Mr. Lattimore does not have a desk in the Departmen of State, nor does he
have access to its files. Of course, in connection with his OWI employment
(1942-45) and his 4-month assignment to the Pauley Reparations Mission which
terminated February 12, 1946, Mr. Lattimore like others in such positions, might
have been required as part of his duties to consider some official papers from
other agencies of the Government, including the Department of State.
These are the facts.
Deputy Under Secretary.
All right, Senator Hickenlooper, â– whenever von are ready.
TESTIMONY OF DR. OWEN LATTIMOREâ€” Resumed
Dr. Lattimore. Mr. Chairman, may I first hand in some of the
things I was reqnested to hand in yesterday?
Senator Ttdixgs. What are they, Mr. Lattimore?
Dr. Lattoigre. First, Mr. Chairman, I have here two exhibits.
One is my memorandnm to the generalissimo, which the committee
wanted to examine
Senator Ttdixgs. That will be filed.
Is it identified on the cover ?
Dr. Lattimore. It is identified on the cover.
Senator Ttdixgs. Hand it over to the stenographer.
(Tlie docnment referred to was passed to the committee reporter
for filing with the committee.)
Dr. Lattimore. Second is the diary of my trip to Yenan. In con-
nection with this diary, Mr. Chairman, I should like to draw attention
to one fact, lest any misapprehension shonld arise : The diary consists
entirely of interviews with Communist leaders at Yenan; but at the
end there are some names on a separate sheet. I did not want to tear
out that sheet, to make the notebook seem mutilated, but I do not
want to leaA'e the names in there without o^uarding against misappre-
hension. The names are the names of Christians, Chinese, and British,
and they are noted on that page because, while I was at Yenan, a
Cliinese Christian doctor came up to me and said that he was work-
ing in the region, that he was afraid that he would be denounced to
his colleagues, and the British, and would I please write to his col-
leagues and take out some letters for him, and to say that he was there,
not because he was a Communist, but because, as a Christian and a
doctor, he felt it his duty to remain in an area which had been taken
over by the Communists, to show that it had not been abandoned by
Christians, and men of his profession.
That is the only reason his name is in there.
Senator Ttdixgs. You want those names in the diary treated in
confidence, and vou are submitting it for the information of the
Dr. Lattimore. Yes.
Senator Ttdixgs. And you want it returned ?
Dr. Lattimore. Yes ; returned to me, if j^ou please.
880 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
Senator Tydiistos. The stenoorapher will so note.
What was the year of the Yenan visit ?
Dr. Lattimore. 1937.
Senator Tydings. 1937 ?
Dr. Lattimore. Yes.
Senator Tydixgs. And the diary is for 1937?
Dr. Lattimore. At the time I was there.
(The diary was passed to the committee reporter.)
Senator Tytdings. Go ahead.
Dr. Lattimore. I should then like to hand in some quotations from
my own writings.
The question was raised
Senator Ty'dings. Do you want those back, or just filed ?
Dr. Lattimore. Filed for the record.
Senator Tydings. Filed for the record, as exhibit 87.
Dr. Lattimore. In this connection, I should like to remark, Mr.
Chairman, that the question of whether I am against Russian expan-
sion, and against the spread of communism, is something that is implicit
throughout my writings. As a political scientist, and not a propa-
gandist, my writing has not taken the form of mere hostile denuncia-
tion. I have always been a loyal American citizen, devoted to the
best interests of my country ; and my anti-Communist view is primarily
expressed in the fact that I have repeatedly advocated programs that
would limit the expansion of Russia, as a state; and limit the expan-
sion of Communism as an ideology. Therefore, it is positively
expressed, and not negatively expressed, in terms of denunciation.
Senator Tydings. It will be filed for the record, as exhibit 87.
(The document was passed to the committee reporter.)
Dr. Lattimore. Thirdly, I should like to add to this record a file
of attacks on me in the Communist press. I should like to say that
these were gathered primarily by my wife while I was away in Afghan-
istan, before I returned. They do not represent a thorough search-
ing of the Soviet press; as the Soviet press is not indexed in this
country, and it is an oxpensive and long-time business to search the
entire record, particularly as my writings fall under the head of geog-
raphy, history, anthropology, as well as political science.
