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Baltic States investigation. [First interim report] (Volume pt. 1) online

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the concrete circumstances of the operations and in order to evaluate correctly
the situation, make different decisions for the same purpose, viz, to execute the
task given them without noise and panic.

2. manner of issuing instructions

The instructing of operative groups should be done by the county triumvirates
within as short a time as possible on the day before the beginning of the opera-
tions, taking into consideration the time necessary for traveling to the place of
operations.

The county triumvirates previously prepare necessary transportation for
transferring the operative groups to the villages in the locale of operations.

In regard to the question of allotting the necessary number of automobiles and
wagons for transportation, the county triumvirates will consult the leaders of
the Soviet party organizations on the spot.

Premises in which to issue instructions must be carefully prepared in advance,
and their capacity, exits, entrances and the possibility of strangers entering
must be taken into consideration.

During the time instructions are issued the building must be securely guarded
by the administrative workers.

In case anyone among these participating in the operations should fail to
appear for instructions, the county triumvirate should immediately take
measures to substitute the absentee from a reserve force, which should be pro-
vided in advance.

The triumvirate through its representative should notify the officers gathered
of the decision of the government to deport an accounted for contingent of anti-
Soviet elements from the territory of the respective republic or region. More-
over, a brief explanation should be given as to what the deportees represent.

Special attention of the (local) Soviet-party workers gathered for instructions
should be drawn to the fact that the deportees are enemies of the Soviet people
and that, therefore, the possibility of an armed attack on the part of the
deportees is not excluded.

3. MANNER OF OBTAINING DOCUMENTS

After the issuance of general instructions to the operative groups, they should
definitely be issued documents regarding the deportees. Personal files of the de-
portees must be previously discussed and settled by the operative groups of town-
ships and villages, so that there are no obstacles in issuing them.

After receiving the personal files, the senior member of the operative group
acquaints himself with the personal files of the family which he will have to
deport. He must check the number of persons in the family, the supply of neces-



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 673

sary forms to be filled out by the deportee, and transportation for moving the
deportee, and he should receive exhaustive answers to questions not clear to
him.

At the time when the files are issued, the county triumvirate must explain to
each senior member of the operative group where the deported family is to be
settled and describe the route to be taken to the place of deportation. Routes
to be taken by the administrative personnel with the deported families to the
railway station for embarkation must also be fixed. It is also necessary to point
out places where reserve military groups are placed in case it should become
necessary to call them out during possible excesses.

Possession and state of arms and ammunition must be checked throughout the
whole oi)erative personnel. Weapons must be completely ready for battle,
loaded, but the cartridge should not be kept in the chamber. Weapons should be
used only as a last resort, when the operative group is attacked or threatened
with an attack, or when resistance is shown.

4. MANNER OF EXECUTING DEa>0RTATI0N

Should a number of families be deported from one spot, one of the operative
workers is appointed senior in regard to deportation from the village, and his
orders are to be obeyed by the operative personnel in that village.

Having arrived in the village, the operative groups must get in touch (ob-
serving the necessary secrecy) with the local authorities: chairman, secretary
or members of the village Soviets, and should ascertain from them the exact
dwelling of the families to be deported. After that the operative groups together
with the local authorities go to the families to be banished.

The operation should be commenced at daybreak. Upon entering the home of
the person to be banished, the senior member of the operative group should gather
the entire family of the deportee into one room, taking all necessary precautionary
measures against any possible excesses.

After having checked the members of the family against the list, the location
of those absent and the number of persons sick should be ascertained, after
which they should be called upon to give up their weapons. Regardless of
whether weapons are surrendered or not, the deportee should be personally
searched and then the entire premises should be searched in order to uncover
weapons.

During the search of the premises one of the members of the operative group
should be left on guard over the deportees.

Should the search disclose hidden weapons in small numbers, they should be
collected by and distributed among the operative group. Should many weapons
be discovered, they should be piled into the wagon or automobile which brought
the operating group, after the locks have been removed. Ammunition should be
packed and loaded together with rifles.

If necessary, a convoy for transporting the weapons should be mobilized with
an adequate guard.

Should weapons, counter-revolutionary pamphlets, Literature, foreign currency
large quantities of valuables, etc., be disclosed, a short search act should be
drawn up on the spot, which should describe the hidden weapons or counter-
revolutionary literature. Should there be any armed resistance, the question
of ari-esting the persons showing armed resistance and of sending them to the
county branch of the Peoples Commissariat of Public Security should be decided
by the county triumvirates.

An act should be drawn up regarding those deportees hiding themselves before
the deportation or sick, and this act should be signed by the chairman of the
Soviet-party organization.

After the search the deportees should be notified that upon the decision of the
Government they are being banished to other regions of the Union. '

The deportees are permitted to take with them household necessities of not
more than 100 kilograms in weight.

