â– satisfied and approve everything that is said and done. It is a hidden fear, but
a creeping, paralyzing fear. The people keep quiet. They do not criticize;
they avoid passing out any news. They are afraid of their neighbor, who may
â– denounce them. They are afraid of the Reds who might hear and imprison them.
When the Reds impose a tax, it is paid without a word. If they requisition
anyone for public work, the work is done carefully and rapidly, without need of
any blows and curses as in the time of the Japanese, and wonderful to say,
without any need of supervision. (This is amazing to anyone who knows the
easy-going Chinese character.) I have witnessed groups of workers along the
big highways built by the Japanese, doing exactl.v the same kind of work they
did for the Japanese, but how different their attitude. There was no foreman
there to supervise, and yet everything was done carefully, with hardly a word,
"Without the least bit of joking." Mr. Lattimore, with his lack of background,
anight interpret this as a sign of enthusiasm for the Red masters. But the report
states simply, "They were afraid."
What was true in 194n in Red areas is also true today according to the very
latest 1949 reports that have filtered through the bamboo curtain : "There isn't
too much suffering from hunger in the cit.v, but it is impossible to lay up any
reserves. The Communists search every house methodically and confiscate any
surplus. Anyone who complains or criticizes them disappears mysteriously,
buried alive, it is said. No one dares say a word, even to his best friend. In
the country districts conditions are terrible. Tlie Reds take everything; grain,
livestock, clothing, tools, and now all are being mobilized for army service.
Paniine reigns everywhere together with fear. The people endure this with
clenched teeth, but when asked how things are going always answer, 'Everything
is going well.' " They had better !
These reports come from reliable people who were there and know what they
are talking about, and who ridicule the fairy tales Mr. Lattimore from his distant
and comfortable chair in Johns Hopkins spins for eager young Americans w^ho
believe he is an authority on China's Reds. What, for example, could be further
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 99
from (he tiuth tli.iii this statement in the Situation in China, page 160: "la
C^hina it may be conceded" (not by anyone who l^nows the situation, though, if
I may interrupt) "that the Communists hold the confidence of the people to
such an extent that they can probably do more by persuasion, with less resort
to coercion, than any previous revolutionaries in history. But the Communists
cannot indulge in I'xperimenls which the people do not accept, because the armed
and organized peasants would be iible to resist them just as they have hitherto
resisted the return of the landlords.' Sheer nonsense! The only real landlords
left in Red areas are the Red leaders themselves, and the people know enough
not to try to resist these ruthless masters. For some reason, no one seems to
relish being buried alive ; and so the Commvmists can indulge in absolutely any
experiment they choose without the slightest open resistance from the peasants^
who are merely awaiting patiently for better days.
Since Mr. Lattimore is patently in error on so many vital points connected
with the China Red question, it becomes more and more strange that his acfvice'
on Red China should be followed almost slavishly by the United States State'
Department. It has already brought China to disaster and may, if we continue
to follow it. also ruin America. It might be well to consider what advice he
has given for future United States policy so we shall know what a new litany
of Lattimore disasters awaits us.
He has a chapter on Japan in his Situation in Asia and. although he admits
General MacArthur is a first-class administrator, he dislikes his "fatherly
mysticism" and "oldline Republicanism", hints it would have been wiser to give
the Russians more say, considers the present policy as pseudo-realistic and
bound to fail. "It's likely to blow up in our faces, like a humiliating stink
bomb," damaging MacArthur's reputation in the end. He doesn't like keeping
the Emperor, nor the type of democracy MacArthur is giving, apparently prefer^
ring for Japan the totalitarian type Mao Tse-tung is employing in China. Mr^
Lattimore doesn't like to see Japan make a bulwark against Russian expan-
sion, and believes that since she is possessed of the most advanced technical
and managerial know-how in Asia she will eventually make her own terms with
both Russia and China, without consulting the Ignited States.
"The Japanese, watching America's failure to control the situation in China
through the Kuomintang. have been giggling in their kimono sleeves. In a queer
way it has helped to restore their self-respect for their own failure on the con-
tinent." He sees no future for Japan apart from the future of Asia, since she
needs the iron and coal of Manchuria and the markets of China.