Therefore, a very wide search would have to be undertaken; and
in this connection, Mr. Senator, I should like to make one further
Reflecting last night on the trend of some of the questions yesterday,
which I realize were devoted to the eliciting of facts, and which I
realized represented the fact that the shadow of McCarthyism hangs
over the whole procedure of our public life, as well as over me person-
ally, I nevertheless found certain things that both as a university pro-
fessor, and as an author, I thought might represent perhaps a dan-
gerous trend in our whole public life.
How often does a man have to prove his loyalty as an American, not
by the constructive work that he does, but by the angiy denunciation
in which he engages ?
How often does a loyal American have to prove his loyalty by the
number of attacks on him, in the Soviet or American Communist press ?
One of the things that most instantly repels Americans is, when they
read in the original, or in translation, the kind of thing that is pub-
lished in the Soviet press, where every issue of a magazine has to begin
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 881
with an adulation of Stalin, and denunciation of American imperial-
ism, without any proof; where every individual article has to begin
with an adulation of Stalin and denunciation of bourgeois cosmopoli-
tanism, and jargon of this kind, Mr. Senator, to reach a point in Ameri.
â€¢can life where a university professor can only hold his chair if he is
^ble to produce, from time to time, printed evidence that he has been
attacked in the Soviet or Communist press, not longer ago than, say, 6
If we get to that stage, Mr. Senator, McCarthyism will have domi-
nated this country.
Senator Tydixgs. It will be filed in the record as exhibit 88.
Senator Hickenlooper ?
Senator Hickexlooper. Dr. Lattimore, on yesterday you dwelt at
some length upon the freedom of research and the clanger to this
country in curtailing that freedom. You advocated strongly the right
of scholars, researchers, and others to examine the truth, to probe
deeply to get to the truth, and the facts, whatever the facts are.
Again this morning you have defended that philosophy, and I am
not in disagreement with you on that idea that the scholars and re-
searchers must search for the truth, if we expect to progress; but,
by the same token, this connnittee has a responsibility in the public
political interest to search for the truth and to probe deeply for truth.
Now, do I understand that you are raising objection here now to
this committee probing deeply and searchingly for the truth in this
Dr. Lattimore. Senator, I am not raising any objection at all to
the committee probing as widely as it sees fit. I am here before this
committee, not only in person, but as a representative of a whole group
in our public life. I have referred to the trend of certain questions
which I thought represented the reflection in this country of a type
of denunciatory procedure which exists in Russia, and which I and
other Americans do not like.
Senator Hickexlooper. Well, Dr. Lattimore, the denomination by
you of this proceeding as "McCarthyism'"' in my judgment is not ex-
actly appropriate, and I say that without meaning to be caustic about
Dr. Lattimore. I am merely saying that the shadow of McCarthy
has been projected over this committee. He denounced this committee
over on the floor of the Senate â€¢
Senator Hickexlooper. The shadow of Senator McCarthy may be
projected over this committee, but the shadow of communistic actiid-
ties in this country has been projected over this committee, and if you
Mill read the statement of Mr. j. Edgar Hoover of yesterday I think
that it will indicate that the Communist activities in this country are
something for substantial concern, indeed; and, I shall be further
interested in his statement of yesterday at a later date.
Dr. Lattimore. Tlie question of communism in this country, as far
as it affects me. Mr. Senator, has been introduced by false accusations,
not by activities or writings.
Senator Hickexlooper. Well, it is true that Senator McCarthy has
been prominently connected with this proceeding. Without doubt,
some of his charges generated the setting up of this committee. I
think that goes without saying. That is true. But this committee
882 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
faces, as I understand it, as I approach it, a fact, and not necessarily a
theory, and the fact that the committee faces â€” or facts â€” are the neces-
sity for probing for truth, once this matter has been opened up.
Now, you have become an element in this inquiry. As such an ele-
ment, I feel that it is the duty of this committee to ask questions, to
probe deeply, and to find out from the answers to the questions that are
asked, and information that is received, to find out a basis for fair
and decent conclusions.
Dr. LvTTiMORE. Equally, Senator, I feel it is my duty to appear be-
fore this committee. I would respectfully point out, however, that
my case has been before this committee for more than a month, in the
course of which I have not been able to attend to my ordinary voca-
tion, in the slightest. I have put more than a month of time at the full
disposal of this committee.
