard

Dzerens, Anton..

Daukst, Aloizij

Udris, Eduards



Vikelis, Julijs.



Ishevsky, Dmitri Aleksandrovitch.



Svarubs, Rudolf.



Rubulis, Vladislavs-



Bobrov, Konstantin.



Svarups, Rudolf...

Vinzarajs, Elvira..

Bumeiko, Kazlmir

Elerbush, Inna

Bergmanis, Jan

Chagus, Michel...
Vistins, Helnrich..



During the bombing of Riga all flashed signals, previously
agreed upon, to objectives to be bombed. (Proved guilty
according to Art. 58, 1-a and 58-10, Part 2 of the UK.)

In May 1941 deserted the Red Army and, together with some
others, made preparations to escape abroad with forged
documents. (Proved guilty, Art. 58 1-a.)

On June 25 flashed signals from his apartment to the Fascist
air force, thus assisting bombing of objectives. (Proved
guilty accord, to Art. 58-1.)

According to unbiased information, after midnight, on June 23,
1941, observed the sky from a high point, and obviously tried
to direct fascist air craft toward their objectives. (Proved
guilty according to Art. 58-Ia.)

On June 22 shouted "Heil, Hitler" in the streets of Riga, by
which act he invited anti-Soviet element to assist Hitler.
(Accord, to Art. 58-10 of the UK proved guilty.)

Arrested for illegal crossing of frontier. On January 1, 1938
was indicted and ordered to leave the USSR. Was an agent
of the Latvian secret police. (Accusation under Art. 58 of the
UK proved.)

Being dissatisfied with the establishment of the Soviet regime
in Latvia, systematically conducted anti-Soviet discussions
among his friends, aimed to undermine the authority of
Soviet rule in Latvia. At the beginning of the war between
the Soviet Union and Germany, Udris increased his malicious
anti-Soviet propaganda. (Prosecuted according to Art.
58-10, Part 2 of the UK. Found guilty.)

Being dissatisfied with the establishment of the Soviet regime
in Latvia, systematically conducted anti-Soviet discussions
among his friends, aimed at undermining Soviet authority in
Latvia. At the beginning of the war between the Soviet
Union and Germany anti-Soviet utterances from Vikelis
increased. Suspected of signaling to German aircraft which
bombed Latvian territory, which is a crime ace. to Art. 58,
p. 10, part 2; found guilty.

Accused of participating in espionage activities of the Lokkart
in 1918, for which he was sentenced by Soviet authorities to
five years imprisonment, but escaped to Poland. There he
worked in the White Guard newspapers and defended the
enemies of the Soviet people — TuJihachevsky and others.
Prosecuted according to Art. 58. Found guilty.

A former policeman, accused of hostility toward the Soviet
regime; during an enemy air raid over Riga, was found ia a
cemetery, thereby violating military regulations, i. e., com-
mitted a crime provided by Art. 58-p. 1-a, and proved
guilty.

Former policeman, accused of hostility toward the Soviet
regime; during an air raid alarm, while enemy planes were
over Riga, he was found flashing signals from the roof of his
house, Gertrudes iela 47. Crime prov. by Art. 68, p. 1-a;
found guilty.

Accused of committing acts of sabotage in the "Krasny Kva-
drat" factory, where he worked as an engineer and mechanic
at the time of martial law. On June 22 by Bobrov's fault
the factory was not provided with drinkmg water, thereby
hampering considerably factory production. Moreover,
according to reports from "Parttorg", Bobrovs signaled to
enemy aircraft. According to information from the 5th
division of the NKGB of the Latvian SSR— the former
director of the "Kvadrat", Graupnek, who repatriated to
Germany, is a member of German intelligence and main-
tained relations with Bobrov, Konstantin. Bobrov lived
for some time in the same apartment and had close contact
with Danos, nee Saks, who maintained a women's dress
shop and was suspected by the KRO, NKGB of the Lat-
vian SSR of German espionage.

From 1936 to 1940 served as a police officer and suppressed the
left-wing movement. Was found in a cemetery during an
air raid and thereby violated military regulations. Proved
guilty according to Art. 58-Ia and 58-13 of the UK.

From 1919 to 1940 was a member of the military-fascist organi-
zation of Home Guards, and under the Soviet regime par-
ticipated in illegal meetings.