In this he is probably right ; that is why it was always to Amei-ica's vital
interest to see that the open door policy and the territoi-ial integrity of China
were preserved, though this adviser to our State Department did not think
them very important. He considers east Asia now definitely out of control by
either Russia or America, stating that it forms a group of "third countries"
which seem to resemble Nippon's ill-fated "East Asia coprosperity sphere." He
lielieves Japan, then, will come to tei-ms both with Communist Russia and Com-
munist China, and will end b.v being more anti-American than anti-Russian.
If we had only adopted his plan foi- a Japanese democracy right after the
war, what a deal of trouble we would have saved !
What, now, are his plans for the mainland? He has long been in favor of a
Chiang coalition with the Reds, and blames our sOth Congress for spoiling
that. The result is now Communist control â€” which of course would have even-
tuated just as well had his original coalition idea gone tlirough. We mustn't
lay down our own conditions for dealing with a Red China, he says, or we-
shall spoil our favorable position with the Chinese. Has he never heard how
Mao"s Reds detest Americans, and hold half a dozen United States consids
under house arrest? "We must at all costs avoid the appearance of wanting:
to punish the Chinese people for having a government which we didn't approve-
for them in advance." As if the Chinese were really anxious for a puppet Red
regime. We mu.st not support any rump government, for that would be dividing-
China. We must extend credits to poor Red China and help build it up by trade-
and American eiigineeriim know-lunv as "Fot-d Motors and General Electi-ic
did in Taissia in the period between war-^." But let's not lay down any condi-
tions for our aid, by insistim,' that Red China be hostile to Red Russia. '
And if all that isn't enough to make Uncle Sam suspect that Owen Lattimore-
is making a fool o>it of him in the interests of world (-ommuiiism, the expert
goes mu(-h further: "The new government of China will claim China's Big
Five position in the L'nited Nations. in(-luding the riuht of veto. By the use of
our own veto we could delay China in moving into this position," but of course it
100 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY IXVEISTIGATION
would be unfair to deprive Russia of another vote, especially since Russia has
had nothing whatsoever to do with iniposiug communism on China ! See now
why the pinks are so strong on their insistence that the Red movement in
<'hina is purely nationalistic? And another vote for Mother Russia?
Let's take Outer Mongolia, that voted unanimously to be annexed to Russia in
1945 â€” each voter being required to sign his name on his ballot. "Mongolia,"
lie says, "is between a Communist-ruled Russia and a Communist-controlled
China. It would be an advantage to American policy to be able to emphasize
that there is a country occupying 600,000 square miles of territory * * *
inhabited by people who are neither Chinese nor Russians. It is impossible
to make use of this advantage unless the separation of Outer Mongolia is em-
phasized by membership in the United Nations * * *. It is true that Mon-
golia as a member of the United Nations would mean another vote for Russsia:
but would this be a greater disadvantage than our present comiilete lack of
access to this key country between China and Russia?" (p. 226).
Yes. IMr. Lattimore. it would. Considering that the whole United States had
but one vote in the United Nations while Russia started out witli three, it is
simply wonderful f)f Owen Lattimore to give a couple more Far East satellite
votes to our cold war enemy. Since he is one of the chief advisers to our Far
Eastern State Department DureaTi. is it any wonder that disaster has been piled
on disaster in .\sia for Americans while world connuvnism engages in Irenzied
applause? If ^Ir. Lattimore is permitted to turn over one far eastern vote after
another to Russia, Moscow will soon dominate the United Nations, and then can
safely discard the veto. Why should one man, whose writings show he has no
knowledge of the character of China's Reds, be allowed to go on unchallenged
promoting chaos and ruining Christianity in Asia? Ti-ue, he doesn't say he
wants a Red Asia : but tlie publisher of his Situation in Asia indic-ates his inten-
tions when on the .jacket of the l)ook they print a maii of Lattimore's Asia,
including Japan, Sakhalin, all of China, the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies,
Siam, Burma, Malaya, and India, in nice Soviet Red.
That is the end of the quotation of Fatlier Kearney.
It is uncanny how these State Department policy makers are drawn
too;ether time after time in an organization or group or project of
I now hand the committee a booklet setting forth the officers and
trustees of the Institute of Pacific Relations. It will be noted that
Mr. Lattimore is a trustee. It will be also noted from the book
I previously handed the Chair that this institute is listed as either
subversive or Conununist front by the California Un-American Activ-
Senator Tydings. Where are the headquarters of the Institute of
Senator McCarthy. One East Fifty-fourth Street. New York City
22, and my exhibit 29, Mr. Chairman, reads : "The officers and trustees
of the Institute of Pacific Relations invite you to become a member
of its American Council." This contains the name of our own Owen
Lattimore. It will be filed in the record.