Senator Hickenlooper. Dr. Lattimore, the question I asked you, the
question about whether or not Mrs. Lattimore liad lectured to the Tom
Mooney Labor School at San Francisco in 194.3, and produced a tear
sheet from the People's World, dated April 28, 1943, published in San
Francisco, I believe, and in connection with that I find â€” ^I want to ask
you whether or not, overnight, you and Mrs. Lattimore have had op-
portunity to refresh your recollection as to whether or not she actually
did lecture at that time and place, to the Tom Mooney School ?
Dr. Lattimore. Yes, Senator. We discussed it. First, I should
like to say that during 1943, we were at the height of our war effort,
and my wife and I, as people who had spent a great many years in
China, were requested to speak all over the place, to all kinds of or-
ganizations, and we did so; and, as the printed record shows, both
from a book that I published in 1943 and from a book that my wife
and I together wrote in 1943 and published in 1944, we were both at
that time heart and soul behind the Chinese war effort, as well as our
war effort, and were strongly in favor of Chiang Kai-shek; so that
nil the lecturer we gave at that time included strong support of Chiang
My wife recalls that she spoke at what she understood to be a labor
school, as both of us spoke at many schools, churches, community or-
ganizations and so forth, at various times ; and with all due respect,
Senator, I should like to add at this point that I think that this attack
on me has set a new low in American political life, and I consider
that this attempt to attack me through the activities of my wife, as
a loyal American citizen, giving her opinions to no matter whoever
it may be â€” her opinions, not the opinions of anyone else, strikes a new
Senator HiCKENLoorER. I assure you. Dr. Lattimore, that I am
merely attempting to probe the historic attitude toward communism,
and I think some of these things are extremely pertinent, in putting
the pattern together.
Dr. Lattimore. In putting the pattern together, is it a question of
the audience to whom one speaks, or tlie words which one says?
Senator Hickenlooper. So far as the Tom IMooney Labor School
is concerned, I have checked up on it, and I find the following refer-
ence, from the California Committee on un-American Activities.
The first Tom IMooney Labor School was first announced in the Peo-
ple's World, July 1, 1942, that being the west coast organ of the Com-
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 883
miinist Party. The California Committee on Un-American Activi-
ties further, in its report for 1947, said, and I quote as follows :
The San Francisoo Workers' School * * * frankly and openly a school
for instruction in communism * * * by 1943 * * * had been rechris-
tened the Tom JNIooney Labor School. * * * a. glance at the curriculum
reveals that chan,i:iu,<;- the name of the San Francisco Workers' School to tlie
Tom Mooney Labor School did not result in any deviation from the Marxist
character of the institution * * * the Tom Mooney Labor School functioned
for years with Communist Party functionaries as instructors.
The reference is the California Un-American Activities report, for
194T,pao:es63, 77, andTS.
Dr. Lattimore. Mr. Senator, in 1943 my wife and I were enj^aged
in patriotic activity. We were not professional discoverers of sub-
versive institutions. As far as my wife can recall, she remembers
that she was asked to go down to a trade-union school. She spoke
there, expressing the same ideas that she and I expressed everywhere
else, and if now, some years later, it turns out that the Communists
at that time were against Chiang Kai-Shek, and if it turns out now
that my wife and I discover what we did not know before, that that
particular school had Communist connections, well, I think that it is
an extremely good thing that they were exposed at that time to some
extremely un-Communist and anti-Communist remarks on, and inter-
pretations of the situation in China.
Senator HicKEXLoorER. Dr. Lattimore, on yesterday I asked you a
question as to whether or not a man by the name of Loomis ever ar-
ranged to furnish information supplied by you to Moscow, and in the
Soviet diplomatic pouch. Your answer was "No."
Dr. Lattimore. I, to the best of my knowledge â€” the only man by
the name of Loomis, of whom I knew in those years, was a former
Y]\rCA seci-etary in Hawaii, who was at that time the secretary of
the Hawaii branch of the Institute of Pacific Relations and as anti-
Communist a man as I know, and I certainly never stuffed anybody's
pouches with information for the Soviet Union.
Senator Hickenlooper. And, you did not at any time use the Soviet
diplomatic pouch for the transmission of communications of any
Dr. Lattimore. I may have used it on one occasion, in 1947, when
I was hoping to be able to make a trip to Outer Mongolia. At that
time, I knew that Americans were not being admitted to Outer Mon-
golia, and T thought it would be a considerable score if I coidd get
there, so I wrote a letter to the Premier of Outer Mongolia, using
the same technique that is used by correspondents in Moscow when
they write a letter to Stalin, hoping to get a publishable answer, since
the United States has no diplomatic connection with Outer Mongolia.