1. Suit 7. Kitchen utensils

2. Shoes S. Food — an estimated month's sup-

3. Underwear ply to a family

4. Bed linen • 9. The money at their disposal

5. Dishes 10. Haversack or box in which to pack

6. Glasses the articles



674 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

It is recommended that large articles be taken.

Should the contingent be deported to rural districts, they are i)ennitted to take
with them a small agricultural inventory : axes, saws and other articles, which
should be tied together and packed separately from other articles, so that when
embarking on the deportation train they are loaded into special freight cars.

In order not to mix them with articles belonging to others, the name, father's
name, and village of the deportee should be written on his packed property.

When loading these articles into the carts, measures should be taken so that
the deportee cannot use them as means of resistance while the column is moving
along the highway.

At the time of loading, the operative groups together with representatives of
the Soviet-party organizations shall prepare a list of the property and the man-
ner in which it is to be preserved in accordance with instructions received by
them.

If the deportee has at his own disposal means of transportation, his property
is loaded into the vehicle and together with his family is sent to the designated
point of embarkation.

If the deportees do not have their own means of transportation, wagons are
mobilized in the village by the local authorities upon directives of the senior
member of the administrative group.

All persons entering the home of the deportees during the execution of the
operations or found there at the moment when these operations are begun must
be detained until the conclusion of the operations, and their relationship to the
deportee should be ascertained. This is done in order to disclose policemen,
military police and other persons hiding from investigation.

Having checked the detained persons and ascertained that they are persons in
whom the contingent is not interested, they are liberated.

Should the inhabitants of the village begin to gather around the home of the
deportee during the operations, they should be called upon to disperse to their
homes, and crowds should not be permitted to be formed.

Should the deportee refuse to open the door of his home in spite of the fact
that he is aware that members of the People's Commissariat of Public Security
are there, the door should be broken down. In individual cases neighboring
operative groups performing operations in that vicinity should be called upon to
assist.

The conveyance of the deportees from the villages to the gathering place at the
railway station should by all means be done in daylight ; moreover, efforts
should be made that the gathering of each family shouM take not more than two
hours.

In all cases thro'ughout the operations firm and decisive action should be
taken, without the slightest pomposity, noise and panic.

It is categorically forbidden to take any articles away from the deportees —
except weapons, counter-revolutionary literature and foreign currency — or to
use the food of the deportees.

All members of the operations must be warned that they will be held strictly
responsible for attempts to appropriate individual articles belonging to the
deportees.

5. MANNER OF SEPARATING DEPORTEE FROM HIS FAMILY

In view of the fact that a large number of the deportees must be arrested and
placed in special camps and their families settled at special points in distant
regions, it is necessary to execute the operation of deporting both the members
of his family as well as the deportee simultaneously, without informing them of
the separation confronting them. After having made the search and drawn up
the necessary documents for identification in the home of the deportee, the ad-
ministrative workers shall draw up documents for the head of the family and
place them in his personal file, but the documents dra\\Ti up for the members of his
family should be placed in the personal file of the deportee's family.

The moving of the entire family, however, to the station should be done in
one vehicle, and only at the station should the head of the family be placed sepa-
rately from his family in a railway car specially intended for heads of families.

While gathering together the family in the home of the deportee, the head
of the family should be warned that personal male articles are to be packed into a
separate suitcase, as a sanitary inspection will be made of the deported men
separately from the women and children.



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION 675

At the stations the possessions of heads of families subject to arrest should be
loaded into railway cars assigned to them, which will be designated by special
operative workers appointed for that purpose.

6. MANNER OF CONVOYING THE DEPORTEES

It is strictly prohibited for the operatives convoying the vehicle-moved column
of deportees to sit in the wagons of the deportees. The operatives must follow
by the side and at the rear of the column of deportees. The senior operator of
the convoy should periodically go around the entire column to check the correct-
ness of movement.

The convoy must act particularly carefully in conducting the column of de-
portees through inhabited spots as well as in meeting passers-by ; they should see
that there are no attempts made to escape, and no exchange of words should be
permitted between the deportees and passers-by.

7. MANNER OF EMBARKING

At each point of embarkation the members of the operative triumvirate and
a person specially appointed for that purpose shall be responsible for the
embarkation.

On the day of the operations the chief of the point of embarkation together
with the chief of the echelon and of the convoying military forces of the People's
Commissariat of Internal Affairs shall examine the railway cars furnished to see
whether they are supplied with all necessities (bunks, bed pans, lanterns, railings,
etc.) and shall discuss with the commander of the echelon the manner in which
the latter will take over the deportees.

Embarkation station shall be encircled by the soldiers of the convoying troops
of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs.