The familiar pattern starts again with Messrs. Lattimore, Hanson,
Bisson, and Jessup.
In the Institute of Pacific Relations we have such ]iro-Communists
as Frederick Yanderbilt Field, Philip Jaffe, Kate L. INIitchell, Andrew
E,oth, and Nym Wales. Incidentally. I might mention that Nym
Wales, which is not her actual name, was the coeditor with Mr. Hanson
in the magazine he was running in Peiping at the time the Japanese-
-Chinese war broke out.
The Attorney General of the United States has declared the Amer-
ican Peace Mobilization to be a subversive organization and the House
XTn-American Activities Committee has placed the same stamp of
infamy on the Washington Committee for Aid to China.
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 101
The American Peace iNIolMlizatioii was short-lived. It existed dur-
in<r tlie days of the Stalin-Hitler pact and was liquidated by the Com-
munists on the very day that Hitler invaded the Soviet Union.
Frederick Vanderbilt Field, one of the countrv's to]) Commiuiists,
was executive secretary of the American Peace ]\fobilization on Tues-
day evenin<r, February 11, 1941, also.
On that date, the "\Vashiiiaton Committee for Aid to China, held a
meeting at Sixteenth and O Streets NW., Washintrton.
At tlie time this meeting was held. President Roosevelt was under
the most savage attack of his career by Frederick Vanderbilt Field
and hi- American Peace Mobilization. That was when the Stalin-
Hitler pact still existed. That was when they were calling Roosevelt
a Avai'monger in no uncertain terms.
The Senators may recall that this was the occasion when the Amer-
ican Peace ]\ro1)ilization oi'ganized and carried out a 24-hour picket
line around the White House. The pickets carried placards denouncing
Roosevelt as a warmongering tool of Wall Street. That was while the
Hitler-Stalin pact existed.
On June 21, 1941, the American Peace Mobilization pickets were
still surrounding the White House. When Hitler invaded the Soviet
Union on the morning of June 22, the pickets were withdrawn within
an hour. The party line had changed in a matter of minutes and
the American Peace Mobilization then bei^ame the American People's
Mobilization, urging the immediate entrance of the United States
into the war.
Again, associated with Frederick Vanderbilt Field, we have Owen
Lattimore as the principal speaker at the above meeting on the eve-
ning of February 11, 1941, with only two other speakers. One of
them was Frederick Vanderbilt Field.
Here again we have the oUl familiar pattern of a member of the
important policy-making group of the State Department collaborat-
inir with known Communists under the sponsorship of organizations
officially declared subversive.
I want to again direct the committee's particular attention to the
fact that while Owen Lattimore was with Frederick Vanderbilt
Field, this was the same Field who, on the 22d day of June, the day
after Hitler invaded Russia, promptly changed his line of attack, the
same great .and good friend of Owen Lattimore.
Senator Tydixgs. While 3'ou are taking a little breath, I would
just like to take this opportunity to announce to the press that these
exhibits will be available in the keeping of the reporter immediately
after the conclusion of Senator INIcCarthy's testimony, because you
will want to see all of the names on here. I see ^Ir. Henry Luce's
name as one of the vice presidents of this organization.
Senator Hickexlooper. INIr. Chairman, I may suggest that there
are a number of other nsimes on there that are probably completely
on the otlier side of the feuce from Mr. Henry Luce, and I think it
is unfair for the chairman or anyone else to pick and choose two or
three names of respectable citizens who are on these lists and not
call attention to a numl)er of the Connnunists' names.
Seiiator Tydings. They were already pointed out by the witness.
I just wanted to point out one on the other side, not three or four.
Senator McCarthy. I might say that the other day as I handed
102 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
in the exhibits, as the Chair will recall, I was namino- the oiitstaiid-
ino- Communists whose names appeared on exhibit after exhibit. The
Chair objected to that and said he would have to name the respectable
people who are named -on a few of them. For that reason the Chair
will note that I have refrained from naming; all the well-known
Communists who appear on exhibit after exhibit, and I hope I have
made it clear in the past that one of the reasons why the Attorney
General, the House committee, the California connnittee, and various
other committees, have considered these front organizations so dan-
gerous is that from time to time they have succeeded in getting
respectable peoples' names on them. That is what has made them
Senator Tydings. I was of the impression, Senator McCarthy, that
you had read some supporting names. I might have been in error.