I enclosed an original letter written in Mongol, with an English trans-
lation, and sent it to the Soviet Ambassador here in Washington, and
asked him â€” and the enclosure was unsealed, and I asked him if he
would transmit this request to the Soviet, to the Mongol Embassy
in Moscow, asking him to transmit it to the Premier of Outer Mon-
Wliether they sent it in any pouch or by written mail, I do not know.
My request was all in writing. There was no conversation, and there
was no answer.
884 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INA'ESTIGATION
Senator Hickenlooper. And did you at any other time, and under
any other circumstances ever make use of the Soviet diplomatic pouch
for the transmission of any communications ?
Dr. Lattimore. Not that I can possibly recall. Senator; and. I
think it most unlikely. I cannot imagine the circumstances under
which I might have used the Soviet pouch.
Senator Hickenlooper. Well, then
Senator IMcMahon. I want to just say that â€” have you a copy of
that letter that Senator Hickenlooper just asked you about ?
Dr. Lattimore. I must have, yes.
Senator McMahon. Will you produce it?
Dr. Lx\TTiMORE. Surely.
Senator McMahon. I will take advantage now of saying, for the
record, that I have to preside over a meeting of the Joint Atomic
Energy Committee at 10: 30. We are having a very, very important
session with Dr. Page, the physicist, and I have to go.
Senator Hickenlooper. Dr. Lattimore, what methods and means
did you take for making your arrangements and the contacts for vour
trip to Yenan in, I believe, 1936 or 1937 ?
Senator Tydings. Excuse me.
Due to the absence of some of the members of the committee here, it
will not be feasible to sit beyond 11 : 15, which is 40 minutes from
now. I, myself, have to go downtown to keep an engagement of 2
months' standing which I have tried to get out of, and cannot, and,
at 12 : 15 a speech ; and Senator McMahon has this meeting and I am
wondering what the situation will be in that regard.
Senator Green, could you preside up to 12 : 15 here, because we are
meeting at 11â€” that would take care of it. We could go on for that
length of time.
Senator Green. Thej* want us all present.
Senator Tydings. Can you be here up to 12 : 15 ? I have to go.
Senator Green. I received this call from Senator Lucas to be in the
Senate at 11.
Senator Tydings. What is you answer?
Senator Green. No.
Senator Tydings. I would stay myself, even in spite of the call, but
I cannot stay on account of the engagement of a few months' standing,
to speak to the Washington Rotary Club. Visitors from all over the
country will be there at 12 : 15, and I have to leave before that to
arrange for some other matters.
If you could sit here until 12 : 15, and then you could recess, it would
relieve me; otherwise, there won't be anybody here.
Just a minute, we will get this all straightened out.
I would like for the hearing to go on, if you could stay here.
Senator Green. I would, but the majority leader telephoned and
asked me to present there at 11 o'clock.
Seantor Hickenlooper. Mr. Chairman, the two Eepublican mem-
bers might arrange to go on with the hearing, if the Democrats have
to be gone.
Senator Tydings. Some of us have tried to be here at all times. We
have always tried to have one of each party present while the com-
mittee was proceeding.
Senator Green. It seems to me it will be better if, when it comes
II o'clock, we would adjourn
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 885
Senator Tydixgs. "We will have to do that.
I had no idea yesterday that Ave Avere meeting at 11 this morning.
The usual time for a meeting is at 12, so I had planned to go to 12:15.
Go ahead. We will have to recess at 11 and meet again this after-
Sorr}- to have to do this.
Senator Htckenlooper. T withdraw that question. Just disregard
the question I had asked which has not yet been answered.
Dr. Lattimore, Avill you tell the circumstances of whom you con-
tacted and who arranged for your trip to Yenan, that you testified
Dr. LATTi:\roRE. I was the man who managed the trip, Senator.
"We went by train, as far as we could go by train; then, we chartered
a motorcar and drove on. and our first contact with Communists was
at the first Communist post we encountered in the territory held by
Senator HiCKENLOorER. Did you have arrangement made to go on
through, through that territory?
Dr. Lattimore. None.