The senior member of the operative group shall deliver to the commander of the
echelon one copy of the list of deportees in each railway car. The commander
of the echelon thereupon shall call out the deportees according to this roll and
shall carefully check each family and designate their place in the railway car.

The possessions of the deportees should be loaded into the car together with
the deportees, with the exception of the small agricultural inventory, which
should be loaded into a separate car.

The deportees shall be loaded into railway cars by families ; it is not permitted
to break up a family (with the exception of heads of families subject to arrest).
An estimate of 25 persons to a car should be observed.

After the railway car has been filled with the necessary number of families,
it should be locked.

After the people have been taken over and loaded in the echelon train, the
commander of the train shall bear responsibility for all the persons turned over
to him for their reaching the destination.

After turning over the deportees the senior member of the operative group shall
draw up a report to the effect that he has performed the operations entrusted to
him and address the report to the chief of the county operative triumvirate. The
report should briefly contain the name of the deportee, whether any weapons and
counter-revolutionary literature were discovered, and how the operations ran.

Having placed the deportees on the echelon of deportees and submitted re-
jwrts of the results of the operations performed, members of the operative group
shall be considered free and shall act in accordance with the instructions of the
chief of the county branch of the People's Commissariat of Public Security.

Deputy People's Commissar of State

Security of the U. S. S. R.

Commissar of State Security of the Third Rank

Signed: (Serov)
Correct: (signed) Mashkin



676 BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

(Exhibit 17-A, original language, may be found in committee
files.)

Exhibit 17-B

[From the Lithuanian Bulletin]

Translation : Strictly Secret

Confirmed

(signed) A. Sniec^kits

Director of State Security Department

7th day of July, 1940

Plan of the Preparatory Activities op Liquidation and Operative Liquidation
OF THE Leading Personnel of Anti-State Parties : Nationai.ists, VotJ)emab-
ists, Populists, Christian Democrats, Young Lithuanians, Trotskyists,
Socialdemocrats, Essers (Socialist Revolutionaries), National Guards-
men AND Others

The operation is to be effected simultaneously in all of Lithuania, the night of
July 11 to 12, 1940.

Prior to July 10th, information is to be prepared regarding all people who must
be isolated. In the "index cards" of all detainable i^eople must be indicated
the surname, name, father's name, year and place of birth, nationality, educa-
tion, social origin, material situation /property/, the last place of employment
and position, party membership and party work performed, a short summary of
the compromising material, and at the end of the "index card" must be indicated
the verified address of the place of permanent residence. If residing /or owning/
a summer house, include the address of the summer house, and the home tele-
phone number.

Five groups of 1 to 4 persons each are to be made up of the operative personnel
of the First Division and Kaunas Circuit workers to prepare the indicated "in-
dex cards." The work is to be distributed among them in the following manner :

First group — 4 persons — prepares "index cards" for the leading membership
of the Nationalists. The group's leader — Krastin.

Second group — 2 persons — prepares "index cards" for the leading membership
of the Voldemarists. The group's leader — ^Dembo.

Third group — 1 person — Finkelstein, prepares "index cards" of Trotskyists
and Essers.

Fourth group— 4 persons — prepares "index cards" for Christian Democrats.
The group's leader — Komodos.

Fifth group — 3 persons — prepares "index cards" for Populists and Socialdemo-
crats. The group's leader — Macevidius.

Responsibility for the timely submission of the above indicated "index cards"
is borne by Todes, chief of the First Division.

Gailevicius, chief of the II Division, must arrange for the timely established
and verified addresses of the detainable persons. For this purpose, from July
8th an appropriate number of scouts must be detailed, who must be diligently
briefed (instructed) regarding the retention of strictest caution during the work
of establishment and verification of the addresses.



(Note.— Exhibits 18- A, 18-B, 18-D, and 18-E may be found in
committee files.)



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION



677



Exhibit 18-C





678



BALTIC STATES INVESTIGATION

Exhibit 18-F




Eepoet to the Wakden of Prison No. 8, at Taurage

January 10, this year, at 18 o'clock, while I, Vaclov Dirkus, a guard, was on
duty, I ordered the prisoners of the cell No. 3 not to sit on the bench, and not to
slumber. But they did not obey. Bildusas said to me where did I, such a
charlatan, come from. He said this is good for the others, but not for me. He
said I broke his health while he was at the secret police quarters, and that now
I am troubling him again.

Please, warden, set this in order.

Signed: V. Dirkus.

Jan. 10, 1941.

Three days in solitary confinement for Bildusas for insulting the guard.
Warm soup only once, on the second day.

X



3 & 05018 311 8






Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. House. Select committee oBaltic States investigation. [First interim report] (Volume pt. 1) → online text (page 75 of 75)