That is on page 1-A, where you say :
In the Institute of Pacific Relations, we have such pro-Communists as: Fred-
erick Vanderbilt Field, Philip Jaffe, Kate L. Mitchell, Andrew Roth, Nym Wales.
Senator McCarthy. The Chair is correct.
Senator Tydings. Following out Senator Hickenlooper's suggestion,
the Chair will read the lest of these names. I do not know a great
many of the people, but I will read their names. These are the of-
ficers and trustees of the Institute of Pacific Relations : First, officers
and board of trustees, American Council : Robert G. Sprout, chair-
man; Edward C. Carter, executive vice chairman; Joseph P. Cham-
berlain, Mortimer Graves, Henry W. Luce, Ray Lyman Wilbur, vice
Ray Lyman Wilbur was either a Secretary in the Ploover Cabinet
or is the head of one of the universities in California, I don't know
Brooks Emeny, treasurer; Tillie G. Shahn, assistant treasurer; and
Lawrence Morris, secretary.
The members of the board of trustees are Edward W. Allen, Ray-
mond B. Allen, Christian Arndt, Paid S. Bachman, Eugene E. Bar-
nett. Pearl S. Buck, George Cameron, Edward C. Carter, Joseph P.
Chamberlain, Allan E. Charles, Lauchlin Currie, John L. Curtis,
Joseph S. Davis, A. L. Dean, Arthur Dean, Len De Caux, Dorothy
Douglas, Brooks Emeny, Frederick V. Field, Henry Field, Galen M.
Also (t. W. Fisher, Charles K. Gamble, Clarence E. Gauss, Mrs.
Frank Gerbode, Huntington Gilchrist, A. J. Gock, Carrington Good-
rich, Henry F. Grady, Mortimer Graves, Achniral John AV. Green-
slade, William R. Herod, John Hersey, the writer; Paul G. Hoffman,
William C. Johnstone, Owen Lattimore, Charles F. Loomis, Henry
R. Luce, publisher of Life, Time, and Fortune magazines; Charles E.
Martin, Mrs. Alfred McLaughlin, Abbot Low Moffat, Harriet L.
Moore, George Abbot IMorison, Lawrence Morris, A. W. Robertson.
Also Chester Rowell, Robert G. Sproul, G. Nye Steiger, Donald
Straus, George Taylor, Juan Trippe, president of Pan American Air
Liues; Henry A. Wallace. Louis Weiss, Sunnier Welles, Lynn White,
Jr., Brayton Wilbur, Ray Lyman AVilbur, Herbert J. Wood, and Mrs.
Louise L. Wright.
The M'itness will proceed.
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 103
Sonntor IMcCarthy. I now h:\ud you, Mr. Chainuan, exhibit 30,
entitled ''National Enieriiency Conference for Democratic Kiohts."
On April 21, 1943, the House ^'onmiittee on Appropriations issued a
report citinir this oroanization as "'subversive and un-American."' On
March i2i), the House Special Connnittee on Un-American Activities
cited it as a Oonununist front.
On September '2, 19-1:7, on page 12 of its Report No. 1115, the con-
gressional Committee on Un-American Activities said :
It will be reiiit'inhered that dnriiis the days of the infamous Soviet-Nazi pact
the Goiunmnists Imilt a protective ()rganizati<in known as the National Emer-
gency Conference for Democratic R'ghts, which culminated in the National Fed-
eration for Constitutional Liberties.
In its 19-48 report, on pages 112 and 327 the California Committee
on Un-American Activities, after citing it as a Communist-front or-
ganization, defending Communists, had this to say :
After the dissolution of the American League for Peace and Democracy in
February 1J)40, the Communist Party frantically organized a new series of front
organizations. The National Emergency Conference for Democratic Rights
was one of the new fronts and it was filled from top to bottom with veteran
The Maryland Association for Democratic Rights was an aililiate
of the National Emergency Conference for Democratic Rights. At
a conference of this organization in Baltimore early in 1944, we have
as sponsors Mr. Owen Lattimore and his wife.
I might say I for one believe, and I think the committee will agree
with me after they have gone into this in detail, that Owen Lattimore
was not a dupe who joined these Communist-front organizations by
mistake. He was one of the allegedly respectable men who got some
actually respectable names on this list.