Senator Hickenlooper. You went without any previous authoriza-
Dr. Lattimore. None.
Senator Hickenlooper. None whatever?
Dr. Lattimore. None whatever.
Senator Hickexlooper. So that you did not have the arrangements
for this trip made in advance by any other persons?
Dr. Lattimore. No, sir.
Senator Hickenlooper. I believe you said Mr. Jaffe and Mr. Bis-
son accompanied you on that trip?
Dr. Lattimore. That is right, Senator.
I might add. Senator, that at that time every newspaperman in
China was trying to get to Yenan. The press, all over the world, was
avid for news of that region, and it was known that anybody could
get in who could get that far.
Senator IJickenlooper. And, did the press, generally, get into
Yenan at that time ?
Dr. La-^ttimore. A certain number got in, quite a number.
Senator Hickexlooper. Was Agnes Smedley and Nym Wales at
Yenan when you reached there ?
Dr. Latti:more. They were there when I arrived, yes.
Senator Hickenlooper. And you conferred with them, there, I
believe, at that time in Yenan? That is, you met and talked to them
Dr. Lattimore. When we got there, we found that the Communists
had a sort of resting house or hostel at which they put up all visitors,
all foreign visitors. They were at that same hostel, and we saw them
We â€” at least. I can't speak for the others, but I had no conferences
with them. I met them and talked with them socially.
Senator Hickenlooper. Have you ever read the sort of story as
developed by the Far Eastern Command?
Dr. Lattimore. I have seen references to it. Senator. I don't think
I read it in detail.
886 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
Senator Hickenlooper. You are aware that Agnes Smeclley was
listed as one of the agents that worked in connection with Sorge
Dr. Lattimore. I am aware of that. I also remember a press story
in which she vigorously denied it.
Senator Hickenlooper, Dr. Lattimore, what connection did you
have with the Pacific Story, and the National Broadcasting Co. tran-
script, presented by the OWI? Did you write it or collaborate in its
Dr. Lattimore. The Pacific Story was a radio series of the type
that is called radio drama. I was approached by NBC in 1943 and
asked if I would act as commentator, coming on for a 3- or 4-minute
period at the end of each broadcast, and for a number of the broadcasts
my wife was asked to act as research worker, to dig out material for
the man who did the program.
The program itself, as written, dramatized and presented on the
air, was entirely the responsibility of the producer and of NBC. I
was responsible for the commentary which I added at the end.
Senator Hickenlooper. Did Agnes Smedley broadcast in The
Dr. Lattimore. Not that I ever heard of, not while I was on it.
Senator Hickenlooper. Did you ever arrange for Miss Smedley
to broadcast or take part in the broadcasting or preparation of The
Dr. Lattimore. No, sir. I was on that Pacific Story program for
about 3 months, as I recall. I did not arrange for it to be rebroadcast
by OWI and, in fact, I believe that any time when I was working on
it, I cannot recall that it was rebroadcast by OWI, and I did not
arrange for anybody else to appear on it.
Senator Hickenlooper. Do I understand you to say that Agnes
Smedley did not appear on the program while you were taking part
in it? '
Dr. Lattimore. Not that I can recall. The program went on for
some time after I left California.
Senator Hickenlooper. Are you familiar with the organization
Dr. Lattimore. Yes, sir.
Senator Hickenlooper. Were you ever an official of that organi-
Dr. Lattimore. I may have been one of the executive committee at
one time, before I left for China in 1941.
Senator Hickenlooper. Were you, in fact, an honorary vice chair-
man of the organization ?
Dr. Lattiiniore. I may have been and, also, while I was in China, I
talked a number of times about Indusco with the man who was then
Premier of China, H. H. Chung, who was the chairman of the Chi-
nese side of the organization.
Senator Hickjenlooper. And was F'hilip Jaife on the board of
Dr. Lattimore. I don't recall.
Senator Hickenlooper. Was Mrs. Lattimore on the board of di-
rectors with you ?
Dr. Lattimore. Yes
Mrs. Lattimore. Yes, I still am.
Dr. Lattimore. She was and still is.
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 887
Perhaps I should add at this nionient, Senator, that in the people
who were active on Indnsco, as far as I knew them, and the whole
proijfrani as far as I had anythin<i: to do with it, it was a part of that
whole oeneral attitude in China (hat I so frequently referred to, as
my attitude, namely, the development of reforms and progressive