Kept a Fascist swastika which he received from Elerbush.

Kept a Fascist swastika and later transmitted it to Burneiko.

Opposed the revolutionary movement in 1932; enlisted In the

military-fascist organization of Home Guards. With the

establishment of the Soviet regime, he conducted anti-Soviet

propaganda.

Joined the military-fascist organization of Home Guards.

Recently conducted anti-Soviet propaganda.
Member of the military-fascist organization of Home Guards/
Recently conducted anti-Soviet propaganda.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION



563



No.



Last and first name of the arrested



Charges preferred and remarks



65



Chuibe, Arnold

Chuibe, Arnold-Nikolai

Rinks, Eduard

Qenoch, Eduard Abramovitch

Millers, Eriks

Kuks, Janis

Valdmanis, Karl



Roea, Videvuts-Janis-Modrins

Cirs, Adolf

Trubeks, Nisons Movshevitch



Trubeks, Dina Moiseevna



Skalitls, Indrlks



Jaknbovska, Veronika



Frishenfelds, Peter..



69



Dzorens, Anton.



Daukst, Alozljs.



Kiaun, Richard.
Lelen, Robert. ..
Shirmanis, Janis



Former vice-director of the Department of Schools of Fascist
Latvia. During German air raids signaled bombing squad-
rons for espionage purpose. Accusation according to Art.
58-1 and 58^ of the UK proved.

Member of the military-fascist organization of Home Guards.
During German air raids signaled bombing squadrons for
espionage purpose. Accusation ace. to Art. 58-1 and 58-4 of
the UK proved.

Captain third class of the former Latvian navy. During
German air raids signaled bombers for espionage purpose.
Accu.sation ace. to Art. 58-Ia and ,58-4 of the UK proved.

Was engaged in intelligence work against the USSR in behalf
of German effort in the territory of the Latvian SSR.

Bom in 1916. Anti-Soviet disposed, conducted anti-Soviet
propaganda among the residents of Riga. Praised German
fascism. Former member of the counter-revolutionary
organization "Vanagi". Accused according to Art. 58-10,
Part 2 of the UK, RSFSR.

In April 1941 was hiding from Soviet authorities Peter Kuks
and Raimunds Eglit, and assisted them in deserting the
Red Army and furnishing them forged documents, guns and
bullets. Prosecuted according to Art. 58, p. 1 "v" of the
UK, RSFSR.

Veteran policeman, active member of the Home Guards, co-
operated with and aided German air force to locate objectives.
Art. 58, p. 1 over 16, and 58, p. 1-a of the UK, RSFSR.

Ardent anti-Sovietist, active member of the Home Guards.

Anti-Sovietist and active member of the military-fascist
organization of the Home Guards.

Betrayed his country. From the time of the German fascist
attack on Soviet territory until his arrest, he was extending
aid of an esnionage nature to the German air force — to the
detriment of the military forces of the USSR— flashing them
signals of various colors. Art. 58, p. 1-a, RSFSR.

Betrayed her country. To the detriment of the military power
of the USSR, was extending help of an espionage nature to
enemy planes by flashing them, multi-color-red signals from
the time of the German fascist attack on Soviet territory until
her arrest. Art. 58, p. 1-a, RSFSR.

Of a "Kulak" (1. e. farmer) family. Before Soviet rule in
Latvia owned a large bakery, a bakery shop and two-story
house. Exploited his workers of which he employed eight.
Violently anti-Soviet, he spread malicious rumors, slandered
the Red Army, demonstrated sympathy for the Germans
and distributed counter-revolutionary leaflets. Accused of
crime accord, to Art. 58, p. 10, Part 2; proved guilty.

Hostile to the existing rule in Soviet Latvia, on Jime 22, 1941,
constructed paper letters welcoming Hitler and appealing to
him for aid; pasted them on the window of her apartment.
Art. 58, p. 10, Part 2. Accusation proved.

Formerly a large houseowner. Dissatisfied with the establish-
ment of the Soviet regime in Latvia, conducted among his
friends anti-Soviet discussions directed at undermining the
authority of the Soviet regime in Latvia. When the war
began between the Soviet Union and Germany, Frishenfelds'
utterances were materialized. Crime provided by Art. 58,
p. 10, Part 2; proved guilty.