Senator Tydings. Senator, allow me to interrupt you a moment.
I don't know a lot of these people in this Baltimore chapter. Some of
them I do knoAv. Some of them I know very slightly; some of them I
don't know at all.
I am not going to read the list in the record, but I would like, inas-
nnich as the chairman is from Maryland, to notify any Maryland
papers or press services that are going to circulate in Maryland that
a copy of all these names is available here at the head table if they
Thank you. Senator.
Senator jMcCartiiy. I might say most likely the ones the Senator
knows are the good, outstanding people.
Senator Tydixgs. The ones that I see there are the ones that have
o]:)posed me pretty generally in a good many elections. I don't mean
all of them, but I recognize some of them.
Senator IMcCarthy. We Avill consider that as proof that they were
I assume that Mr. Lattimore, a high State Department official, un-
doubtedly did get some hue Baltimore people to associate their names
with that. He must have known that a year previous to that time
this was declared a subversive, Communist-front organization. Most
likely any Baltimore people who are on that, whose names are on
that paper, did not know that that organization had been declared sub-
versive a year before. - .
689-70â€”50 â€” pt. 1 8 v-J
104 STATE DEPARTMETN'T EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVE'STIGATION
Senator Tydings. There are some names on there that I recognize,
that I am sure he would exculpate from any desire to be in any dis-
loyal organization. There are some others that I do not know, but
I recognize three or four representative names.
Senator McCarthy. Thank you, sir.
Once again we have a policy-making State Department attache col-
laborating with those who have sworn to destroy the Nation by force
I find it impossible to visualize this sort of a good security risk under
yardstick of loyalty outlined by Secretary of State Acheson.
I hand the committee an exhibit of the Writers' Congress of 194:3.
This will be exhibit No. 31.
On December 1, 1917, and on September 21, 1918, the then Attorney
General Tom Clark in letters to the Loyalty Eeview Board, cited the
Hollywood Writers' Mobilization as subversive and communistic. In
its 1945 report on page 130, the California Committee on Un-American
Ati'airs described this organization as one "whose true purpose" was
"the creation of a clearing house for Communist propaganda."'
On October 1, 2, and 3 of 1913, the Writers' Congress and the Holly-
wood Writers' Mobilization held a meeting on the University of Cali-
fornia-LA campus in Westwood. Appearing as the representative of
the Office of War Information was Mr. Owen Lattimore.
Here again we have Mr. Lattimore involved as a principal in an or-
ganization declared un-American by the Attorney General of the
In the magazine, Pacific Affairs, of September 1938, Owen Latti-
more described the Moscow purge trials as a "triumph for Democracy."
In his book, entitled "Solution in Asia," Owen Lattimore declares
tliat among the people of Asia, the Soviet Union has "a gi-eat power
of attraction â€” it stands for democracy."
Let me repeat that. Here is the man shaping our Asiatic policy.
He said this in his own book. No one else has said this for him. Owen
Lattimore has said, in his book entitled "Solution in Asia," "that among
the people of Asia, the Soviet Union has a great power of attraction â€”
it stands for democracy.
I submit that the background of Mr. Lattimore, his close collabora-
tion and affiliation Avith numerous Communist organizations; his
friendship and close cooperation with pro-Communist individuals,
leaves absolutely no doubt that he is an extremely bad security risk
under Secretary of State Acheson's yardstick of loyalty or under any
other yardstick you could apply, and in fact, his wide knowledge of
far eastern affairs and his affinity for the Soviet cause in that area
might well have already done this Nation incalculable and irreparable
So much for Mr. Lattimore.
Now, Mr. Chairman, I shall be prepared to give the committee what-
ever additional information I can at such other meeting as the Chair
decides to call me. I might say tliat in view of the fact that the Chair
said that Judge Kenyon might or might not be here tomorrow, I would
appreciate it very<,much to know at the earliest possible time whether
he wants me to appear tomorrow, and if so, at what time. I can't be
called at the last minute and asked to come up here, because it does
take a tremendous amount of night and day work for me to get these
cases in shape.
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVEISTIGATION 105
Senator TYniX(;s. I would sa}' to Senator McCarthy tliat the matter
lip before the Senate is not the liousin*; bill but the FDIC. You have
been under ri<iht nuich of a strain there to read for an hour and a half
or so. I think it woidd be very wise, with your a]>i)roval, as the housing