The niece of Danos O.-Saks, Ariadna, is known to be a German
spy, arrested by the KRO NKGB of the Latvian SSR, crime
prov. by Art. 58, p. 1-a. The accused pleaded not guilty.

Former member of Home Guards, engaged in anti-Soviet
propaganda. On June 22, 1941, conducted counter-revolu-
tionary propaganda among workers aimed at undermining
the authority of the Soviet regime; praised Hitlerite policy,
at the end of his speech shouting: "Hell H itler— hurrah
Hitler." Guilt according to Art. 58, la, prov d.

In 1938 was indicted and ordered by Special Counsel to leave
the territory of the USSR. On October 26, 19,38, established
himself In Latvia; in 1937, as an agent of the information
bureau of the Latvian Army, was transfered to th USSR to
perform espionage work; had espionage contact with the
agents of the Latvian Intflligence service. Proved guilty
according to Art. 58, p. 6.

Bom In 1896, in the district of Cesis, accused of betraying his
country, 1. e. in 1923 crossed the border from USSR to Latvia,
and conducted espionage activities on Latvian territory until
his arrest; crime proved by Art. 58, p. 1, RSFSR.

Accused of appealing in a public place to the masses on June 22,
1941, to fight against the Soviet rule in order to help Ger-
many; crime prov. by Art. 58, p. 10, Part I of the UK,
RSFSR.

Accused of espionage activities against the Soviet Union, In
behalf of German effort; crime prov. by Art. 58, p. 1-a.



564



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION



No.


Last and first name of the arrested


Charges preferred and remarks


74


Plankenburg, Arthur.. ..


Accused of active anti-Soviet propaganda of a destructive na-


75


Rozenberg, Arthur


ture in favor of Germany; crime proved by Art. 58, p. 10,
Part 2.

Accused of spreading systematic anti-Soviet defeatist propa-
ganda among the population, by praising German fascism
and predicting an early ending to Soviet rule. Prov. by
Art. 58, p. 10, Part 2.

Accused of spreading systematic anti-Soviet propaganda
among the population, praising Hitler's fascism, and express-
ing his approval as to the new territories seized by Hitler;
crime prov. by Art. 58, p. 10, Part 2.


76


Lucavs, Herbert


77




78


Grmshteiii, Hugo . .


Germany, and in 1941 tried to go to Germany. Accusation
under Art. 58-10, p. 1 of the UK proved.
Exposed as an active anti-Sovietist, who conducted propaganda
among the workers at the Riga freight station, and spread
slanderous rumors that the Germans would soon enter
Riga and defeat the Russians.







Peoples Commissariat of State Security of the Latvian SSR, Captain of

State Security: S. Shustin.
Chairman of the Military Tribunal of the troops of the NKVD of the Latvian

SSR Military jurist 2nd rank: Soldatenkov.
Assistant Military Prosecutor of Investigation in the Baltic — PRIBOVO

Militai-y jurist 2nd rank : Solncev.

[Written by hand:] In view that these constitute a social menace all are to
be shot.



26/VI-41



S. Shustin.



[Translation from the Russian language]



[Written on a separate piece of paper:] "Arrested sixty two persons received.
Signed : / signature not clear — undecipherable / 27/VI-41"

H: 4: H:

Strictly Confidential



List of Cases on Persons Arrested for Counter-Revolutionary Activities in the
Period of War Operations, Accusation Having Been Proved



9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.



Brashe, Voldemar
Levens, Evald
Matrosov, Ivan
Feldhun, Hirsh
Stenberg, Adam
Strautkans, Alfred
Timmermanis, Alfred
Cirulis, Karl
Reinis, Alfred
Gazejs, Arnold
Gurvitch, Philip
Muizhuris, August
Purinsh, Fritz
Gravitis, Oscar
Graudinsh, Martin
Penka, Otto
Buters, Muness



18. Kalnbirze, Janis

19. Bruks, Olgert

20. Bruks, Erhard

21. Bruninovs, Fritz

22. Gibeliiauzen, Sten

23. Krombergs, August

24. Grinstein, Guno

25. Blankenburg, Artur

26. Lubanietis, Matzian

27. Graudinsh, Alfons

28. Indritzans, Daniel

29. Polak, Rudolf

30. Balodis, Vilis

31. Ceplis, Arvid-Aleksandr

32. Kazak, Paul

33. Adamaitis, Anton

34. Baltgalvis, Janis



Chief of the Division of Investigation

NKGB of the Latvian SSR

Captain of the State Security. Signed : Yevers.

Assistant Military Prosecutor Pribovo
Military Jurist 2nd rank, Signed : Solncev.

Assistant Pro.secutor of the Latvian SSR. Signed

City of Riga, June 28, 1941.



BUTILIN.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION



565








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52975— 54— pt. 1 37



566



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Exhibit 7-E






■■;J&;#;^:.
























«x«„wre Ski; 's." '"":;. 3 .






Sentence of death found on the corpse of a murdered schoolboy, Gedimin
Franckevich. The dark spots are bloodstains.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION
Exhibit 7-E



567





Disfigured head of the murdered schoolboy, Gedimin Franckevich.



568



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION
Exhibit 7-F




The pattern of atrocilifs eoiulurted by the So\iets in the Baltic States in 1940
is the same pattern that was used in Korea in 1951 and 1952. This picture,
taken in Baltezers, Latvia, is almost the same as the Korean atrocity pictures
recently released, even to gunshot wounds in the back of the head, and the
Russian-style knots around the wrists.

Exhibit 7-G




A number of exhumed bodies at Dreilini, near Riga. Woods concealed the graves

of many other victims.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

EXHIRIT 7-H



569




Disinterment of 9S victims of the Ciieka wlio were found buried in tbe courtyard
of Riga central prison in July 1941.



570



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION
Exhibit 7-H




Victims of the Cheka found buried in tlie garden of the Villa of Baltezers.
Exhumed on July 22, 1941.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION



571




572



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION
Exhibit 7-J








Torture instrument found in the Tallinn Cheka.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

EXIIIRIT 7-J



573





View of the execution cliamber in tlie Riga Cheka. Behind the lowered curtain
can be seen the bullet pierced boards. The curtain of impregnated cloth was
used to prevent spattering the wall with blood.



574 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Exhibit 8

In the United States District Court, District of New Jersey

In Admiralty

LiETuvos Zemes Ujio Kooperatyvtj Sajtjnga Lietukis (Ageicultural Coopera-
tive Association of Lithuania Lietukis) et ax., libelants

vs.
The S/S Denny, Her Tackle, etc., et al., respondents

Deposition of witness on behalf of claimants-respondents, taken at the oflfice of
P. A. Beck, Esq., 39 Cortlandt Street, New York, N. Y., on May 21, 1941

Appearances : P. A, Beck, Esq., for claimants-respondents. No appearance for
libelants.

Mr. Beck. This deposition was taken pursuant to notice dated May 20th and
served about 12 o'clock on Mr. Gessinger of counsel for libelants. Mr. Recht's
office was notified about 9 : 30 of counsel's intention to take depositions of two
witnesses to be produced. In the afternoon Mr. Recht stated to counsel that
counsel for libelants would not participate in the examination of these witnesses.
The notice of depositions fixed the time of the hearing at 10 o'clock. At about
10 : 30 the examination proceeded without the appearance of counsel representing
the libelants.

Owen J. C. Norem, being duly sworn and examined as a witness on behalf of
the claimants-respondents, testified as follows :

Direct examination by Mr. Beck :

Q. You were the United States Minister to Lithuania ; were you not? — A. I was.

Q. Will you please state when you took up that commission and when you left
Lithuania? — ^A. I was appointed United States Minister to Lithuania in the sum-
mer of 1937 and in the fall of 1937 I arrived in Lithuania and began my duties
there.

Q. When did you leave Lithuania ?— A. On July 30, 1940.

Q. Were you in charge of the Legation in Kaunas? — A. I was.

Q. And during the pursuit of your duties did you travel to any extent through-
out Lithuania? — A. Yes; I did. I visited all parts of Lithuania and traveled
in Russia, Germany and all the surrounding countries of Northern Europe.

Q. Did you make any particular examination of Lithuanian laws, customs and
history? — A. Yes; I did.

Q. Will you state briefiy what examination you made? — A. I was interested
in preparing a work on Lithuania. Consequently I made contacts with members
of the faculty of the University of Kaunas and with other informed individuals in
Lithuania and gathered as much material as was available. I also visited places
where archeological excavations were being made and so forth.

Q. In the course of your duty as Minister to Lithuania was it necessary for
you to familiarize yourself with the laws of Lithuania ? — A. Yes. I had of course
two career secretaries and eleven clerks working at the Legation and it was
their duty to assimilate all of this material and most of it went over my deck. I
don't say I read all of it. I studied much of it.

Q. Did you follow the course of legislation and decrees as they were issued
by the Lithuanian Government? — A. I did.

Q. Priorto June 17, 1940? A. I did.

Q. Do you know whether Lithuania is governed by one single code or whether
different codes are in effect in Lithuania? — A. Different codes are in effect in
Lithuania. There is the Russian Law and the Napoleonic Law and Lithuanian
Law and the Baltic Code, which is a section of Russian Law.

Q. Can you tell me in what part of Lithuania the Baltic Code is in effect? —
A. The Baltic Code is in effect on the seacoast. It has special maritime provi-
sions, regulations, etc.

Q. Do you know whether the Port of Sventoji is in Lithuania? — A. Yes; it is
on the northwestern coast of Lithuania.

Q. Do you know whether Sventoji is in the area in which the Baltic Code
prevails? — A. Yes; the Baltic Code, according to my knowledge, includes the
entire coastline of Lithuania which at best is very small. The Baltic Code would
cover the area of Sventoji and Palanga. Those are the only two.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 575

Q. Palanga is farther from the Latvian coast than Sventoji? — A. Yes.

Q. Were you in Kaunas on or about June 17, 1940? — A. I was.

Q. Will you state what you observed with respect to the appearance of Rus-
sian soldiers in the streets of Kaunas on June 17, 1940? — A. The occupation of
course began early in the afternoon. I think it was June 15th and the armored
division arrived in town at the close of that day about 6 o'clock and on the follow-
ing day the air units arrived and various mechanized troops and of course they
made quite a display ; paraded through the town, and it was one continuous pa-
rade of soldiers. They made a great show of armored strength.

Q. Could you estimate the number of troops? — A. It was estimated at various
figures ; I believe something between 250,000 and 400,000 ; very diflScult to get
exact military figures. The Russians of course wouldn't tell and no one knows
accurately, but they moved many of the units from Lithuania to Latvia and
Estonia, because they occupied Latvia and Estonia directly after Lithuania, but
all in all, it was a tremendous military display, obviously, designed to over-awe
the people, and then of course following the troops eventually came the organ-
izers. That is the branch of the Russian service that could perhaps be called the
civilian organizers or commissars, that follow the army. The Russians have a
Iieculiar system. They organize the people that they take.

Q. Can you tell me of what the armored divisions consisted? — A. They had
tanks and trucks, armored cars. The artillery came on about the fourth day of
invasion, mostly light artillery, field artillery.

Q. About how long after the army passed through Kaunas did those civilian
organizers as you have characterized them appear? — A. Within a week they
were on the scene and beginning their activities.

Q. And what activities did you observe? — A. They assumed posts at various
strategic places, such as the Department of the Interior, almost immediately,
and the banks and in other departments of the government ; eventually in the
foreign office which had the least interest for them.

Q. Did you personally see the civilian organizers that you have described in
the several posts that you have mentioned as their having assumed? — A. Yes;
I did.

Q. I show you a document headed Darbo Lietuvo, No. 20, dated Kaunas, July
26, 1940, and ask you whether you were in Kaunas at that time? — A. I was.

Q. And do you recall having been informed of the passage of that Act? —
A. Yes.

Q. And did you come by that information through your duties as American
Minister? — A. That is right.

Q. And w^ill you state for the record, please, the condition of the press and
other means of communication in Lithuania after the events of June 15th-17th? — ■
A. After a brief moment of realization we might say that the Russians were
there and were there to regularize all news, and eventually sovietized all news,
gradually maintained a very level soviet tone, undoubtedly showing the influence
behind the press. This was done very subtly, through subtle threats and the
fear that resulted from the very presence of the Russians and the way things
were going. Those editors who showed some slight resistance were "liquidated."



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